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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 525-532, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922932

ABSTRACT

In this study, nrDNA ITS sequences of Lycium cultivars were sequenced and used to test the existence of incomplete concerted evolution and pseudogenes. Together with 44 ITS sequences retrieved from GenBank, the pattern of base substitutions, GC content, 5.8S conserved motifs, the minimum free energy of secondary structures, nucleotide diversity and phylogenetic relationship of the samples were analyzed. While 83 of the 144 sequences were identified as pseudogenes, the results suggested a high degree of polymorphism and putative pseudogenes in Lycium, suggesting an incomplete concerted evolution of the ITS region. ITS polymorphism and pseudogene of Lycium were systematically tested for the first time. This research provides a references for ITS sequence to be used in the study of Lycium germplasm resources and DNA barcode identification.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929243

ABSTRACT

Pueraria thomsonii has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Isoflavonoids are the principle pharmacologically active components, which are primarily observed as glycosyl-conjugates and accumulate in P. thomsonii roots. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the glycosylation processes in (iso)flavonoid biosynthesis have not been thoroughly elucidated. In the current study, an O-glucosyltransferase (PtUGT8) was identified in the medicinal plant P. thomsonii from RNA-seq database. Biochemical assays of the recombinant PtUGT8 showed that it was able to glycosylate chalcone (isoliquiritigenin) at the 4-OH position and glycosylate isoflavones (daidzein, formononetin, and genistein) at the 7-OH or 4'-OH position, exhibiting no enzyme activity to flavonones (liquiritigenin and narigenin) in vitro. The identification of PtUGT8 may provide a useful enzyme catalyst for efficient biotransformation of isoflavones and other natural products for food or pharmacological applications.


Subject(s)
Cloning, Molecular , Genistein , Glucosyltransferases/metabolism , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Pueraria/chemistry
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940716

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which owns abundant chemical components and complex action pathways, has been widely recognized in the prevention and treatment of diseases. Some analysis methods have been emerged in order to ensure the quality of TCM and to develop new TCM drugs. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is a soft ionization mass spectrometric technique with the advantages of high throughput, high sensitivity, low cost and so on. It provides technical support for the molecular level study on TCM. At present, this technique has been used in the field of composition analysis and metabonomics research of TCM, and plays an important role in the identification of Chinese herbal medicines, real-time molecular screening and the construction of metabolic network pathway of active ingredients. Among them, the selection of appropriate matrix and sample preparation technology is the key to ensure the detection effect of MALDI-MS. With the development and optimization of new matrix, the continuous improvement of sample preparation technology and the combination of MALDI-MS with various analytical methods will greatly improve the detection effect. Based on this, this paper discusses the application of MALDI-MS in TCM, including high-throughput detection of active ingredients in TCM, monitoring of the original medicines and their metabolites in vivo, and in situ visualization and characterization of tissue distribution information of active ingredients in TCM. It also discusses the application prospect and existing problems of MALDI-MS in TCM, so as to provide technical support for the identification of active ingredients in TCM, drug utilization and metabolism.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940461

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo optimize the existing genetic transformation system of Armillaria gallica to improve the transformation efficiency and lay a foundation for the follow-up research on Armillaria molecular marker-assisted breeding and gene function. MethodThe genetically transformed plasmid pH101-PAgGPD-GFP-TrpC was constructed,transformed into Escherichia coli,amplified, and cultured,and the plasmid was extracted. The extracted plasmid was transformed into four different agrobacteria LBA4404,EHA105,GV3101,and AGL-1,respectively. The transformed agrobacteria were used for impregnating A. gallica,and the agrobacteria with the highest conversion rate were screened out. Then the agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system of A. gallica was optimized from the type and concentration of antibiotics,co-culture time,concentration of bacterial solution, and impregnation method. The phenotype profiles of A. gallica under different conditions were observed using Synbiosis ProtoCol 3. ResultThe optimized genetic transformation conditions of A. gallica were as follows: the Agrobacterium strain of EHA105 at absorbance A600 nm=0.6, the co-culture time of 2 d, the infection mode of negative pressure impregnation for 10 min, the primary screening medium of PDA medium containing 400 mg·L-1 cefotaxime sodium and 10 mg·L-1 hygromycin,and the secondary screening medium of PDA medium containing 12 mg·L-1 hygromycin. ConclusionIn this study,the existing genetic transformation system of A. gallica was optimized,and there was a significant difference in the transformation rate before and after optimization (P<0.05). After optimization,the transformation efficiency of A. gallica was about 4.33%,which was about eight times higher than that before optimization.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940312

