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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 614-622, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364355

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Aparentemente, a pior resposta a algumas classes de anti-hipertensivos, especialmente inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina e bloqueadores de receptor de angiotensina, pela população negra, explicaria, pelo menos parcialmente, o pior controle da hipertensão entre esses indivíduos. Entretanto, a maioria das evidências vêm de estudos norte-americanos. Objetivos Este estudo tem o objetivo de investigar a associação entre raça/cor da pele autorrelatadas e controle de PA em participantes do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil) utilizando várias classes de anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia. Métodos O estudo envolveu uma análise transversal, realizada com participantes da linha de base do ELSA-Brasil. O controle de pressão arterial foi a variável de resposta, participantes com valores de PA ≥140/90 mmHg foram considerados descontrolados em relação aos níveis de pressão arterial. A raça/cor da pele foi autorrelatada (branco, pardo, negro). Todos os participantes tiveram que responder perguntas sobre uso contínuo de medicamentos. A associação entre o controle de PA e raça/cor da pele foi estimada por regressão logística. O nível de significância adotado nesse estudo foi de 5%. Resultados Do total de 1.795 usuários de anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia na linha de base, 55,5% se declararam brancos, 27,9%, pardos e 16,7%, negros. Mesmo depois de padronizar em relação a variáveis de confusão, negros em uso de inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (IECA), bloqueadores de receptor de angiotensina (BRA), diuréticos tiazídicos (DIU tiazídicos) e betabloqueadores (BB) in monoterapia tinham controle de pressão arterial pior em comparação a brancos. Conclusões Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que, nesta amostra de brasileiros adultos utilizando anti-hipertensivos em monoterapia, as diferenças de controle de pressão arterial entre os vários grupos raciais não são explicadas pela possível eficácia mais baixa dos IECA e BRA em indivíduos negros.


Abstract Background It seems that the worst response to some classes of antihypertensive drugs, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers, on the part of the Black population, would at least partially explain the worse control of hypertension among these individuals. However, most of the evidence comes from American studies. Objectives This study aims to investigate the association between self-reported race/skin color and BP control in participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), using different classes of antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy. Methods The study involved a cross-sectional analysis, carried out with participants from the baseline of ELSA-Brasil. Blood pressure control was the response variable, participants with BP values ≥140/90 mmHg were considered out of control in relation to blood pressure levels. Race/skin color was self-reported (White, Brown, Black). All participants were asked about the continuous use of medication. Association between BP control and race/skin color was estimated through logistic regression. The level of significance adopted in this study was of 5%. Results Of the total of 1,795 users of antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy at baseline, 55.5% declared themselves White, 27.9% Brown, and 16.7% Black. Even after adjusting for confounding variables, Blacks using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), thiazide diuretics (thiazide DIU), and beta-blockers (BB) in monotherapy had worse blood pressure control compared to Whites. Conclusions Our results suggest that in this sample of Brazilian adults using antihypertensive drugs in monotherapy, the differences in blood pressure control between different racial groups are not explained by the possible lower effectiveness of ACEIs and ARBs in Black individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , United States , Blood Pressure , Brazil , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Race Factors
2.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 832-840, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350004

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Although some previous data have suggested a high iodine intake in Brazil, the prevalence of antithyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb) in the country is compatible with rates from countries with adequate iodine intake. This observation emphasizes the importance of knowing the incidence of TPOAb in Brazil. Materials and methods: This prospective analysis included euthyroid participants with negative TPOAb at baseline and a thyroid function assessment at a 4-year follow-up. TPOAb was measured by electrochemiluminescence and considered positive when titers were ≥34 IU/mL. TSH and free T4 (FT4) levels were determined by a third-generation immunoenzymatic assay. The incidence of TPOAb is expressed in percentage per year or as a cumulative incidence within the 4-year follow-up period. Results: Of 8,922 euthyroid participants (mean age 51.1 years; 50.9% women) with a negative TPOAb test at baseline, 130 presented incident TPOAb at the 4-year follow-up, yielding an annual incidence of TPOAb of 0.38%/year (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.37-0.39%/year) and a cumulative incidence over 4 years of 1.46% (95% CI, 1.21-1.71%). In men, the annual incidence was 0.32% (95% CI, 0.31-0.33%), and the cumulative incidence over 4 years was 1.23% (95% CI, 0.90-1.56%). In women, the annual incidence was 0.43%/year (95% CI, 0.42-0.44%/year) and the cumulative incidence over 4 years was 1.67% (95% CI, 1.30-2.04%). The only factor associated with incident TPOAb was the occurrence of thyroid diseases at follow-up. No differences in TPOAb incidence were detected across ELSA-Brasil research centers. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the incidence of TPOAb per year and at a 4-year follow-up period are compatible with those of a country with adequate iodine intake.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Autoantibodies , Iodide Peroxidase , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(5): 978-985, nov. 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350017

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento O prognóstico de longo prazo pós síndrome coronária aguda (SCA) no cuidado secundário não é bem conhecido. A gravidade da doença arterial coronariana (DAC) como preditor de mortalidade no longo prazo foi avaliada em um hospital público no Brasil. Objetivo O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o prognóstico de curto e longo prazo após um evento de SCA, de acordo com a gravidade da doença obstrutiva, em pacientes atendidos em um hospital público secundário para um coorte prospectivo sobre DAC no Brasil (o Estudo de Registro de Insuficiência Coronariana, estudo ERICO) Métodos Foram realizadas análises de sobrevida por curvas de Kaplan-Meier e modelo de risco proporcional de Cox [razão de risco (RR) com o respectivo intervalo de confiança (IC) de 95% para avaliar mortalidade cumulativa global, por DCV e DAC, de acordo com a obstrução arterial coronária: sem obstrução (grupo de referência), doença de um vaso, doença de dois vasos, doença de múltiplos vasos] entre 800 adultos do estudo ERICO durante 4 anos de monitoramento. As RR são apresentadas como dados brutos e posteriormente padronizadas quanto a possíveis fatores de confusão, no período de 180 dias até 4 anos de monitoramento após a SCA. O p-valor <0.05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados Taxas de sobrevida mais baixas foram detectadas entre indivíduos com a doença de múltiplos vasos (global, DCV e DAC, p de teste de Log-rank <0,0001). Depois da padronização multivariada, a doença de múltiplos vasos [RR; 2,33 (IC 95%; 1,10-4,95)] e doença de um vaso obstruído [RR; 2,44 (IC 95%; 1,11-5,34)] tiveram o risco mais alto de mortalidade global comparadas aos índices dos sujeitos sem obstrução no monitoramento de 4 anos. Conclusões Não só os pacientes com doença de múltiplos vasos como também os com doença de um vaso tiveram alto risco de mortalidade no longo prazo pós-SCA. Esses achados destacam a importância de se ter uma abordagem melhor no tratamento e no controle de fatores de risco cardiovascular, mesmo em indivíduos com risco aparentemente baixo, atendidos em cuidado secundário.


