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1.
International Eye Science ; (12): 580-584, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012825

ABSTRACT

The global prevalence of myopia is increasing year by year, leading to many ocular health issues and social problems. In recent years, it has been confirmed that peripheral defocus is closely related to the occurrence and development of myopia. Alteration of the state of peripheral defocus can significantly influence the progression of myopia and emmetropization, but the exact mechanisms are still unclear. At present, there is no method that can completely control myopia. Nowadays, the main controlling methods, including orthokeratology lens, peripheral defocus lens and multi-focal soft lens, have been confirmed to be closely related to peripheral defocus. In this paper, we will review and summarize the development and effect of these peripheral defocus relating control methods. In addition, the researches on the related mechanisms of peripheral retinal defocus and myopia prevention and control at home and abroad are reviewed, as well as the potential mechanisms of peripheral defocus, with a view to further improving the controlling effects of existing methods, developing new prevention and control methods and reducing the incidence and progression of myopia.

2.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 731-741, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984711

ABSTRACT

Objective: For patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) complicated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), both anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy should be applied, but the use of anticoagulation therapy is still poor in these patients in China. The purpose of this study was to explore the status and adherence of antithrombotic therapy in AF patients with ACS and the impact on 1 year clinical outcomes. Methods: Patients with AF hospitalized for ACS were retrospectively included from 6 tertiary hospitals in China between July 2015 and December 2020. According to the use of anticoagulant drugs at discharge, patients were divided into two groups: anticoagulant treatment group and non-anticoagulant treatment group. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the main factors influencing the use of anticoagulant drugs in patients with atrial fibrillation complicated with ACS. Major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) were defined as all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization, and ischemic stroke and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) 3 bleeding events were also collected at 1 year after discharge. After propensity score matching, Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to evaluate the effect of anticoagulant treatment and non-anticoagulant treatment on 1-year prognosis. The patients were divided into different groups according to whether anticoagulation was performed at discharge and follow-up, and the sensitivity of the results was analyzed. Results: A total of 664 patients were enrolled, and 273 (41.1%) were treated with anticoagulant therapy, of whom 84 (30.8%) received triple antithrombotic therapy, 91 (33.3%) received double antithrombotic therapy (single antiplatelet combined with anticoagulant), and 98 (35.9%) received single anticoagulant therapy. Three hundred and ninety-one (58.9%) patients were treated with antiplatelet therapy, including 253 (64.7%) with dual antiplatelet therapy and 138 (35.3%) with single antiplatelet therapy. After 1∶1 propensity score matching between the anticoagulant group and the non-anticoagulant group, a total of 218 pairs were matched. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that history of diabetes, HAS-BLED score≥3, and percutaneous coronary intervention were predictors of the absence of anticoagulant therapy, while history of ischemic stroke and persistent atrial fibrillation were predictors of anticoagulant therapy. At 1-year follow-up, 218 patients (79.9%) in the anticoagulant group continued to receive anticoagulant therapy, and 333 patients (85.2%) in the antiplatelet group continued to receive antiplatelet therapy. At 1-year follow-up, 36 MACEs events (13.2%) occurred in the anticoagulant group, and 81 MACEs events (20.7%) in the non-anticoagulant group. HR values and confidence intervals were calculated by Cox proportional risk model. Patients in the non-anticoagulant group faced a higher risk of MACEs (HR=1.802, 95%CI 1.112-2.921, P=0.017), and the risk of bleeding events was similar between the two group (HR=0.825,95%CI 0.397-1.715, P=0.607). Conclusions: History of diabetes, HAS-BLED score≥3, and percutaneous coronary intervention are independent factors for the absence of anticoagulant therapy in patients with AF complicated with ACS. The incidence of MACEs, death and myocardial infarction is lower in the anticoagulant group, and the incidence of bleeding events is similar between the two groups. The risk of bleeding and ischemia/thrombosis should be dynamically assessed during follow-up and antithrombotic regiments should be adjusted accordingly.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Anticoagulants , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Hemorrhage , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke
3.
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 497-503, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984681