ABSTRACT

This paper systematically combs and analyzes the existing research related to the textual research of famous classical formulas, summarizes the problems and deficiencies of the current research, and puts forward the key points and suggestions of the textual research of famous classical formulas, so as to provide reference for the research related to the textual research of famous classical formulas. This paper discusses from the perspectives of paying attention to the similarities and differences of ancient and modern drug textual research connotation, paying attention to the comprehensive utilization of multi-dimensional information, paying attention to the combing and textual research of different key links of drug historical evolution, paying attention to the combing of the evolution of modern scientific name textual research, paying attention to the textual research principle of respecting the ancient but not sticking to it, and paying attention to the basic knowledge of philology, and puts forward the current situation, problems and countermeasures of formula textual research to herbal textual research based on the in-depth summary and analysis of the results, absorbs the advantages of previous scholars, supplements the shortcomings of previous research, and forms a unique research system according to the characteristics of famous classical formulas. That is, pay attention to the context of historical changes and cross-sectional analysis. On the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the historical changes of different key links such as the origin, authentic production areas, medicinal parts and processing, the reasonable key information of famous classical formula drugs in different periods was given by fully absorbing the research results of modern times and combining the current productivity and cognitive level, laying a foundation for the development of famous classical formulas.

6.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1909-1917, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929430

ABSTRACT

In order to reveal the molecular mechanism of the small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) involved in stress resistance and active ingredients accumulation in Salvia miltiorrhiza, a small heat shock protein gene was cloned from Salvia miltiorrhiza by reverse transcription PCR according to the transcriptome data of orange root Salvia miltiorrhiza. The gene is named SmHSP21.8 based on the molecular weight of the protein, and it contains an open reading frame of 585 bp, which encodes 194 amino acids. The results of phylogenetic analysis and amino acid sequence alignment showed that SmHSP21.8 protein belongs to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) subfamily, and contains a conserved endoplasmic reticulum-specific DPFR-I/V-LE-H/Q-x-P motif at N-terminus. The prokaryotic expression vector pMAL-c2X-SmHSP21.8 was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21 competent cells. The recombinant protein was successfully expressed after inducted. Temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that SmHSP21.8 gene was the highest expressed in flowers and had significant tissue specificity. The relative expression of the gene was significantly increased in seedlings after induction by 38 ℃, PEG6000, abscisic acid(ABA), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indicating that SmHSP21.8 gene may be involved in abiotic stress such as high temperature and drought, as well as the response to exogenous hormones ABA and IAA. These results lay the foundation for further research on the molecular mechanism of small heat shock proteins involved in adversity stress.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928155

ABSTRACT

Illumina Xten was employed for shallow sequencing of Panax ginseng(ginseng) samples, MISA for screening of SSR loci, and Primer 3 for primer design. Polymorphic primers were screened from 180 primers. From the successfully amplified polymorphic primers, 15 primers which featured clear peak shape, good polymorphism, and ease of statistics were selected and used to evaluate the genetic diversity and germplasm resources of 36 ginseng accessions with different fruit colors from Jilin province. The results showed that red-fruit ginseng population had high genetic diversity with the average number of alleles(N_a) of 1.031 and haploid genetic diversity(h) of 0.172. The neighbor-joining cluster analysis demonstrated that the germplasms of red-fruit and yellow-fruit ginseng populations were obviously intermixed, and pick-fruit ginseng germplasms clustered into a single clade. The results of STRUCTURE analysis showed high proportion of single genotype in pick-fruit ginseng germplasm and abundant genotypes in red-fruit and yellow-fruit ginseng germplasms with obvious germplasm mixing. AMOVA revealed that genetic variation occurred mainly within populations(62.00%, P<0.001), and rarely among populations(39%, P<0.001), but homogenization was obvious among different populations. In summary, pink-fruit ginseng population may contain rare genotypes, which is the basis for breeding of high-quality high-yield, and multi-resistance varieties, genetic improvement of varieties, and sustainable development and utilization of ginseng germplasm resources.