Abstract Background Long-term prognosis post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in secondary care is not well-known. The severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) as a predictor of long-term mortality was evaluated in a community hospital in Brazil. Objective We aimed to compare short and long-term prognosis after an ACS event according to severity of obstructive disease in patients attended in a secondary community hospital from prospective CAD cohort in Brazil (the Strategy of Registry of Acute Coronary Syndrome, ERICO study). Methods Survival analyses were performed by Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models (hazard ratios (HR) with respective 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate cumulative all-cause, CVD and CAD mortality according the coronary artery obstruction: no-obstruction (reference group), 1-vessel-disease, 2-vessel-disease, multivessel-disease) among 800 adults from an ERICO study during a 4-year-follow-up. HR are presented as crude and further adjusted for potential confounders from 180 days to 4-year follow-up after ACS. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Poorer survival rates were detected among individuals with multivessel-disease (all-cause, CVD and CAD, p-log rank< 0.0001). After multivariate adjustments, multivessel-disease -(HR; 2.33 (CI 95%; 1.10-4.95)) and 1-vessel-disease obstructed (HR; 2.44 (CI 95%; 1.11-5.34)) had the highest risk for all-cause mortality compared to those with no obstruction at 4-year follow-up. Conclusions Not only multivessel-disease, but also 1-vessel-disease patients showed a high long-term mortality risk post-ACS. These findings highlight the importance of having a better approach in the treatment and control of cardiovascular risk even in apparently low-risk individuals attended to in secondary care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease , Prognosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Hospitals, Community
4.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(3): 426-434, Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339193

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação ou flutter atrial (FFA) é a arritmia cardíaca sustentada mais comum. Existem poucos dados sobre a epidemiologia da FFA na América do Sul. Objetivo: O presente estudo procurou descrever a epidemiologia clínica da FFA e o uso de anticoagulantes na avaliação da linha de base do Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Métodos: Foram analisados dados de 13.260 participantes do ELSA-Brasil. A FFA foi definida pelo eletrocardiograma ou por autorrelato. Modelos de regressão logística foram construídos para analisar fatores associados à FFA. Este estudo também analisou se idade e sexo estavam associados ao uso de anticoagulantes para evitar acidente vascular cerebral. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Resultados: A idade mediana foi de 51 anos, e 7.213 (54,4%) participantes eram mulheres. A FFA foi detectada em 333 (2,5%) participantes. O aumento da idade (razão de chances [RC]:1,05; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%]: 1,04-1,07), hipertensão (RC:1,44; IC95%:1,14-1,81) coronariopatia (RC: 5,11; IC95%:3,85-6,79), insuficiência cardíaca (RC:7,37; IC95%:5,00-10,87) e febre reumática (RC:3,38; IC95%:2,28-5,02) foram associadas à FFA. Dos 185 participantes com FFA e pontuação no CHA2DS2-VASc≥2, apenas 20 (10,8%) usavam anticoagulantes (50,0% entre aqueles com FFA no eletrocardiograma de linha de base). O uso de anticoagulantes nesse grupo foi associado a maior idade (1,8% vs 17,7% naqueles com idade ≤ 54 e ≥ 65 anos, respectivamente; p=0,013). Observou-se uma tendência ao menor uso de anticoagulantes em mulheres (7,1% vs. 16,4% em mulheres e homens, respectivamente; p=0,055). Conclusões: No recrutamento do ELSA-Brasil, 2,5% dos participantes tinham FFA. O baixo uso de anticoagulantes era comum, o que representa um desafio para os cuidados de saúde nesse cenário.


Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation or flutter (AFF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. Limited data can be found on AFF epidemiology in South America. Objective: The present study sought to describe the clinical epidemiology of AFF and the use of stroke prevention medication in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline assessment. Methods: This study analyzed data from 13,260 ELSA-Brasil participants. AFF was defined according to ECG recording or by self-report. Logistic regression models were built to analyze factors associated with AFF. This study also analyzed if age and sex were associated with anticoagulant use for stroke prevention. Significance level was set at 5%. Results: Median age was 51 years and 7,213 (54.4%) participants were women. AFF was present in 333 (2.5%) participants. Increasing age (odds ratio [OR]:1.05; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.04-1.07), hypertension (OR:1.44; 95%CI: 1.14-1.81), coronary heart disease (OR: 5.11; 95%CI: 3.85-6.79), heart failure (OR:7.37; 95%CI: 5.00-10.87), and rheumatic fever (OR:3.38; 95%CI: 2.28-5.02) were associated with AFF. From 185 participants with AFF and a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2, only 20 (10.8%) used anticoagulants (50.0% among those with AFF in the baseline ECG). Stroke prevention in this group was associated with a higher age (1.8% vs 17.7% in those aged ≤ 54 and ≥ 65 years, respectively; p=0.013). A trend towards a reduced anticoagulant use was observed in women (7.1% vs. 16.4% in women and men, respectively; p=0.055). Conclusions: At the ELSA-Brasil baseline, 2.5% of the participants had AFF. The lack of stroke prevention was common, which is an especially challenging point for healthcare in this setting.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Risk Assessment , Electrocardiography , Self Report , Middle Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
5.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 468-478, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339110

