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1.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 840-847, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974284

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Anthracnose is a crop disease usually caused by fungi in the genus Colletotrichum or Gloeosporium. These are considered one of the main pathogens, causing significant economic losses, such as in peppers and guarana. The current forms of control include the use of resistant cultivars, sanitary pruning and fungicides. However, even with the use of some methods of controlling these cultures, the crops are not free of anthracnose. Additionally, excessive application of fungicides increases the resistance of pathogens to agrochemicals and cause harm to human health and the environment. In order to find natural antifungal agents against guarana anthracnose, endophytic fungi were isolated from Amazon guarana. The compounds piliformic acid and cytochalasin D were isolated by chromatographic techniques from two Xylaria spp., guided by assays with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The isolated compounds were identified by spectrometric techniques, as NMR and mass spectrometry. This is the first report that piliformic acid and cytochalasin D have antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides with MIC 2.92 and 2.46 µmol mL-1 respectively. Captan and difenoconazole were included as positive controls (MIC 16.63 and 0.02 µmol mL-1, respectively). Thus, Xylaria species presented a biotechnological potential and production of different active compounds which might be promising against anthracnose disease.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Xylariales/chemistry , Paullinia/microbiology , Endophytes/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Mass Spectrometry , Xylariales/isolation & purification , Xylariales/genetics , Xylariales/metabolism , Molecular Structure , Colletotrichum/drug effects , Colletotrichum/physiology , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungicides, Industrial/isolation & purification , Fungicides, Industrial/chemistry
2.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 24(6): 651-659, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-741839

ABSTRACT

In the present investigation we report the antibacterial activity of halistanol sulfate A isolated from the sponge Petromica ciocalyptoides, as well as of rodriguesines A and B isolated from the ascidian Didemnum sp., against the caries etiologic agent Streptococcus mutans. The transcription levels of S. mutans virulence genes gtfB, gtfC and gbpB, as well as of housekeeping genes groEL and 16S, were evaluated by sqRT-PCR analysis of S. mutans planktonic cells. There were no alterations in the expression levels of groEL and 16S after antimicrobial treatment with halistanol sulfate A and with rodriguesines A and B, but the expression of the genes gtfB, gtfC and gbpB was down-regulated. Halistanol sulfate A displayed the most potent antimicrobial effect against S. mutans, with inhibition of biofilm formation and reduction of biofilm-associated gene expression in planktonic cells. Halistanol sulfate A also inhibited the initial oral bacteria colonizers, such as Streptococcus sanguinis, but at much higher concentrations. The results obtained indicate that halistanol sulfate A may be considered a potential scaffold for drug development in Streptococcus mutans antibiofilm therapy, the main etiologic agent of human dental caries. .

3.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 17(3): 287-318, jul.-set. 2007. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-465467

ABSTRACT

Herein we present the results of a screening with 349 crude extracts of Brazilian marine sponges, ascidians, bryozoans and octocorals, against 16 strains of susceptible and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, one yeast (Candida albicans), Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, three cancer cell lines MCF-7 (breast), B16 (murine melanoma ) and HCT8 (colon), and Leishmania tarentolae adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (L-APRT) enzyme. Less than 15 percent of marine sponge crude extracts displayed antibacterial activity, both against susceptible and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Up to 40 percent of marine sponge crude extracts displayed antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Cytotoxicity was observed for 18 percent of marine sponge crude extracts. Finally, less than 3 percent of sponge extracts inhibited L-APRT. Less than 10 percent of ascidian crude extracts displayed antibacterial activity. More than 25 percent of ascidian crude extracts were active against M. tuberculosis and the three cancer cell lines. Only two crude extracts from the ascidian Polysyncraton sp. collected in different seasons (1995 and 1997) displayed activity against L-APRT. Less than 2 percent of bryozoan and octocoral crude extracts presented antibacterial activity, but a high percentage of crude extracts from bryozoan and octororal displayed cytotoxic (11 percent and 30 percent, respectively) and antimycobacterial (60 percent) activities. The extract of only one species of bryozoan, Bugula sp., presented inhibitory activity against L-APRT. Overall, the crude extracts of marine invertebrates herein investigated presented a high level of cytotoxic and antimycobacterial activities, a lower level of antibacterial activity and only a small number of crude extracts inhibited L-APRT. Taxonomic analysis of some of the more potently active crude extracts showed the occurrence of biological activity in taxa that have been previously chemically investigated. These...


No presente estudo apresentamos resultados da triagem biológica realizada com 349 extratos obtidos de esponjas marinhas, ascídias, briozoários e octocorais do Brasil, em testes contra 16 linhagens de bactérias comuns e resistentes à antibióticos, uma levedura (Candida albicans), Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, três linhagens de células tumorais MCF-7 (mama), B16 (melanoma murínico) e HCT8 (cólon), e de inibição da enzima adenina fosforribosil transferase de Leishmania tarentolae (L-APRT). Menos de 15 por cento dos extratos de esponja marinhas apresentaram atividade antibacteriana, contra linhagens resistentes ou não a antibióticos. Quase 40 por cento dos extratos de esponjas marinhas apresentaram atividade antimicobacteriana contra Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Foi observada citotoxicidade para 18 por cento dos extratos de esponjas marinhas. Finalmente, menos de 3 por cento dos extratos de esponjas apresentaram atividade inibitória da enzima L-APRT. Menos de 10 por cento dos extratos de ascídias apresentaram atividade antibacteriana. Mais de 25 por cento dos extratos de ascídias apresentaram atividade contra M. tuberculosis e as três linhagens de células tumorais. Somente dois extratos obtidos da ascídia Polysyncraton sp. coletada em duas diferentes épocas (1995 e 1997) apresentaram atividade contra L-APRT. Menos de 2 por cento dos extratos de briozoários e octocorais apresentaram atividade antibacteriana, mas uma alta percentagem de extratos destes animais apresentaram atividades citotóxica (11 por cento e 30 por cento, respectivamente) e antimicobacteriana (60 por cento). O extrato de somente uma espécie de briozoário, Bugula sp., apresentou atividade inibitória da enzima L-APRT. A análise taxonômica de algumas espécies de invertebrados que forneceram alguns dos extratos mais ativos, indicou a ocorrência de atividade biológica em espécies pertencentes a grupos taxonômicos que já foram anteriormente investigados do ponto de vista...


Subject(s)
Bryozoa , In Vitro Techniques , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Porifera , Urochordata
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