Subject(s)
Fruit/genetics , Genetic Variation , Microsatellite Repeats , Panax/genetics , Plant Breeding
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928141

ABSTRACT

Black-bone silky fowl, sweet, pungent, and hot-natured, is one of the valuable domesticated birds with special economic value in China's genebank of poultry breed, which has a long history of medicinal and edible uses. It has the effects of tonifying liver and kidney, replenishing Qi and blood, nourishing yin, clearing heat, regulating menstruation, invigorating spleen, and securing essence. Therefore, it has remarkable efficacy of enhancing physical strength, tonifying blood, and treating diabetes and gynecological diseases. Various local black-bone silky fowl breeds have been generated due to the differences in environmental conditions, breed selection, and rearing conditions in different areas of China, which are mainly concentrated in Taihe, Wan'an, and Ji'an in Jiangxi province and Putian, Jinjiang, and Yongchun in Fujian province. The indigenous chicken breeds in China have different body sizes, appearance, coat colors, etc. The complex lineages lead to extremely unstable genetic traits. The diverse breeds similar in appearance result in the confusion in the market of silky fowl breeds. With the rapid development of molecular biological technology, the genetics of black-bone silky fowls has been intensively studied. This article reviews the research progress of the germplasm resources, genetic diversity, and breed identification of black-bone silky fowl in China at the morphology, chromosome, protein, and DNA levels. Further, it introduces the principles, application status, and limitations of DNA markers such as mitochondrial DNA, microsatellite markers, and SNPs. This review provides a theoretical basis for the mining of elite trait genes and the protection and utilization of local black-bone silky fowl germplasm resources in China.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial , Female , Genetic Variation , Microsatellite Repeats , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Silk/genetics
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928085

ABSTRACT

With the rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix unearthed from the tomb of Haihunhou in the Western Han Dynasty as the re-ference, the present study evaluated the quality of Rehmanniae Radix and investigated the processing technology of rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix to lay the foundation for the research on rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix products. With catalpol and rehmannioside D as the investigation indexes, the quality and grade of Rehmanniae Radix from different producing areas were evaluated with the methods in 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. UPLC method was established for the determination of catalpol and rehmannioside D in the rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix. The effects of steaming time, the amount of supplementary rice, and steaming times in the rice-steamed processing on the quality of products were investigated by L_9(3~4) orthogonal test and multi-index comprehensive balance scoring method combined with the content of catalpol and rehmannioside D and appearance characteristics. At last, the stability of the processing technology was tested. The results showed that the optimal processing technology for rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix was as follows: Rehmanniae Radix and rice(200 g∶4 g) were steamed twice at atmospheric pressure, four hours each time. The mass fractions of catalpol and rehmannioside D were 0.184% and 0.335%, respectively, and the character score was 6.5. The processing conditions are reaso-nable, stable, and feasible. It can provide a basis for the restoration of the ancient rice-steamed processing technology and references for the development of rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix products in the future.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Oryza , Plant Extracts , Rehmannia , Technology
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928036

ABSTRACT

This study steps through the future perspectives and gives the development suggestions of Chinese medicinal materials(CMM) industry by presenting the characteristics and open problems during the 13 th Five-Year Plan period. The development of CMM industry presents the following trends:(1)the development of Dao-di herbs speeds up with the increasing demand for high-quality CMM;(2)the mismatch between supply and demand is aggravating, which presses for supply-side structural reform;(3)ecological planting will become the core mode of production and bolster rural revitalization;(4)the demand for CMM with both medical and edible values keeps growing, and the antibiotic-free feed policy brings significant opportunities;(5)the "Internet Plus CMM" wave emerges, which promotes the construction of traceability system. Finally, we put forward the following suggestions for the sustainable development of CMM industry:(1)optimizing the layout for the production of Dao-di herbs according to local conditions;(2)strengthening the commercialization of the seeds and the breeding, multiplication, and extension of CMM to accelerate the realization of specialized seed production, mechanized seed processing, localized variety layout, and county-based unified seed supply;(3)ensuring the safety of pesticide use and accelerating the registration of special pesticides;(4)promoting both theoretical and practical research on ecological production of CMM;(5)publicizing the demonstration and popularization of CMM traceability system. Overall, significant progress has been achieved in the CMM industry during the 13 th Five-Year Plan period, and this industry is in a critical stage of high-quality development, facing both challenges and opportunities.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Industry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Breeding
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879149