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate incidence of subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Subjects and methods: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a prospective cohort study of 15,105 civil servants, examined at baseline and over a 4-year follow-up. This analysis included 9,705 participants with normal thyroid function at baseline, follow-up information about thyroid function and with no report of using drugs that may interfere in the thyroid function. Thyroid function was defined by TSH/FT4 levels or routine use of thyroid hormones/anti-thyroid medications. Annual and cumulative (over 4-year) incidence rates were presented as percentages (95% Confidence Intervals). Results: The incidence of all overt and subclinical thyroid disease was 6.7% (1.73%/year): 0.19% for overt hyperthyroidism (0.048%/year), 0.54% for subclinical hyperthyroidism (0.14%/year), 1.98% for overt hypothyroidism (0.51%/year), and 3.99% for subclinical hypothyroidism (1.03%/year). The incidence of all thyroid diseases was higher in women, when compared to men, with a low women:men ratio (1.36). For Blacks the highest incidence was for overt hyperthyroidism, while for Whites, the highest incidence was for overt hypothyroidism. However, the highest incidence of overt hyperthyroidism was detected in Asian descendants. The presence of antithyroperoxidase antibodies at baseline was associated with higher incidence of overt thyroid diseases. Conclusion: These results showed a high incidence of hypothyroidism, which is compatible with a country with a more-than-adequate iodine intake. The low women:men ratio of the incidence of thyroid dysfunction highlights the importance of the diagnosis of thyroid diseases among men in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Hyperthyroidism/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Thyrotropin , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
6.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(4): 364-371, Jul.-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290244

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors can mediate the association between depression and cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cardiovascular risk factors in adult individuals with and without histories of major depression in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in São Paulo (SP), Brazil. METHODS: This study evaluated 423 individuals without any lifetime diagnosis of major depression and 203 individuals with a previous diagnosis of major depression (n = 626). The participants underwent a psychiatric evaluation using a structured clinical interview (SCID-1), an anthropometric evaluation and a clinical evaluation that included blood pressure measurement and assessment of fasting blood glucose, lipid profile and physical activity levels. RESULTS: Individuals with histories of major depression were more likely to be female (P < 0.0001). Individuals with lifetime diagnoses of major depression were more likely to be current smokers (odds ratio, OR 1.61; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.01-2.59) and to have diabetes (OR 1.79; 95% CI 1.01-3.21); and less likely to be obese (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.35-0.94). CONCLUSION: Individuals with major depression had higher odds of presenting tobacco smoking and diabetes, and lower odds of being obese. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of this, so as to increase the rates of diagnosis and treatment in this population.

7.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(3): 254-261, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249185

ABSTRACT

Objective: Longitudinal measurement invariance analyses are an important way to assess a test's ability to estimate the underlying construct over time, ensuring that cognitive scores across visits represent a similar underlying construct, and that changes in test performance are attributable to individual change in cognitive abilities. We aimed to evaluate longitudinal measurement invariance in a large, social and culturally diverse sample over time. Methods: A total of 5,949 participants from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) were included, whose cognition was reassessed after four years. Longitudinal measurement invariance analysis was performed by comparing a nested series of multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis models (for memory and executive function factors). Results: Configural, metric, scalar and strict invariance were tested and supported over time. Conclusion: Cognitive temporal changes in this sample are more likely to be due to normal and/or pathological aging. Testing longitudinal measurement invariance is essential for diverse samples at high risk of dementia, such as in low- and middle-income countries.

8.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(6): e00039221, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278629

ABSTRACT

O crescimento acentuado de casos e óbitos por COVID-19 tem levado à grande sobrecarga do sistema de saúde no Brasil, em especial em cidades como Manaus (Amazonas), Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo. A descrição do impacto da pandemia tem se baseado em números absolutos ou taxas de mortalidade brutas, não considerando o padrão de distribuição das faixas etárias nas diferentes regiões do país. Este estudo tem por objetivo comparar as taxas de mortalidade brutas por COVID-19 com as taxas padronizadas por idade nas capitais dos estados brasileiros e no Distrito Federal. As informações sobre óbito foram acessadas no Sistema de Informação de Vigilância da Gripe (SIVEP-Gripe), e os denominadores populacionais foram baseados nas estimativas disponibilizadas pelo Ministério da Saúde. Para o cálculo das taxas padronizadas por idade, utilizou-se a estrutura etária da população do Brasil estimada para 2020. Os resultados mostram que as maiores taxas brutas foram em Manaus (253,6/100 mil) e no Rio de Janeiro (253,2/100 mil). Após padronização por idade, houve aumento expressivo das taxas na Região Norte. A maior taxa ajustada foi vista em Manaus (412,5/100 mil) onde 33% de óbitos por COVID-19 ocorreram entre menores de 60 anos. A mortalidade em Manaus acima de 70 anos foi o dobro se comparada à do Rio de Janeiro e o triplo se comparada à de São Paulo. A utilização de taxas de mortalidade padronizadas por idade elimina vieses interpretativos, expondo, de forma marcante, o peso ainda maior da COVID-19 na Região Norte do país.


The sharp growth in COVID-19 cases and deaths has created a heavy overburden on Brazil's health system, especially in the cities of Manaus (Amazonas State), Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo. The description of the pandemic's impact has been based on absolute numbers and crude mortality rates, failing to consider the age distribution patterns in different regions of the country. This study aims to compare the crude mortality rates from COVID-19 with age-standardized rates in the state capitals and Federal District. Information on deaths was accessed in the Information System on Influenza Surveillance (SIVEP-Gripe), and the population denominators were based on the estimate provided by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Calculation of the age-standardized rates used the estimated age structure of the Brazilian population in 2020. The results show that the highest crude rates were in Manaus (253.6/100,000) and Rio de Janeiro (253.2/100,000). Age standardization led to a major increase in the North of Brazil. The highest age-adjusted rate was in Manaus (412.5/100,000), where 33% of COVID-19 deaths occurred in individuals under 60 years of age. Mortality in Manaus over 70 years of age was double that of Rio de Janeiro and triple that of São Paulo. The use of age-adjusted mortality rates eliminates interpretative biases, clearly exposing the even greater weight of COVID-19 in the North of Brazil.