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the association between clinical phenotypes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients and a rare calcium channel and regulatory gene variation (Ca2+ gene variation) and to compare clinical phenotypes of HCM patients with Ca2+ gene variation, a single sarcomere gene variation and without gene variation and to explore the influence of rare Ca2+ gene variation on the clinical phenotypes of HCM. Methods: Eight hundred forty-two non-related adult HCM patients diagnosed for the first time in Xijing Hospital from 2013 to 2019 were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent exon analyses of 96 hereditary cardiac disease-related genes. Patients with diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, post alcohol septal ablation or septal myectomy, and patients who carried sarcomere gene variation of uncertain significance or carried>1 sarcomere gene variation or carried>1 Ca2+ gene variation, with HCM pseudophenotype or carrier of ion channel gene variations other than Ca2+ based on the genetic test results were excluded. Patients were divided into gene negative group (no sarcomere or Ca2+ gene variants), sarcomere gene variation group (only 1 sarcomere gene variant) and Ca2+ gene variant group (only 1 Ca2+ gene variant). Baseline data, echocardiography and electrocardiogram data were collected for analysis. Results: A total of 346 patients were enrolled, including 170 patients without gene variation (gene negative group), 154 patients with a single sarcomere gene variation (sarcomere gene variation group) and 22 patients with a single rare Ca2+ gene variation (Ca2+ gene variation group). Compared with gene negative group, patients in Ca2+ gene variation group had higher blood pressure and higher percentage of family history of HCM and sudden cardiac death (P<0.05); echocardiographic results showed that patients in Ca2+ gene variation group had thicker ventricular septum ((23.5±5.8) mm vs. (22.3±5.7) mm, P<0.05); electrocardiographic results showed that patients in Ca2+ gene variation group had prolonged QT interval ((416.6±23.1) ms vs. (400.6±47.2) ms, P<0.05) and higher RV5+SV1 ((4.51±2.26) mv vs. (3.50±1.65) mv, P<0.05). Compared with sarcomere gene variation group, patients in Ca2+ gene variation group had later onset age and higher blood pressure (P<0.05); echocardiographic results showed that there was no significant difference in ventricular septal thickness between two groups; patients in Ca2+ gene variation group had lower percentage of left ventricular outflow tract pressure gradient>30 mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa, 22.8% vs. 48.1%, P<0.05) and the lower early diastolic peak velocity of the mitral valve inflow/early diastolic peak velocity of the mitral valve annulus (E/e') ratio ((13.0±2.5) vs. (15.9±4.2), P<0.05); patients in Ca2+ gene variation group had prolonged QT interval ((416.6±23.1) ms vs. (399.0±43.0) ms, P<0.05) and lower percentage of ST segment depression (9.1% vs. 40.3%, P<0.05). Conclusion: Compared with gene negative group, the clinical phenotype of HCM is more severe in patients with rare Ca2+ gene variation; compared with patients with sarcomere gene variation, the clinical phenotype of HCM is milder in patients with rare Ca2+ gene variation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/genetics , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Phenotype , Sarcomeres/genetics
4.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 586-595, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009391

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global epidemic for more than three years, causing more than 6.9 million deaths. COVID-19 has the clinical characteristics of strong infectivity and long incubation period, and can cause multi-system damage, mainly lung damage, clinical symptoms of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and systemic multiple organ damage. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is still constantly mutating. At present, there is no global consensus on the pathological changes of COVID-19 associated deaths and even no consensus on the criteria for determining the cause of death. The investigation of the basic pathological changes and progression of the disease is helpful to guide the clinical treatment and the development of therapeutic drugs. This paper reviews the autopsy reports and related literature published worldwide from February 2020 to June 2023, with a clear number of autopsy cases and corresponding pathological changes of vital organs as the inclusion criteria. A total of 1 111 autopsy cases from 65 papers in 18 countries are included. Pathological manifestations and causes of death are classified and statistically analyzed, common pathological changes of COVID-19 are summarized, and analytical conclusions are drawn, suggesting that COVID-19 infection can cause life-threatening pathological changes in vital organs. On the basis of different health levels of infected groups, the direct cause of death is mainly severe lung damage and secondary systemic multiple organ failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/pathology , Cause of Death , Lung/pathology , Autopsy
5.
Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine ; (12): 374-383, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985935