ABSTRACT

Plants have a memory function for the environmental stress they have suffered. When they are subjected to repeated environmental stress, they can quickly and better activate the response and adaptation mechanism to environmental stress, thus realizing long-term stable reproduction. However, most of the relevant studies are applied to crops and Arabidopsis thaliana rather than medicinal plants about the improvement of plant growth status and the effect on phytoalexin biosynthesis. In this study, yeast extract(YE) was used as an elicitor to simulate biotic stress, and the changes in biomass and the content of some secondary metabolites were measured by giving repeated stresses to Sorbus aucuparia suspension cell(SASC). The results showed that the accumulation levels of biomass and some secondary metabolites in SASC subjected to repeated stress are significantly increased at some time points compared with single stress. A phenomenon that SASC can memorize biotic stress is confirmed in this study and influences phytoalexin accumulation in SASC. Furthermore, the work laid the groundwork for research into the transgenerational stress memory mechanism of medicinal plant.


Subject(s)
Cells, Cultured , Secondary Metabolism , Sorbus , Stress, Physiological
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879104

ABSTRACT

Ecological agriculture is a crucial way for agriculture of Chinese materia medica, which emphasizes the application of ecological principles in the cultivation of traditional Chinese medicine. While long-term intensive farming and modern chemical agriculture have threatened soil health, the sustainable development of ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica is constrained. No-til-lage can reduce both frequency and intensity of tillage. Compared with conventional agriculture, no-tillage can reduce soil disturbance, maintain no-tillage for a long or permanent period and keep mulching. The application of no-tillage has a long history. More and more studies have shown that no-tillage has many advantages over conventional tillage, and the ecological and economic benefits of no-tillage are particularly outstandingin long-term. The cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials adheres to the principle of not grabbing land from farmland, making full use of the soil resources under forests, mountains and wasteland. Reducing the risk of soil loss and sustai-nable utilization are the core issues in the process of new land cultivation. No-tillage application, which not only inherits the traditional Chinese concept of natural farming, but also integrates the laws of ecological agriculture, will become the core strategies of sustainable development of Chinese materia medica ecological agriculture. This study will introduce the basic concepts and development process of no-tillage, analyze their ecological benefits in ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica, and put forward their application strategies.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Sustainable Development
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879101

ABSTRACT

This study steps through four key principles, four open problems and future perspectives of Chinese materia medica(CMM) ecological agriculture by presenting the historical development, existing theories and practice outcomes. Then, it focuses on refining the main principles of CMM ecological agriculture:(1)the principles of ecological niche associated with yield and comprehensive income;(2)principles of biological diversity associated with the integrated control of diseases, pests and weeds;(3)principles of adversity effects associated with the quality improvement of CMM;(4)principles of structural stability associated with the sustainable development of CMM ecological agriculture. On this basis, four burning issues of CMM ecological agriculture were obtained,(1)ecological planting mode and supporting technologies need to be perfect;(2)multi-integrated industrial coupling remains to strengthen;(3) quality assurance system of CMM ecological agriculture and high-quality and favorable price model remains to be formed;(4)awareness of the demonstration and extension of CMM ecological agriculture needs to be desired. Finally, suggestions for the sustainable development of CMM ecological agriculture are put forward:(1)strengthen the national planning and layout, develop CMM ecological agriculture accor-ding to local conditions;(2)pay equal attention to inheritance and innovation, and strengthen the theory and practical technology research of CMM ecological agriculture;(3)strengthen industrial coupling and realize the transformation of CMM ecological agriculture from a production-based to a multi-in-one compound model;(4)intensify standards and brands, building a quality assurance system for CMM ecological products;(5) publicize the demonstration and popularization of CMM ecological agriculture. In summary, the development of CMM ecological agriculture possessed a firmer theory and practice foundation, although there is still much room for improvement. A better field of Chinese medicine agricultural development with immense economic and social benefits will not a question of "if" but "when" by accurately grasp the way forward.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879063