El crecimiento acentuado de casos y óbitos por COVID-19 ha provocado una gran sobrecarga del sistema de salud en Brasil, en especial en ciudades como Manaus (Estado del Amazonas), Rio de Janeiro y São Paulo. La descripción del impacto de la pandemia se ha basado en números absolutos o tasas de mortalidad brutas, no considerando el patrón de distribución de las franjas etarias en las diferentes regiones del país. Este estudio tiene como objetivo comparar las tasas de mortalidad brutas por COVID-19, con las tasas estandarizadas por edad, en las capitales de los estados brasileños y en el Distrito Federal. Se accedió a la información sobre fallecimientos en el Sistema de Información de Vigilancia de la Gripe (SIVEP-Gripe), y los denominadores poblacionales se basaron en las estimaciones facilitadas por el Ministerio de Salud de Brasil. Para el cálculo de las tasas estandarizadas por edad, se utilizó la estructura etaria de la población de Brasil estimada para 2020. Los resultados muestran que las mayores tasas brutas se produjeron en Manaus (253,6/100.000) y en Rio de Janeiro (253,2/100.000). Tras la estandarización por edad, hubo un aumento expresivo de las tasas en la Región Norte. La mayor tasa ajustada fue vista en Manaus (412,5/100.000), donde un 33% de óbitos por COVID-19 se produjeron entre menores de 60 años. La mortalidad en Manaus por encima de 70 años fue el doble, si se compara con la de Rio de Janeiro, y el triple si se compara con la de São Paulo. La utilización de tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por edad elimina sesgos interpretativos, exponiendo, de forma significativa, el peso todavía mayor de la COVID-19 en la Región Norte del país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Mortality , Cities/epidemiology , Age Distribution , SARS-CoV-2 , Middle Aged
9.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 24(supl.2): e210012, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351755

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with angina pectoris in the Brazilian adult population and per federated units. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study that analyzed data from the National Survey of Health 2019 and assessed the prevalence of angina in the Brazilian population. Angina was defined as chest pain or discomfort when climbing hills or stairs, or when walking fast on flat terrain (angina I) or when walking at normal speed on flat terrain (angina II). Prevalence, crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated, with a 95% confidence interval, according to sociodemographic characteristics (sex, age group, self-reported race/skin color and region of residence) and federative units. Results: The prevalence of mild angina (grade I) was 8.1% and of moderate/severe angina (grade II) was 4.5%, being both more prevalent in women (9.8 and 5.5%, respectively). The prevalence increased progressively with age and was inversely proportional to years of formal study. Grade I angina was higher in individuals self-reportedly black and residents of Sergipe (10,4%). Angina II was more prevalent in people self-reportedly brown and living in Amazonas (6.3%). Conclusion: Angina affects more than 10% of the Brazilian population aged 18 years old and more, with higher prevalence in states in the North and Northeast. This is a problem that affects the most vulnerable populations unequally, which places coronary heart disease as a public health problem and points to the need to think about public policies aimed at these strata of the population.


RESUMO: Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência e fatores associados à angina do peito na população adulta brasileira e por unidades federadas. Métodos: Estudo transversal descritivo, que analisou os dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde 2019 e avaliou a angina na população brasileira. A angina foi definida como dor ou desconforto no peito ao subir ladeiras ou um lance de escadas, ou ao caminhar rapidamente no plano (angina I) ou em velocidade normal no plano (angina II). Foram calculadas as prevalências, razão de prevalência bruta e ajustada, com intervalo de confiança de 95%, segundo características sociodemográficas (sexo, faixa etária, raça/cor da pele autodeclarada e região de moradia) e unidades federativas. Resultados: A prevalência de angina leve (grau I) foi de 8,1% e da angina moderada/grave (grau II), 4,5%, ambas mais prevalentes em mulheres (9,8 e 5,5%, respectivamente). As prevalências aumentaram progressivamente com o avanço da idade e foram inversas aos anos de estudo formal. Angina grau I foi mais elevada em indivíduos da raça/cor da pele autodeclarada preta e residentes em Sergipe (10,4%). A angina II foi mais prevalente em pessoas de raça/cor da pele autodeclarada parda, que vivem no Amazonas (6,3%). Conclusão: A angina afeta mais de 10% da população brasileira acima de 18 anos, com maior prevalência em estados do Norte e do Nordeste. É um agravo que atinge de forma desigual as populações mais vulneráveis, revelando a importância da doença coronariana como problema de saúde pública e a necessidade de pensar em políticas públicas voltadas para esses estratos da população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Angina Pectoris/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Self Report
10.
Clinics ; 76: e2926, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339699

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the MORPHEOS (Morbidity in patients with uncontrolled HTN and OSA) trial, and describe the challenges imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: MORPHEOS is a multicenter (n=6) randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the blood pressure (BP) lowering effects of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or placebo (nasal strips) for 6 months in adult patients with uncontrolled hypertension (HTN) and moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Patients using at least one antihypertensive medication were included. Uncontrolled HTN was confirmed by at least one abnormal parameter in the 24-hour ABPM and ≥80% medication adherence evaluated by pill counting after the run-in period. OSA was defined by an apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 events/hours. The co-primary endpoints are brachial BP (office and ambulatory BP monitoring, ABPM) and central BP. Secondary outcomes include hypertension-mediated organ damage (HMOD) to heart, aorta, eye, and kidney. We pre-specified several sub-studies from this investigation. Visits occur once a week in the first month and once a month thereafter. The programmed sample size was 176 patients but the pandemic prevented this final target. A post-hoc power analysis will be calculated from the final sample. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02270658. RESULTS: The first 100 patients are predominantly males (n=69), age: 52±10 years, body mass index: 32.7±3.9 kg/m2 with frequent co-morbidities. CONCLUSIONS: The MORPHEOS trial has a unique study design including a run-in period; pill counting, and detailed analysis of hypertension-mediated organ damage in patients with uncontrolled HTN that will allow clarification of the impact of OSA treatment with CPAP.