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigated the safety and efficacy of treating patients with acute non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and elevated levels of N-terminal pro-hormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) with levosimendan within 24 hours of first medical contact (FMC). Methods: This multicenter, open-label, block-randomized controlled trial (NCT03189901) investigated the safety and efficacy of levosimendan as an early management strategy of acute heart failure (EMS-AHF) for patients with NSTEMI and high NT-proBNP levels. This study included 255 patients with NSTEMI and elevated NT-proBNP levels, including 142 males and 113 females with a median age of 65 (58-70) years, and were admitted in the emergency or outpatient departments at 14 medical centers in China between October 2017 and October 2021. The patients were randomly divided into a levosimendan group (n=129) and a control group (n=126). The primary outcome measure was NT-proBNP levels on day 3 of treatment and changes in the NT-proBNP levels from baseline on day 5 after randomization. The secondary outcome measures included the proportion of patients with more than 30% reduction in NT-proBNP levels from baseline, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) during hospitalization and at 6 months after hospitalization, safety during the treatment, and health economics indices. The measurement data parameters between groups were compared using the t-test or the non-parametric test. The count data parameters were compared between groups using the χ² test. Results: On day 3, the NT-proBNP levels in the levosimendan group were lower than the control group but were statistically insignificant [866 (455, 1 960) vs. 1 118 (459, 2 417) ng/L, Z=-1.25,P=0.21]. However, on day 5, changes in the NT-proBNP levels from baseline in the levosimendan group were significantly higher than the control group [67.6% (33.8%,82.5%)vs.54.8% (7.3%,77.9%), Z=-2.14, P=0.03]. There were no significant differences in the proportion of patients with more than 30% reduction in the NT-proBNP levels on day 5 between the levosimendan and the control groups [77.5% (100/129) vs. 69.0% (87/126), χ²=2.34, P=0.13]. Furthermore, incidences of MACE did not show any significant differences between the two groups during hospitalization [4.7% (6/129) vs. 7.1% (9/126), χ²=0.72, P=0.40] and at 6 months [14.7% (19/129) vs. 12.7% (16/126), χ²=0.22, P=0.64]. Four cardiac deaths were reported in the control group during hospitalization [0 (0/129) vs. 3.2% (4/126), P=0.06]. However, 6-month survival rates were comparable between the two groups (log-rank test, P=0.18). Moreover, adverse events or serious adverse events such as shock, ventricular fibrillation, and ventricular tachycardia were not reported in both the groups during levosimendan treatment (days 0-1). The total cost of hospitalization [34 591.00(15 527.46,59 324.80) vs. 37 144.65(16 066.90,63 919.00)yuan, Z=-0.26, P=0.80] and the total length of hospitalization [9 (8, 12) vs. 10 (7, 13) days, Z=0.72, P=0.72] were lower for patients in the levosimendan group compared to those in the control group, but did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: Early administration of levosimendan reduced NT-proBNP levels in NSTEMI patients with elevated NT-proBNP and did not increase the total cost and length of hospitalization, but did not significantly improve MACE during hospitalization or at 6 months.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain , Simendan/therapeutic use , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Peptide Fragments , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Biomarkers , Prognosis
6.
Cancer Research on Prevention and Treatment ; (12): 652-657, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985857

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the clinicopathological characteristics between primary and contralateral cancers in patients with metachronous bilateral breast cancer (MBBC) who carried a BRCA1/2 germline pathogenic variant. Methods A total of 496 BRCA1/2 carriers with primary unilateral breast cancer were included (196 with BRCA1 and 300 with BRCA2). Clinicopathological information of patients was collected, and the median follow-up for the entire cohort was 10.4 years (0.4-20.8 years). Results Among all patients, 31 (15.8%) of the 196 BRCA1 carriers and 49 (16.3%) of the 300 BRCA2 carriers had MBBC, respectively. Among the 31 BRCA1 carriers who developed MBBC, the proportion of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in primary cancer and contralateral cancer was 61.3% and 67.7%, respectively. If the primary cancer of BRCA1-mutated MBBC was TNBC, the probability of the contralateral breast cancer with TNBC was 89.5% (17/19), which was significantly higher than that if the primary cancer was non-TNBC (33.3%, 4/12) (P=0.004). Among the 49 BRCA2 carriers who developed MBBC, the predominant molecular phenotype of the primary and contralateral cancers was HR+ & HER2- (77.6% and 67.3%, respectively; P=0.53). Conclusion Approximately 60% of BRCA1 carriers exhibit TNBC. If a BRCA1 carrier with a TNBC primary breast cancer had an MBBC, the probability of the contralateral breast cancer being TNBC phenotype is almost 89.5%.

7.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 84-89, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970956