ABSTRACT

The research on the historical production areas of Dao-di herbs is of great value to the quality evaluation, production base and protection for geographic indications of Dao-di herbs. Current studies mostly focused on the sorting of written sources, but neglected the excavation of image records such as historical maps and topographic maps. This paper aims at exploreing the geographical scope and evolution mode of historical production area of the Dao-di herbs by combining the method of historical map labelling with the traditional literature and historical research methods. It can be divided into three steps: production area name extraction, historical map labelling and textual research on the historical production area of Dao-di herbs. This method may provide a better way to show the geographical scope and topographic features of the historical production areas of Dao-di herbs through historical maps labelling, which is essential to further explore the evolution of production areas of Dao-di herbs from ancient times to the present by comparing historical maps of different periods, and may be helpful to discover the reasons for the formation and evolution of historical producing areas of Dao-di herbs from different perspectives such as environment, climate, humanities, economy, policy, etc. In addition, the historical map database can be used for map labelling to help establish the relationship between the dynasties, historical names, and change cha-racteristics of the scope of the historical production areas of Dao-di herbs in the following research.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Geography , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal , Research Design
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879049

ABSTRACT

In order to better utilize saffron floral bio-residues(SFB), a qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids in SFB was conducted using UPLC-MS and UPLC, respectively. On the one hand, 50 flavonols and 5 anthocyanins were putatively characte-rized by using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. On the other hand, an UPLC method was established for determining the fingerprint of SFB as well as testing the main flavonoids kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside and delphinidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside. Contents of kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside and delphinidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside of 10 batches of samples were 44.21-58.73 mg·g~(-1) and 2.11-6.37 mg·g~(-1), respectively, and the similarities of 10 batches were more than 0.99. In addition, the color of the samples was digitized by using electronic eye technology, and it was found that the color of the samples was significantly correlated with the content of delphinidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside. The richness of flavonoids in SFB indicated its potential for development and utilization, and the large variation in anthocyanin content among samples from different regions suggested that more attention should be paid to the methods of sample pretreatment and storage.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Crocus , Flavonoids , Flowers , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879015

ABSTRACT

The volatile oil from Mastiche and Olibanum medicinal materials was extracted by steam distillation, and the chemical components of the volatile oil were analyzed by GC-MS technology. The differences of the volatile oil components were compared and study on the Helicobacter pylori in vitro antimicrobial activitiy was conducted. The results showed that the yields of the volatile oil from Mastiche and Olibanum were 11.93% and 2.40%, respectively. A total of 46 compounds(91.31%) were identified from the volatile oil from Mastiche annd 35 compounds(92.49%) from Olibanum. The classification and comparison study of the components showed that the content of monoterpenes in the volatile oil from Mastiche was the highest(40.69%), followed by alcohols(28.48%); while the content of alcohols in the volatile oil from Olibanum was the highest(35.81%), followed by esters(24.92%). There were significant differences in the components of volatile oil from Mastiche and Olibanum, which might be one of the reasons for the difference in efficacy and application. In vitro bacteriostatic experiments showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) of the volatile oil from Mastiche against H. pylori was 1 mg·mL~(-1), and the MIC of the volatile oil from Olibanum against H. pylori was more than 1 mg·mL~(-1). In combination with the results of the oil yield experiment, Mastiche had the advantage of inhibiting H. pylori activity. The research results provide scientific basis for the rational application of Mastiche and Olibanum.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Frankincense , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Helicobacter pylori , Monoterpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879011

ABSTRACT

Based on the investigation of wild medicinal plant resources in Dexing city, Jiangxi province, and the collected plant specimens, which were identified by taxonomy, two new record species of geographical distribution were found, which are Meehania zheminensis A. Takano, Pan Li & G.-H. Xia and Corydalis huangshanensis L.Q.Huang & H.S.Peng. The voucher specimens are kept in Dexing museum of traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, the new distribution species were reported, which provides valuable information for further enriching and supplementing the species diversity of medicinal plant resources in Jiangxi province.