11.
Clinics ; 76: e2370, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153984

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association among hypertension, tinnitus, and sensorineural hearing loss and evaluate the influence of other covariates on this association. METHODS: Baseline data (2008-2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) were analyzed. Altogether, 900 participants were evaluated. The baseline assessment consisted of a 7-hour examination to obtain clinical and laboratory variables. Hearing was measured using pure-tone audiometry. RESULTS: Overall, 33.3% of the participants had hypertension. Participants with hypertension were more likely to be older, male, and diabetic compared to those without hypertension. The prevalence of tinnitus was higher among hypertensive participants and the odds ratio for tinnitus was higher in participants with hypertension than in those without hypertension. However, the difference was not significant after adjusting for age. Audiometric results at 250-8,000 Hz were worse in participants with hypertension than in those without hypertension in the crude analysis; however, the differences were not significant after adjustment for age, sex, diagnosis of diabetes, and exposure to noise. No significant difference was observed in hearing thresholds among participants having hypertension for <6 years, those having hypertension for ≥6 years, and individuals without hypertension. CONCLUSION: Hearing thresholds were worse in participants with hypertension. However, after adjusting for age, sex, diagnosis of diabetes, and exposure to noise, no significant differences were observed between participants with and without hypertension. A higher prevalence of tinnitus was observed in participants with hypertension compared to those without hypertension, but without significance after adjusting for age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Tinnitus/epidemiology , Hearing Loss/diagnosis , Hearing Loss/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Auditory Threshold , Brazil/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies
12.
Acta fisiátrica ; 27(4): 206-212, dez. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224457

ABSTRACT

O WHO STEP Stroke foi desenvolvida para monitorar casos de doenças cerebrovasculares e possibilitar comparações de incidências. Objetivo: Descrever o perfil sociodemográfico e funcionalidade de pacientes acometidos por AVC admitidos no Hospital Regional de Coari durante um ano, e acompanha-los ao longo de um mês após admissão. Método: Estudo descritivo observacional, prospectivo e de seguimento dos casos entre outubro de 2010 e outubro de 2011. Utilizou-se a primeira etapa (Step 1) do WHO STEP Stroke para avaliar as hospitalizações por AVC em Coari-AM. Foram acompanhados 23 pacientes através de questionário padrão em até dois dias na internação, 10 e 28 dias após a internação. Resultados: A população estudada tinha média de idade de 72,8 (DP= 12,4) anos, em sua maioria homens (65,7%), pardos (65,2%) e hipertensos (95,7%), com incidência hospitalar de 30 casos em 100.000 habitantes e taxa de letalidade em 10 dias de 30,4% e 28 dias de 34,8%. O comprometimento neurológico na internação teve mediana de 28 (IIQ= 15-38) pontos, sendo 73,9% classificados como grave. Houve comprometimento funcional entre os sobreviventes. Conclusão: Estudo revelou uma predominância de homens, com idade elevada, pardos, sem estudo formal, baixa renda e com histórico de hipertensão arterial e diabetes, como perfil de internação hospitalar por doenças cerebrovasculares no município. A incidência de casos hospitalares de AVC foi em 30 (por 100.000) em Coari-AM, com graves comprometimentos neurológicos na admissão, e altas taxas de letalidade e prejuízo funcional após 28 dias do evento, quando comparadas a outras localidades no Brasil e no mundo


The WHO STEP Stroke is a tool developed to monitor cases of cerebrovascular and allow comparison of its incidence throughout the world. Objective: To describe the sociodemographic profile and functionality of stroke inpatients admitted in Coari´s Regional Hospital and followed up one month after admittance. Method: This is a prospective, descriptive observational and follow-up study of cases between October 2010 and October 2011. In this study, we used the first step (Step 1) of the WHO STEP Stroke to assess stroke hospitalization in Coari-AM Twenty-three patients were monitored with a standard questionnaire up to two days after hospitalization, 10 days, and 28 after hospitalization. Results: The studied population had average age of 72.8 (SD= 12.4) years, mostly men (65.7%), brown (65.2%), and hypertensive (95.7%), with a hospital incidence of 30 cases for 100.000 people, and mortality in 10 days of 30.4% and 28 days of 34.8%. The neurological impairment at hospitalization had a median of 28 (IIQ= 15-38) points, with 73.9% classified as severe. There was an impairment in functionality among the survivors. Conclusion: This study showed the profile of hospital admittance for cerebrovascular disease in this city to be mainly composed by older men, brown, with no formal study, low income, and history of systemic arterial hypertension and diabetes. The hospital incidence for stroke was 30 (per 100.000) in Coari-AM, with severe neurological impairment at admission, with high mortality rates, and functional deficits 28 days after the event when compared to other regions in Brazil and in the world

13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(5): 830-839, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1142260

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamentos: Poucos estudos discutiram causas para o subtratamento medicamentoso na SCA. Objetivos: Avaliar a não-administração e suspensão de medicamentos durante o tratamento intra-hospitalar da SCA na Estratégia de Registro de Síndrome Coronariana Aguda (estudo ERICO). Métodos: Analisamos prontuários de 563 participantes ERICO para avaliar a frequência e motivos da não administração e/ou suspensão de medicamentos. Construímos modelos de regressão logística para avaliar se sexo, idade ≥65 anos, nível educacional ou subtipo de SCA estavam associados com (a) não administração de ≥1 medicamentos; e (b) não administração ou suspensão de ≥1 medicamentos. O nível de significância foi 5%. Resultados: A amostra é composta por 58,1% de homens e com idade mediana de 62 anos. Em 183 (32,5%) participantes ≥1 medicamentos não foram administrados e 288 (51,2%) apresentaram ≥1 medicamentos não administrados ou suspensos. As causas mais frequentes foram risco de sangramento (aspirina, clopidogrel e heparina), insuficiência cardíaca (betabloqueadores) e hipotensão (inibidores da enzima conversora da angiotensina e bloqueadores dos receptores da angiotensina). Indivíduos com idade ≥65 anos (razão de chances [RC]:1,51; intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%]:1,05-2,19) e com angina instável (RC:1,72; IC95%:1,07-2,75) tiveram maior chance de não-administração. Considerando apenas pacientes com infarto do miocárdio, idade ≥65 anos foi associada tanto à não administração quanto à não administração ou suspensão. Conclusões: A não administração ou suspensão de ≥1 medicamento não foi rara no estudo ERICO. Indivíduos com idade ≥65 anos ou com angina instável tiveram maior chance de não administração e podem ser subtratados nesse cenário.