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the predisposing factors, clinical characteristics, and risk factors of disease progression to establish a novel predictive survival model and evaluate its application value for hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure. Methods: 153 cases of HBV-ACLF were selected according to the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of liver failure (2018 edition) of the Chinese Medical Association Hepatology Branch. Predisposing factors, the basic liver disease stage, therapeutic drugs, clinical characteristics, and factors affecting survival status were analyzed. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to screen prognostic factors and establish a novel predictive survival model. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to evaluate predictive value with the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) and the Chronic Liver Failure Consortium Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure score (CLIF-C ACLF). Results: 80.39% (123/153) based on hepatitis B cirrhosis had developed ACLF. HBV-ACLF's main inducing factors were the discontinuation of nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) and the application of hepatotoxic drugs, including Chinese patent medicine/Chinese herbal medicine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-tuberculosis drugs, central nervous system drugs, anti-tumor drugs, etc. 34.64% of cases had an unknown inducement. The most common clinical symptoms at onset were progressive jaundice, poor appetite, and fatigue. The short-term mortality rate was significantly higher in patients complicated with hepatic encephalopathy, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hepatorenal syndrome, and infection (P < 0.05). Lactate dehydrogenase, albumin, the international normalized ratio, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, hepatic encephalopathy, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding were the independent predictors for the survival status of patients. The LAINeu model was established. The area under the curve for evaluating the survival of HBV-ACLF was 0.886, which was significantly higher than the MELD and CLIF-C ACLF scores (P < 0.05), and the prognosis was worse when the LAINeu score ≥ -3.75. Conclusion: Discontinuation of NAs and the application of hepatotoxic drugs are common predisposing factors for HBV-ACLF. Hepatic decompensation-related complications and infection accelerate the disease's progression. The LAINeu model can predict patient survival conditions more accurately.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatic Encephalopathy/complications , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/diagnosis , End Stage Liver Disease/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
8.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 17-24, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970813

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe clinical efficacy of percutaneous endoscopic transforaminal discectomy (PETD) and target radioffrequency thermal coblation nucleoplasty(CN) on inclusive lumbar disc herniation(LDH) in different age groups, and provide a basis for clinical formulation of precise and individualized treatments.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis of 219 patients with lumbar disc herniation treated with PETD and CN between January 2018 and June 2021 was performed, in which 107 patients were treated with PETD and 112 with CN. Patients were stratified by age into young group(≤45 years old), middle-aged group(>45 years old and <60 years old) and older group(≥60 years old). Before treatment, 3 days, 1 month and 6 months after treatment, visual analogue scale (VAS), Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, infrared thermal imaging temperature difference (△T) and lumbar range of motion (ROM) were evaluated and clinical efficacy were compared in the different age groups between two treatment methods.@*RESULTS@#①VAS and JOA score outcomes, in the same age group and the same treatment method, the VAS and JOA scores at different time points postoperatively were obviously improved (P<0.05). For the same age group and the different treatment methods, the older group had lower VAS and higher JOA scores after PETD than after CN (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between the young group and middle-aged group (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in VAS and JOA scores at the same time between age groups by PETD treatment (P>0.05). The VAS was higher and the JOA score was lower in older group than in young group and middle-aged group at 1, 6 months after CN treatment(P<0.05). ②△T and ROM outcomes, in the same age group and same treatment method, postoperative △T and ROM at different time points were obviously improved(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in △T between two methods of PETD and CN at the same age(P>0.05), there was no significant difference in ROM between young group and middle-aged group(P>0.05), ROM was higher after PETD treatment than after CN treatment(P<0.05). There was no significant difference in △T and ROM at the same time between age groups by PETD treatment(P>0.05). There was no significant difference in △T between age groups by CN treatment, but the ROM was smaller in older group than in young group and middle-aged group after CN treatment(P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Both PETD and CN for inclusive LDH have good efficacy, the curative benefit for older patients receiving PETD within 6 months after surgery more than CN, and CN is more appropriate for young and middle-aged patients.


Subject(s)
Middle Aged , Humans , Aged , Intervertebral Disc Displacement/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery , Diskectomy, Percutaneous/methods , Treatment Outcome , Endoscopy/methods , Diskectomy/methods
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 789-796, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970549

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify the direct pharmacological targets of Jingfang Granules in treating infectious pneumonia via "target fishing" strategy. Moreover, the molecular mechanism of Jingfang Granules in treating infectious pneumonia was also investigated based on target-related pharmacological signaling pathways. First, the Jingfang Granules extract-bound magnetic nanoparticles were prepared, which were incubated with lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced mouse pneumonia tissue lysates. The captured proteins were analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS), and the target groups with specific binding to the Jingfang Granules extract were screened out. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) enrichment analysis was used to identify the target protein-associated signaling pathways. On this basis, the LPS-induced mouse model of infectious pneumonia was established. The possible biological functions of target proteins were verified by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining and immunohistochemical assay. A total of 186 Jingfang Granules-specific binding proteins were identified from lung tissues. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the target protein-associated signaling pathways mainly included Salmonella infection, vascular and pulmonary epithelial adherens junction, ribosomal viral replication, viral endocytosis, and fatty acid degradation. The target functions of Jingfang Granules were related to pulmonary inflammation and immunity, pulmonary energy metabolism, pulmonary microcirculation, and viral infection. Based on the in vivo inflammation model, Jingfang Granules significantly improved the alveolar structure of the LPS-induced mouse model of infectious pneumonia and down-regulated the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and interleukin-6(IL-6). Meanwhile, Jingfang Gra-nules significantly up-regulated the expressions of key proteins of mitochondrial function COX Ⅳ and ATP, microcirculation-related proteins CD31 and Occludin, and proteins associated with viral infection DDX21 and DDX3. These results suggest that Jingfang Gra-nules can inhibit lung inflammation, improve lung energy metabolism and pulmonary microcirculation, resist virus infection, thus playing a protective role in the lung. This study systematically explains the molecular mechanism of Jingfang Granules in the treatment of respiratory inflammation from the perspective of target-signaling pathway-pharmacological efficacy, thereby providing key information for clinical rational use of Jingfang Granules and expanding potential pharmacological application.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Lipopolysaccharides , Pneumonia , Inflammation , Anti-Infective Agents , Biological Assay , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-6
10.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 174-184, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970304

