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Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(5): e10637, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153548


Transcription factors control, coordinate, and separate the functions of distinct network modules spatially and temporally. In this review, we focus on the transcription factor 21 (TCF21) network, a highly conserved basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein that functions to integrate signals and modulate gene expression. We summarize the molecular and biological properties of TCF21 control with an emphasis on molecular and functional TCF21 interactions. We suggest that these interactions serve to modulate the development of different organs at the transcriptional level to maintain growth homeostasis and to influence cell fate. Importantly, TCF21 expression is epigenetically inactivated in different types of human cancers. The epigenetic modification or activation and/or loss of TCF21 expression results in an imbalance in TCF21 signaling, which may lead to tumor initiation and, most likely, to progression and tumor metastasis. This review focuses on research on the roles of TCF21 in development and tumorigenesis systematically considering the physiological and pathological function of TCF21. In addition, we focus on the main molecular bases of its different roles whose importance should be clarified in future research. For this review, PubMed databases and keywords such as TCF21, POD-1, capsulin, tumors, carcinomas, tumorigenesis, development, and mechanism of action were utilized. Articles were selected within a historical context as were a number of citations from journals with relevant impact.

Humans , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/metabolism , Carcinogenesis/genetics , Signal Transduction , Cell Differentiation , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 33(10): 1133-40, Oct. 2000. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-270216


This article reviews recent results of studies aiming to elucidate modes of integrating signals initiated in ACTH receptors and FGF2 receptors, within the network system of signal transduction found in Y1 adrenocortical cells. These modes of signal integration should be central to the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the G0->G1->S transition in the adrenal cell cycle. FGF2 elicits a strong mitogenic response in G0/G1-arrested Y1 adrenocortical cells, that includes a) rapid and transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases-mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK-MAPK) (2 to 10 min), b) transcription activation of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc genes (10 to 30 min), c) induction of c-Fos and c-Myc proteins by 1 h and cyclin D1 protein by 5 h, and d) onset of DNA synthesis stimulation within 8 h. ACTH, itself a weak mitogen, interacts with FGF2 in a complex manner, blocking the FGF2 mitogenic response during the early and middle G1 phase, keeping ERK-MAPK activation and c-Fos and cyclin D1 induction at maximal levels, but post-transcriptionally inhibiting c-Myc expression. c-Fos and c-Jun proteins are mediators in both the strong and the weak mitogenic responses respectively triggered by FGF2 and ACTH. Induction of c-Fos and stimulation of DNA synthesis by ACTH are independent of PKA and are inhibited by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. In addition, ACTH is a poor activator of ERK-MAPK, but c-Fos induction and DNA synthesis stimulation by ACTH are strongly inhibited by the inhibitor of MEK1 PD98059.

Humans , Animals , Adrenal Cortex/cytology , Receptors, Corticotropin/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms , Cell Cycle/physiology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases/metabolism , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor/physiology , Tumor Cells, Cultured/physiology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 32(7): 841-3, July 1999.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-234889


FGF2 elicits a strong mitogenic response in the mouse Y-1 adrenocortical tumor cell line, that includes a rapid and transient activation of the ERK-MAPK cascade and induction of the c-Fos protein. ACTH, itself a very weak mitogen, blocks the mitogenic response effect of FGF2 in the early and middle G1 phase, keeping both ERK-MAPK activation and c-Fos induction at maximal levels. Probing the mitogenic response of Y-1 cells to FGF2 with ACTH is likely to uncover reactions underlying the effects of this hormone on adrenocortical cell growth

Animals , Mice , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/pharmacology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/pharmacology , Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor/drug effects , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/drug effects , Drug Interactions