Abstract Background: Few studies have discussed the reasons for pharmacological undertreatment of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). Objectives: To determine the frequency and reasons for the non-administration and suspension of medications during in-hospital treatments of ACS in the Strategy of Registry of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ERICO) study. Methods: The present study analyzed the medical charts of the 563 participants in the ERICO study to evaluate the frequency and reasons for the non-administration and/or suspension of medications. Logistic regression models were built to analyze if sex, age ≥65 years of age, educational level, or ACS subtype were associated with (a) the non-administration of ≥1 medications; and (b) the non-administration or suspension of ≥1 medications. The significance level was set at 5%. Results: This study's sample included 58.1% males, with a median of 62 years of age. In 183 (32.5%) participants, ≥1 medications were not administered, while in 288 (51.2%), ≥1 medications were not administered or were suspended. The most common reasons were the risk of bleeding (aspirin, clopidogrel, and heparin), heart failure (beta blockers), and hypotension (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers). Individuals aged ≥65 (odds ratio [OR]:1.51; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]:1.05-2.19) and those with unstable angina (OR:1.72; 95% CI:1.07-2.75) showed a higher probability for the non-administration of ≥1 medication. Considering only patients with myocardial infarction, being ≥65 years of age was associated with both the non-administration and the non-administration or suspension of ≥1 medication. Conclusions: Non-administration or suspension of ≥1 medication proved to be common in this ERICO study. Individuals of ≥65 years of age or with unstable angina showed a higher probability of the non-administration of ≥1 medication and may be undertreated in this scenario. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(5):830-839)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Aspirin , Clopidogrel
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(5): 840-848, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1142250

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento: A circunferência do pescoço (CP) é uma medida indireta do tecido adiposo subcutâneo da parte superior do corpo, apontada como um preditor independente de doenças cardiometabólicas. Objetivos: Verificar a associação entre a CP e o risco cardiovascular em 10 anos (risco de doença cardiovascular [DCV] em 10 anos) em homens e mulheres separadamente. Métodos: Análise seccional com inclusão de 13.920 participantes da linha de base do Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). A associação entre a CP (utilizada como variável contínua e agregada em quartis) e o risco de DCV em 10 anos, estimado pelo Framingham Global Risk Score (FGRS), foi investigada por meio de modelos lineares generalizados após ajustes por características sociodemográficas, comportamentos em saúde, índice de massa corporal e circunferência da cintura. O nível de significância estatístico adotado foi de 5%. Resultados: A média da CP foi de 39,5 cm (desvio-padrão [DP] de ± 3,6) nos homens e 34,0 cm (DP de ±2,9) nas mulheres. Após ajustes, o aumento de 1 cm na CP foi associado ao incremento de 3% (IC 95%: 1,02 a 1,03) e 5% (IC 95%: 1,04 a 1,06) na média aritmética do risco de DCV em homens e mulheres, respectivamente. No último quartil da CP, homens e mulheres apresentaram um incremento de 18% (IC 95%: 1,13 a 1,24) e 35% (IC 95%: 1,28 a 1,43), respectivamente, na média aritmética do risco de DCV após ajustes. Conclusões: Verificamos associação positiva e independente entre a CP e o risco de DCV em 10 anos. Resultados sugerem que a CP pode contribuir para a predição de risco cardiovascular além daquele observado pelas medidas antropométricas clássicas.


Abstract Background: Neck circumference (NC), an indirect measure of upper-body subcutaneous adipose tissue, has been pointed out as an independent predictor of cardiometabolic diseases. Objectives: To assess the association between NC and 10-year cardiovascular risk in men and in women. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 13,920 participants of the (baseline) Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The association between NC (used as continuous variable and grouped into quartiles) and the 10-year cardiovascular risk was estimated by the Framingham Global Risk Score and analyzed by generalized linear models after adjustments for sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, body mass index and waist circumference. The significance level adopted was 5%. Results: Mean NC was 39.5 cm (SD± 3.6) in men and 34.0 cm (SD±2.9) in women. After adjustments, a one-centimeter increase in NC was associated with an increment of 3% (95%CI1.02-1.03) and 5% (95% 1.04-1.05) in the arithmetic mean of the 10-year CVD risk in men and women, respectively. Men and women in the last quartile showed an increment of 18% (95%CI 1.13-1.24) and 35% (95%CI 1.28-1.43), respectively in the arithmetic mean of the 10-year CVD risk, after adjustments. Conclusions: We found a positive, independent association between NC and the 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. NC may contribute to the prediction of cardiovascular risk, over and above traditional anthropometric measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Waist Circumference , Neck
15.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(11): 672-680, Nov. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142367

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Most studies that analyze the association between serum folate levels and cognitive function either restrict their assessments to specific clinical scenarios or do not include middle-aged individuals, to whom strategies for preventing cognitive impairment may be more feasible. Objective: To examine the association between serum folate levels and cognitive function in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline assessment. Methods: Data from 4,571 ELSA-Brasil participants who live in the state of São Paulo, aged 35-74 years, were analyzed. The word list learning, delayed recall, word recognition, verbal fluency, and Trail Making Test Part B consisted in the cognitive tests. For each test, age, sex, and education-specific standardized scores and a global cognitive score were calculated. Crude and adjusted linear regression models were used to examine the associations of serum folate levels with cognitive test scores. Results: In multivariable-adjusted models, serum folate was not associated with global cognitive score (β=-0.043; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] -0.135 to 0.050 for lowest vs. highest quintile group), nor with any cognitive test performance. We did not find associations between serum folate and global cognitive scores in subgroups stratified by age, sex, or use of vitamin supplements either. Conclusions: We did not find significant associations between serum folate and cognitive performance in this large sample, which is characterized by a context of food fortification policies and a consequent low frequency of folate deficiency. Positive results from previous studies may not apply to the increasingly common contexts in which food fortification is implemented, or to younger individuals.