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effectiveness and feasibility of cryogenic disinfectants in different cold scenarios and analyze the key points of on-site cryogenic disinfection.@*METHODS@#Qingdao and Suifenhe were selected as application sites for the manual or mechanical spraying of cryogenic disinfectants. The same amount of disinfectant (3,000 mg/L) was applied on cold chain food packaging, cold chain containers, transport vehicles, alpine environments, and article surfaces. The killing log value of the cryogenic disinfectant against the indicator microorganisms ( Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) was used to evaluate the on-site disinfection effect.@*RESULTS@#When using 3,000 mg/L with an action time of 10 min on the ground in alpine regions, the surface of frozen items, cold-chain containers, and cold chain food packaging in supermarkets, all external surfaces were successfully disinfected, with a pass rate of 100%. The disinfection pass rates for cold chain food packaging and cold chain transport vehicles of centralized supervised warehouses and food processing enterprises were 12.5% (15/120), 81.67% (49/60), and 93.33% (14/15), respectively; yet, the surfaces were not fully sprayed.@*CONCLUSION@#Cryogenic disinfectants are effective in disinfecting alpine environments and the outer packaging of frozen items. The application of cryogenic disinfectants should be regulated to ensure that they cover all surfaces of the disinfected object, thus ensuring effective cryogenic disinfection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection , Escherichia coli , Staphylococcal Infections , Staphylococcus aureus
11.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 486-500, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001436

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Previous studies reveal that immune-mediated neuroinflammation plays a key role in the etiology of esophageal achalasia. However, the understanding of leucocyte phenotype and proportion is limited. This study aim to evaluate the phenotypes of leukocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells transcriptomes in esophageal achalasia. @*Methods@#We performed high-dimensional flow cytometry to identified subsets of peripheral leukocytes, and further validated in lower esophageal sphincter histologically. RNA sequencing was applied to investigate the transcriptional changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with achalasia. Cell-type Identification by Estimating Relative Subsets of RNA Transcripts (CIBERSORT) was used for estimating the immune cell types. A differential gene expression analysis was performed and the differential expressed genes were subjected to gene ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes network, protein-protein interaction network construction. @*Results@#An imbalance between innate and adaptive immune cells occurred in achalasia. Specifically, neutrophils and CD8+ T cells increased both in peripheral blood and lower esophageal sphincter in achalasia. Eosinophils decreased in peripheral blood but massively infiltrated in lower esophageal sphincter. CIBERSORT analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells RNA sequencing displayed an increased prevalence of CD8+ T cells. 170 dysregulated genes were identified in achalasia, which were enriched in immune cells migration, immune response, etc. Proton pump inhibitor analysis revealed the intersections and gained 7 hub genes in achalasia, which were IL-6, Toll-like receptor 2, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor, complement C3, and complement C1q A chain. @*Conclusion@#Patients with achalasia exhibited an imbalance of systematic innate and adaptive immunity, which may play an important role in the development of achalasia.

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3330-3338, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999077

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be a manifestation of metabolic syndrome and has become one of the chronic diseases that endanger health around the world. There is still a lack of effective therapeutic drugs in clinical practice. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been a popular target for NAFLD research in recent years. Fexaramine (Fex) is a potent and selective agonist of FXR, and its mechanism of action to improve NAFLD is unclear. Therefore, in this study, a mouse model of NAFLD was constructed using a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet and treated with Fex orally for 6 weeks. We evaluated the ameliorative effect of Fex on disorders of glucolipid metabolism in NAFLD mice, and preliminarily explored its potential mechanism of action. The animal experiments were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (approval number: PZSHUTCM210913011). In this study, it was found that 100 mg·kg-1 Fex significantly inhibited body weight gain, alleviated insulin resistance, improved liver injury and lipid accumulation in NAFLD mice. The effect of Fex on the expression of hepatic intestinal FXR and its target genes in NAFLD mice was further examined. Analysis of serum and hepatic bile acid profiles and expression related to hepatic lipid metabolism. It was found that Fex could stimulate intestinal FXR, promote fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) secretion, inhibit the expression of cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily A member 1 (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme of bile acid synthesis in liver, regulate bile acid synthesis by negative feedback, and improve the disorder of bile acid metabolism. At the same time, Fex reduces liver lipid synthesis and absorption, increases fatty acid oxidation, thus improving liver lipid metabolism. This study shows that Fex can improve NAFLD by activating intestinal FXR-FGF15 signal pathway and regulating liver lipid metabolism.

