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Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2015 Apr; 33(2): 225-230
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-159524


Purpose: Emergence of drug resistance following HIV prophylaxis has an important impact on ART program. Objective: To investigate the emergence of drug resistance in HIV‑1 infected pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Fifty‑three HIV‑1 infected pregnant women who had received 4‑12 weeks of antenatal AZT followed by Nevirapine during delivery and Combivir [AZT + 3TC] for 1 week postpartum (group‑1, n = 48) or who come at the time of delivery and received Nevirapine followed by Combivir for 1 week (group‑2, n = 5) were recruited. Samples were collected prior to the start of the prophylaxis and 5‑8 weeks postpartum. In addition, a third sample was collected between 26‑65 weeks postpartum from 7 women. Amplification of HIV‑1 pol gene and drug resistance analysis was done. Result: Two (3.8%) women in group‑1 showed transmitted drug resistance and they continued to show this even at 6 weeks postpartum. One (2%) woman from group‑1 showed a mutation after 6‑8 weeks of prophylaxis. Among the samples collected between 26‑65 weeks postpartum, 3/7 (43%) showed mutations and all these women belong to group‑1. Women belonging to group‑2 didn’t show mutation prior to or following prophylaxis. Conclusion: In contrast to the available data among pregnant women with ART prophylaxis, our data showed reduced frequency of mutations following 5‑8 weeks of postpartum but an emergence of mutation later (26‑65 weeks). The addition of Combivir with the single dose Nevirapine during delivery and the early stage of the disease with higher CD4 counts could be the reasons for this.

Univ. psychol ; 13(spe5): 1983-1991, dic. 2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751284


This historical account of SA psychology spans over hundred years of its engagement with international psychology and the influence of racism on its development. It traces Jan C. Smuts's correspondence with Adler, Koffka and Perls and Allport's extensive contact with SA psychologists. The positive impact of the academic boycott in turning psychology towards the concerns of the oppressed is delineated, as well as the response of professional organizations to apartheid. The extensive reciprocal visits of US and Dutch phenomenologists are described and the contributions of Wolpe, Rachman and Lazarus to behavior therapy are noted.

Este recuento histórico de la psicología en SA se extiende por más de cien años, desde su alianza con la psicología internacional y la influencia del racismo en su desarrollo. Se traza la correspondencia de Jan C. Smuts con Adler, Koffka y Perls y el amplio contacto de Allport con psicólogos SA. El impacto positivo del sabotaje académico en la transformación de la psicología hacia las preocupaciones de los oprimidos está delineado, así como la respuesta de las organizaciones profesionales al apartheid. Se describen las extensas visitas recíprocas de los fenomenólogos de Estados Unidos y los Países Bajos y se señalan las contribuciones de Wolpe, Rachman y Lázaro a la terapia de comportamiento.

Psychology/history , South Africa