RESUMO Introdução: A maioria dos estudos que analisam a associação entre os níveis séricos de folato e a função cognitiva restringem suas avaliações a cenários clínicos específicos ou não incluem indivíduos de meia idade, nos quais estratégias preventivas para a função cognitiva podem ser mais viáveis. Objetivo: Examinar a associação entre os níveis séricos de folato e a função cognitiva na avaliação inicial do Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Métodos: Foram analisados dados de 4.571 participantes do ELSA-Brasil em São Paulo, com idades entre 35 e 74 anos. Os testes cognitivos foram aprendizagem, recordatório tardio e reconhecimento de lista de palavras; fluência verbal e teste de trilhas parte B. Calculamos, para cada teste e globalmente, escores padronizados para idade, sexo e educação. Foram utilizados modelos de regressão linear para examinar as associações dos níveis séricos de folato com o desempenho nos testes cognitivos. Resultados: Em modelos ajustados para múltiplas variáveis, o folato sérico não esteve associado ao escore cognitivo global (β=-0,043; intervalo de confiança de 95%: [IC95%] -0,135 a 0,050 para 1º vs. 5º quintil), ou desempenho em qualquer teste cognitivo. Também não encontramos associações entre folato sérico e escores cognitivos globais em subgrupos estratificados por idade, sexo ou uso de suplementos vitamínicos. Conclusões: Não encontramos associações significativas entre folato sérico e desempenho cognitivo nesta grande amostra, caracterizada por um cenário sob políticas de fortificação alimentar e consequente baixa frequência de deficiência de folato. Resultados positivos de estudos anteriores podem não se aplicar às situações cada vez mais comuns em que a fortificação de alimentos é implementada, ou a indivíduos mais jovens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Folic Acid
16.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(4): 403-419, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132110

ABSTRACT

Current first-line treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD) include pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, one-third of depressed patients do not achieve remission after multiple medication trials, and psychotherapy can be costly and time-consuming. Although non-implantable neuromodulation (NIN) techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, electroconvulsive therapy, and magnetic seizure therapy are gaining momentum for treating MDD, the efficacy of non-convulsive techniques is still modest, whereas use of convulsive modalities is limited by their cognitive side effects. In this context, we propose that NIN techniques could benefit from a precision-oriented approach. In this review, we discuss the challenges and opportunities in implementing such a framework, focusing on enhancing NIN effects via a combination of individualized cognitive interventions, using closed-loop approaches, identifying multimodal biomarkers, using computer electric field modeling to guide targeting and quantify dosage, and using machine learning algorithms to integrate data collected at multiple biological levels and identify clinical responders. Though promising, this framework is currently limited, as previous studies have employed small samples and did not sufficiently explore pathophysiological mechanisms associated with NIN response and side effects. Moreover, cost-effectiveness analyses have not been performed. Nevertheless, further advancements in clinical trials of NIN could shift the field toward a more "precision-oriented" practice.

17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 114(6): 1040-1048, Jun., 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131242

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A hipotensão ortostática (HO) tem sido negligenciada na clínica não havendo estudos sobre sua prevalência na população brasileira. Objetivo Determinar a prevalência de HO e a variação da pressão arterial (PA) após manobra postural no Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto. Métodos No presente estudo descritivo da linha de base (N = 14.833 indivíduos, 35-74 anos), os participantes ficavam deitados por 20 minutos e então levantavam ativamente, com a medida da PA em supino e aos 2, 3, e 5 minutos de ortostase. A HO foi definida por queda ≥ 20 mmHg na PA sistólica e/ou queda ≥ 10 mmHg na PA diastólica aos 3 minutos, sendo determinada a sua prevalência com intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%). A distribuição da variação da PA após a manobra postural foi determinada numa subamostra (N = 8.011) após remoção de participantes com morbidade cardiovascular e/ou diabetes. Resultados A prevalência de HO foi de 2,0% (IC95%: 1,8 - 2,3), crescente com a idade. Se o critério for a mesma queda pressórica em qualquer das medidas, a prevalência aumenta para 4,3% (IC95%: 4,0 - 4,7). Em presença de HO houve relato de sintomas (tontura, escotomas, náuseas, etc.) em 19,7% dos participantes (IC95%: 15,6 - 24,6) e em apenas 1,4% (IC95%: 1,2 - 1,6) dos sem HO. Os escores-Z −2 das variações da PA antes e após manobra postural na subamostra foram de −14,1 mmHg na PA sistólica e −5,4 mmHg na diastólica. Conclusão A prevalência de HO varia em função do momento da aferição da PA. Os pontos de corte atuais podem subestimar a ocorrência de HO na população. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 114(6):1040-1048)


Abstract Background Orthostatic hypotension (OH) has been neglected in clinical practice, and there are no studies on its prevalence in the Brazilian population. Objective To determine the prevalence of OH and blood pressure (BP) changes after the postural change maneuver in participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health. Methods In this descriptive study of baseline data (N = 14,833 adults, ages 35 - 74 years), participants remained lying down for 20 minutes and subsequently stood up actively. BP measurements were taken while the participants were supine and at 2, 3, and 5 minutes after standing. OH was defined as a reduction of ≥ 20 mmHg in systolic BP and/or a reduction of ≥ 10 mmHg in diastolic BP at 3 minutes, and its prevalence was determined with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The distribution of BP variation after the postural change maneuver was determined in a subsample (N = 8,011) obtained by removing patients with cardiovascular morbidity and/or diabetes. Results The prevalence of OH was 2.0% (95% CI: 1.8 - 2.3), increasing with age. If the criterion applied were a BP reduction during any measurement, the prevalence would increase to 4.3% (95% CI: 4.0 - 4.7). Symptoms (dizziness, scotoma, nausea, etc.) were reported by 19.7% of participants (95% CI: 15.6 - 24.6) with OH and 1.4% (95% CI: 1.2 - 1.6) of participants without OH. The −2 Z-scores of BP variation before and after the postural change maneuver in the subsample were −14.1 mmHg for systolic BP and −5.4 mmHg for diastolic BP. Conclusion Prevalence of OH varies depending on when BP is measured. Current cutoff points may underestimate the actual occurrence of OH in the population. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 114(6):1040-1048)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , Blood Pressure/physiology , Hypotension, Orthostatic/epidemiology , Blood Pressure Determination , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged
19.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(2): 128-135, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089246