13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2882-2889, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999041

ABSTRACT

To identify the bitter compounds of real-world Xiaoer Ganmao Oral Liquid sugar-free intermediates, an integrated strategy has been developed by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MSn) method and BitterX database prediction. The chromatographic operating conditions were as follows, chromatographic column: Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm), mobile phase: 0.1% formic acid-water solution (A)-acetonitrile (B) with gradient elution. The data were collected in positive and negative ion modes, respectively. The accurate molecular mass and structural information of the target compounds were obtained based on quasi-molecular ions and fragmentation ions provided by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The compounds were identified by combining retention time, reference substances, reports, and other relevant data, and a total of 57 constituents including flavonoids, alkaloids, and phenylpropanoids were finally identified. Further, the BitterX database was used to predict binding probability of compounds to bitter receptors and identify potential bitter critical quality attributes, finally 33 potential bitter compounds, including kukoamine A and linarin, were predicted. This study comprehensively characterized the material basis of Xiaoer Ganmao Oral Liquid sugar-free intermediates, it provides an effective method for bitter compound screening and a reference for further improving the undesirable taste of Xiaoer Ganmao Oral Liquid.

14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2875-2881, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999034

ABSTRACT

This study primarily concentrated on scientific problems of poor taste caused by unclear critical quality attributes of oral preparations manufactured by Chinese materia medica, successfully established an identification method for taste critical quality attribute and a taste improvement method combining electronic tongue with human senses, and determined the optimal taste formula, to improve patients' oral medication compliance. The study received ethical approval from the Review Committee of the Beijing University of Chinese Medicine. The results showed that the proportion of bitterness of Xiaoer Qingrening Granule was 61.8%, and its bitterness grade was 3.70, it was determined that bitterness is the critical quality attribute that caused the poor taste of Xiaoer Qingrening Granule. Additionally, the optimal taste formula per milliliter of Xiaoer Qingrening sugar-free intermediate was determined with allowable daily intake, solubility, and sweetness as the limiting conditions, which was 40 mg hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin, 180 mg trehalose, and 1.5 mg acesulfame potassium. Compared with the Xiaoer Qingrening Granule, the sensory evaluation score of the optimal taste formula was increased by 37.5 points. In conclusion, this study achieved the taste improvement of Xiaoer Qingrening Granule and formed a set of taste improvement strategies including the identification of taste critical quality attribute, the selection of the type and dosage of corrigent, and the optimization of taste formula, which provided a thought reference for the taste improvement of other oral preparations and a new perspective for quality control of intelligent manufacturing of traditional Chinese medicines.

15.
Chinese Journal of Ultrasonography ; (12): 288-294, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992833

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of percutaneous intramyocardial septal radiofrequency ablation (PIMSRA) guided by echocardiography on the Lown classification of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM).Methods:A total of 85 patients with HOCM who received PIMSRA treatment at Xijing Hospital of Air Force Military Medical University from May 2017 to October 2019 were retrospectively selected. All patients underwent 24-hour Holter examinations before and 1 year after PIMSRA to obtain parameters related to Lown classification. The changes in Lown grades after PIMSRA were analyzed. The patients were divided into improved group and unimproved group according to whether there was significant improvement in Lowen′s grades, and the difference of the parameters related were compared. The influencing factors of the changes in Lown classification were analyzed.Results:Compared with before PIMSRA, there was a significant improvement in the Lown classification after PIMSRA ( P=0.001). The patients with Lown grade Ⅰ increased significantly ( P=0.001), and the patients with grade Ⅲ decreased significantly ( P=0.005). There were no significant changes in patients with Lown grades 0, Ⅱ, and Ⅳ (all P>0.05). The proportion of patients with family history of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the baseline Lown classes, the reduction rate of the maximum left ventricular wall thickness and the reduction rate of the provocative left ventricular outflow tract gradient (LVOTG) were higher in the improved group than the unimproved group (all P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression results showed that HCM family history ( OR=3.95, 95% CI=1.34-11.64, P=0.013), baseline Lown classes ( OR=2.01, 95% CI=1.25-3.22, P=0.004) and the reduction rate of the provocative LVOTG gradient ( OR=1.02, 95% CI=1.00-1.04, P=0.041) were independent factors of postoperative Lown classification improvement. Conclusions:The Lown classes of HOCM patients after PIMSRA is significantly improved.HCM family history, the baseline Lown classes, and the reduction rate of postoperative provocative LVOTG are independent influencing factors for the improvement of Lown grade.

