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Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 2006 Jan; 37(1): 1-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-35638


We conducted serodiagnostic testing for dengue virus infection, murine typhus, scrub typhus and leptospirosis in Plasmodium falciparum-infected individuals in Thailand. Sera from 194 malaria patients with a median age of 24 years were tested. No antibody titers diagnostic of dengue virus infection were demonstrated, but 29 (15%) of patients had serological evidence of scrub typhus, 45 (23.2 %) patients had evidence of murine typhus, and 15 (7.7%) sera tested positive for leptospirosis. Our serological results suggested that duel infections are not uncommon in malaria that is acquired in Thailand. However, our results must be confirmed by prospective studies aimed at describing the causative organisms. Mixed infections would have multiple implications for clinicians, including unexpected clinical findings and apparent poor responses to antimalarial treatment in patients thought only to have malaria.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Dengue/complications , Female , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/complications , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Thailand/epidemiology
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 2003 Sep; 34(3): 495-500
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-35788


Medical and entomological surveys were conducted to determine the risk factors of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections on Lombok Island, Indonesia, to find the risk factors and the main mosquito vectors for each malaria. Multivariate longitudinal analysis demonstrated two significant risk factors for infection with P. falciparum: disappearance of P. vivax parasitemia (p<0.001) and a specific study site (p<0.001). In contrast, younger age (p=0.024) and the interpolated virtual density of An. subpictus (p=0.041) were significantly associated with increased risk of infection with P. vivax. Thus, it seems that the distribution of P. vivax was determined largely by the presence of An. subpictus, whilst that of P. falciparum was influenced by antagonism with P. vivax. This result shows the importance of following-up treated P. vivax patients to identify recrudescence of P. falciparum in this area.

Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Animals , Anopheles , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Insect Vectors , Larva , Logistic Models , Longitudinal Studies , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Malaria, Vivax/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Population Density , Risk Factors , Small-Area Analysis
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 2003 Sep; 34(3): 486-94
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-35508


The intercountry border areas of Thailand have high malaria receptivity and vulnerability that present numerous problems in the control of malaria transmission. This study focused on the 30 provinces of Thailand situated next to neighboring countries, which can be divided into 4 groups: the Thai-Myanmar border (10 provinces), the Thai-Cambodia border (6 provinces), the Thai-Lao border (10 provinces) and the Thai-Malaysia border (4 provinces). The purpose of the present study was to describe the pattern and trend of malaria incidence in the highly endemic provinces along the Thai borders for the 11 years from 1991 to 2001. Analysis of trends showed the distribution of malaria parasites to have shifted from a preponderance of Plasmodium falciparum to Plasmodium vivax along the western border with Myanmar, the northern border with Lao PDR and along the eastern border with Cambodia whereas the southern border with Malaysia the pattern changed from a preponderance of P. vivax to P. falciparum, since 1997. There was a significant difference in annual parasite incidence between borders and non-border districts, especially along the Thai-Myanmar and Thai-Cambodia borders. It is thus evident that all border districts should pay more attention to control of malaria transmission and the activities of the malaria surveillance system, and that monitoring and evaluation of the Thai Malaria Control Program needs to be performed consistently, including some areas where a few malaria cases were found as well as in malaria free areas.

Endemic Diseases , Humans , Incidence , Malaria/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Thailand/epidemiology