ABSTRACT

Objective: We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with neuroplasticity and activity of monoamine neurotransmitters, such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, rs6265), the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4, rs25531), the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1, rs1800532), the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (HTR2A, rs6311, rs6313, rs7997012), and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, rs4680) genes, are associated with efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in major depression. Methods: Data from the Escitalopram vs. Electrical Current Therapy for Treating Depression Clinical Study (ELECT-TDCS) were used. Participants were antidepressant-free at baseline and presented with an acute, moderate-to-severe unipolar depressive episode. They were randomized to receive escitalopram/tDCS-sham (n=75), tDCS/placebo-pill (n=75), or placebo-pill/sham-tDCS (n=45). General linear models assessed the interaction between treatment group and allele-wise carriers. Additional analyses were performed for each group and each genotype separately. Results: Pairwise group comparisons (tDCS vs. placebo, tDCS vs. escitalopram, and escitalopram vs. placebo) did not identify alleles associated with depression improvement. In addition, exploratory analyses also did not identify any SNP unequivocally associated with improvement of depression in any treatment group. Conclusion: Larger, combined datasets are necessary to identify candidate genes for tDCS response.

20.
SMAD, Rev. eletrônica saúde mental alcool drog ; 16(1): 1-9, jan.-mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094434

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: investigar o efeito do consumo de álcool em geral e do tipo de bebida alcoólica consumida, em diferentes medidas lipídicas. MÉTODO: o efeito do consumo de álcool foi investigado, bem como do tipo de bebida alcoólica, em diferentes medidas lipídicas, em ambos os sexos de população do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto. RESULTADOS: foram realizadas análises em relação ao tipo e quantidade de consumo de bebida alcoólica por sexo. O consumo baixo-a-moderado de álcool, independentemente do tipo de bebida alcoólica consumida, resultou em níveis mais elevados de HDL-colesterol, HDL2-colesterol e HDL3-colesterol em homens e mulheres. Não houve participantes da pesquisa que consumiam quantidade baixa a moderada de bebidas alcoólicas destiladas. Os triglicerídeos tiveram efeitos inversos para homens e mulheres no perfil lipídico. Para homens, bebidas destiladas contribuíram para melhor perfil dos triglicerídeos, enquanto para mulheres foi o contrário. Homens que consumiam bebidas alcoólicas destiladas tiveram níveis menores de triglicerídeos e mulheres que consumiam bebidas alcóolicas destiladas tiveram níveis maiores. Nossos resultados estão de acordo com os de estudos anteriores. CONCLUSÃO: o consumo de álcool resultou em níveis diferentes de medidas lipídicas séricas em homens e mulheres. Dessa forma, conclui-se que a resposta ao álcool tem diferenças biológicas.


OBJECTIVE: to investigate the effect of general alcohol consumption and of the type of alcoholic beverage consumed, in different lipid measurements. METHOD: the effect of alcohol consumption as well as that of the type of alcoholic beverage consumed were investigated, in different lipid measurements, for the participants in the Longitudinal Study on Adults' Health for both sexes. RESULTS: analyses were conducted on the type and amount of alcoholic beverage consumed by sex. Low-to-moderate alcohol consumption, regardless of the type of alcoholic beverage, resulted in higher levels of HDL-cholesterol, HDL2- cholesterol and HDL3-cholesterol in males and females. No participants in the study consumed low-to-moderate amounts of spirits. Triglycerides showed inverse effects for men and women according to the lipid profile. For men, spirits contributed to a better triglyceride profile while for women it was the opposite. Men who consumed spirits showed lower triglyceride levels, and women who consumed that beverage type had higher levels. Our results are in agreement with those of previous studies. CONCLUSION: alcohol consumption resulted in different levels of serum lipid measurements in men and women. Thus, it is concluded that response to alcohol has biological differences.


OBJETIVO: investigar el efecto del consumo de alcohol general, así como el tipo de bebida alcohólica consumida, en diferentes medidas lipídicas. MÉTODO: el efecto del consumo de alcohol fue investigado, así como el tipo de bebida alcohólica, en diferentes medidas lipídicas en ambos sexos de población del Estudio Longitudinal de Salud del Adulto. RESULTADOS: se realizaron análisis en relación al tipo y cantidad de consumo de bebida alcohólica por sexo. El consumo bajo a moderado de alcohol, independientemente del tipo de bebida alcohólica consumida, resultó en niveles más altos de HDL-colesterol, HDL2-colesterol y HDL3-coleseterol en hombres y mujeres. No hubo participantes de investigación que consumían en cantidad baja a moderada de bebidas alcohólicas destiladas. Los triglicéridos tuvieron efectos inversos para hombres y mujeres en el perfil lipídico. Para los hombres, las bebidas destiladas contribuyeron a un mejor perfil de los triglicéridos, mientras que para las mujeres fue lo contrario. Los hombres que consumían bebidas alcohólicas destiladas tenían niveles más pequeños de triglicéridos y las mujeres que consumían bebidas alcohólicas destiladas tuvieron niveles más altos. Nuestros resultados están de acuerdo con estudios anteriores. CONCLUSIÓN: el consumo de alcohol resultó en niveles significativamente mayores de HDL-colesterol, HDL2-colesterol y HDL3-colesterol, tanto en mujeres como en hombres. De esta forma, se concluye que la respuesta al alcohol tiene diferencias biológicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Triglycerides , Alcohol Drinking , Cholesterol , Adult Health , Longitudinal Studies , Sex Distribution , Substance-Related Disorders , Alcoholism , Lipoproteins, HDL , Cholesterol, HDL
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