16.
Chinese Journal of Ultrasonography ; (12): 97-104, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992811

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the clinical efficacy of percutaneous intramyocardial septal radiofrequency ablation (PIMSRA) in the treatment of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM) with mild septal hypertrophy.Methods:Forty-five HOCM patients with mild septal hypertrophy (the maximal left ventricular wall thickness is 15-19 mm) who were treated with PIMSRA between November 2016 to February 2021 in the Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Center of Xijing Hospital of Air Force Military Medical University were enrolled, and their clinical datas were collected and analyzed. The clinical symptoms and NYHA functional class before operation, 6 months and 1 year after operation were collected. Interventricular septum thickness, left ventricular outflow tract pressure gradient, left ventricular outflow tract diameter, mitral regurgitation, left ventricular systolic and diastolic function were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography before operation, 6 months and 1 year after operation, intraoperative complications were monitored and recorded. Postoperative arrhythmias were monitored by routine 12 lead ECG and 24-hour ambulatory ECG.Results:All patients successfully completed PIMSRA procedure.No clinical adverse events such as death, bleeding and stroke occurred during and around the operation.No left bundle branch block, complete atrioventricular block and malignant arrhythmia occurred after the operation. All patients did not need permanent pacemaker implantation.NYHA functional class and clinical symptoms of patients were significantly improved after 6 months compared with values before operation (all P<0.001, respectively), it remained stable for 1 year after operation; Anterior interventricular septum, posterior interventricular septum, maximal left ventricular wall thickness all significantly decreased (all P<0.001, respectively), left ventricular outflow tract diameter widened ( P<0.001), continuous improvement 1 year after operation; left ventricular outflow tract gradient and provoked left ventricular outflow tract gradient all significantly decreased, mitral regurgitation decreased and SAM classification reduced after 6 months compared with values before operation (all P<0.001, respectively); left ventricular end-diastolic diameter widened and left atrial diameter decreased (all P<0.001, respectively), it remained stable for 1 year after operation. Left atrial volume index decreased ( P<0.001), with continuous improvement 1 year after operation; The ratio of early diastolic mitral valve velocity to early diastolic mitral annulus velocity (E/e′) decreased ( P=0.001), it remained stable for 1 year after operation. There were no significant differences in left ventricular end diastolic volume, left ventricular end systolic volume and left ventricular ejection fraction among the three groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions:PIMSRA is effective in the treatment of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mild ventricular septal hypertrophy.

17.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 569-579, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013820

ABSTRACT

Aim To apply network pharmacology, molecular docking, and in vitro experimental techniques to predict as well as verify the antidepressant pharmacological mechanisms of Mengyao Anshen Buxin Liuwei pills. Methods TCMSP database and literature mining were used to obtain the active ingredients of Anshen Buxin six flavor pills , Swiss Target Prediction was applied to predict the ingredient related target information, and Cytoscape was employed to construct a medicinal herb ingredient target network. Depression targets were retrieved through GeneCards , Drugbank , OMIM and other databases. STRING database was used to obtain protein interaction relationship network information. DAVID database was used for GO biological process enrichment analysis and KEGG signaling pathway enrichment analysis. Autodock vina software was applied for molecular docking validation. In vitro injury model was established in BV2 microglial cells, cell viability was assessed by CCK-8 assay, and the mRNA expression of relevant core targets was assessed by qPCR. Results A total of 34 active components of Anshen Buxin Liuwei pills were screened, involving 140 potential targets and 59 core targets, involving 99 signaling pathways. Molecular docking results showed that betulinic acid, stigmasterol p-stiosterol 10 active components such as sitosterol and quercetin had good binding ability with AKT1, APP, ALB, MAPK3, VE GFA and MAPK 1 targets. The re suits in vitro showed that the activity of BV2 cells increased significantly compared with the model group. Anshen Buxin Liuwei pills could regulate the mRNA expression of each core target. Conclusion Anshen Buxin Liuwei pills may play an antidepressant role mainly through serotonin synaptic and other signaling pathways and related core targets.

18.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1411-1425, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010621

ABSTRACT

L-dopa (l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine)-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a debilitating complication of dopamine replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease. The potential contribution of striatal D2 receptor (D2R)-positive neurons and downstream circuits in the pathophysiology of LID remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of striatal D2R+ neurons and downstream globus pallidus externa (GPe) neurons in a rat model of LID. Intrastriatal administration of raclopride, a D2R antagonist, significantly inhibited dyskinetic behavior, while intrastriatal administration of pramipexole, a D2-like receptor agonist, yielded aggravation of dyskinesia in LID rats. Fiber photometry revealed the overinhibition of striatal D2R+ neurons and hyperactivity of downstream GPe neurons during the dyskinetic phase of LID rats. In contrast, the striatal D2R+ neurons showed intermittent synchronized overactivity in the decay phase of dyskinesia. Consistent with the above findings, optogenetic activation of striatal D2R+ neurons or their projections in the GPe was adequate to suppress most of the dyskinetic behaviors of LID rats. Our data demonstrate that the aberrant activity of striatal D2R+ neurons and downstream GPe neurons is a decisive mechanism mediating dyskinetic symptoms in LID rats.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Levodopa/toxicity , Dopamine , Parkinsonian Disorders/drug therapy , Oxidopamine , Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced , Corpus Striatum/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Receptors, Dopamine D2/metabolism , Antiparkinson Agents/toxicity
19.
Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing ; (36): 321-327, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930620

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the predictive effect of orthostatic hypotension on frailty in nursing homes, and the effect of frailty on heart rate and blood pressure in supine positionand orthostatic position.Methods:A total of 214 elderly cases in three nursing homes (the Golden Years of Jinjialing Retirement Life Center, Hangzhou Boyang Pension Service Co., Ltd, Hangzhou Langhe International Medical Care Center) were interviewed by the general information questionnaire, the Frail Scale and Barthel Index. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were measured by electronic sphygmomanometer in supine position and orthostatic position of 1 and 3 minutes.Results:The incidence of frailty combined with orthostatic hypotension was 26.64%(57/214) in the elderly in nursing homes. The incidence of orthostatic hypotension in the robust elderly, pre-frailty and frailty gradually increased, 14.29%(5/35), 20.00%(12/60), 47.90%(57/119). The differences of heart rate and systolic blood pressure in supine position between the elderly with and without frailty were significant ( t=2.16, 3.25, P<0.05), the differences of systolic pressure difference in orthostatic position of 1 and 3 minutes between the elderly with and without frailty were significant ( H=3.16, 4.08, P<0.01). There was significant difference in systolic pressure between the prefrail elderly and the elderly without frailty in lying position ( t=2.02, P<0.05). The differences of systolic and diastolic pressure differences in orthostatic position of 3 minutes between the frail elderly and pre-frail elderly were significant ( H=3.13,2.44, P<0.05). Ordered Logistic regression analysis showed that orthostatic hypotension was a risk factor for frailty ( OR=2.425, 95% CI were 1.133-4.988, P<0.05). Conclusions:Elderly adults with orthostatic hypotension in nursing homes have a higher prevalence of frailty. Frailty also impairs blood pressure regulation during postural changes. Nurses should attach importance to the assessment, education and intervention of frailty and orthostatic hypotension.

20.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 403-409, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928921

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the differences between the serum metabolites in patients with adenomatous polyps of the colon and yang-deficiency constitution and those without colon polyps and with balanced constitution, and look for biomarkers that can be used to distinguish between the two groups.@*METHODS@#General patient information was gathered, and Chinese medicine constitution were collected in 940 patients who underwent electronic colonoscopy. A total of 119 patients with adenomatous polyps of the colon and yang-deficiency constitution were included in the experimental group, and 150 patients without colon polyps and with balanced constitution were included in the control group. Metabolomics analysis was performed on the fasting venous blood obtained from each patient in both groups. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis were performed on the detection results, potential biomarkers were screened, metabolic pathway changes were determined, and the metabolic processes involved were discussed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 59 differential biomarkers between the experimental group and the control group were identified. The differential metabolites were found mainly in the glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway, and the bile acid 3-oxo-4,6-choladienoic acid was the biomarker that distinguished the experimental group from the control group.@*CONCLUSION@#With the help of metabolomics analysis, the differential metabolites in patients with adenomatous polyps of the colon and yang-deficiency constitution and those in patients without colon polyps and with balanced constitution could be identified. The biomarker 3-oxo-4,6-choladienoic acid may have potential diagnostic value in patients with adenomatous polyp of the colon and yang-deficiency constitution. (Trial Registration No. NCT02986308).


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenomatous Polyps , Biomarkers , Chromatography, Liquid , Colon , Mass Spectrometry , Yang Deficiency
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