Subject(s)
China , Corydalis , Humans , Lamiaceae , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Museums , Plants, Medicinal
18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3285-3299, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906851

ABSTRACT

Plant natural products (PNPs) are important sources of innovative drugs. They are mainly obtained by isolation or extraction from plants. Low content and with structural analogues in plants result in high production cost, which restricts the research and application of PNPs. While biopathway construction by synthetic biology provides an alternative for production of PNPs. By biosynthetic pathway analysis of PNPs and reconstructing the biopathway in microorganisms, we can produce PNPs in cell factories efficiently. Recently, several predominantly international reports about biosynthesis of PNPs and its synthetic biology production, triggered the researches of PNPs. Abundant traditional Chinese medicine resources and profound cultural heritage of Chinese medicine make biosynthesis pathway analysis of PNPs to be a research hotspot. And some of the studies have achieved significant progress. Here, recent progress in the biosynthesis of plant natural products and its synthetic biology was reviewed. In particular, the application of new methods and technologies in recent years were summarized and discussed. This will provide reference for the biopathway construction of plant natural products.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906444

ABSTRACT

The historical evolution, fermentation technology and key links of Sojae Semen Praeparatum (SSP) were sorted out by consulting ancient books and modern literature, and the influencing factors and control methods of quality were analyzed and summarized in order to provide reference for the quality control of SSP. After analysis, it was found that in the fermentation process of SSP, fermentation strains, miscellaneous bacteria, temperature and humidity were all important factors affecting the quality of SSP. The condition control of "post fermentation" process has been paid more attention to in the past dynasties. In addition, the delicious SSP recognized in ancient times should be made from mold fermentation, and the breeding and application of fermented mold may be the key point to solve the quality problem of SSP. Therefore, based on the evaluation indexes of SSP in the past dynasties, it is of great significance to study and optimize the technological conditions such as strain, temperature and humidity in depth to improve the quality of SSP.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906401

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the contents of adenosine, gastrodin, <italic>p</italic>-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, <italic>p</italic>-hydroxybenzaldehyde, parisinin B and parisinin A in Chijian (the aerial part of <italic>Gastrodia elata</italic>) and Gastrodiae Rhizoma, and compare their effects on immune function and intestinal microflora, evaluating whether it is necessary to study and develop Chijian. Method:The contents of these six constituents were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), the mobile phase was 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-acetonitrile (B) for gradient elution (0-4 min, 0.5%B; 4-5 min, 0.5%-2%B; 5-10 min, 2%-15%B; 10-12 min, 15%-20%B; 12-15 min, 20%-95%B; 15-17 min, 95%B; 17-17.5 min, 95%-0.5%B; 17.5-20 min, 0.5%B), the flow rate was 0.5 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>, the detection wavelength was 270 nm. The difference of pharmacological activity of water extracts of Chijian and Gastrodiae Rhizoma was compared, the clearance index, corrected clearance index and peripheral blood were measured in mice model with low immune function induced by cyclophosphamide, B lymphocyte proliferation was determined by lymphocyte transformation test <italic>in vitro</italic>, intestinal microflora was analyzed by 16S rDNA technology and bioinformatics was conducted. Result:The total contents of these six components in powder and ethanol extract of Chijian were higher than that of Gastrodiae Rhizoma, but the total contents of these six components in their water extract were similar, and the total contents of gastrodin and <italic>p</italic>-hydroxybenzyl alcohol met the requirements of the 2020 edition of <italic>Chinese Pharmacopoeia</italic>. Compared with the blank group, the clearance index of immunocompromised mice was significantly increased in the middle-dose (10 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) group of Chijian water extract, middle- and low-dose (10, 5 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) groups of Gastrodiae Rhizoma water extract (<italic>P</italic><0.05), the levels of erythrocyte and hematocrit in peripheral blood were significantly increased in the high-dose (20 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) groups of water extracts of Chijian and Gastrodiae Rhizoma (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), water extract of Gastrodiae Rhizoma with concentration of 400 g·L<sup>-1</sup> and the water extract of Chijian with the concentration of 100 g·L<sup>-1</sup> could promote the proliferation of B lymphocytes induced by lipopolysaccharide. Studies on intestinal microflora showed that compared with the blank group, at the phylum level, the water extracts of Chijian and Gastrodiae Rhizoma increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreased the relative abundance of Firmicutes, at the genus level, they increased the relative abundance of <italic>Prevotellaceae</italic>_UCG-001 and <italic>Ruminococcaceae</italic>_UCG-005, and decreased the relative abundance of <italic>Anaerotruncus</italic>, unclassified_<italic>f</italic>_<italic>Erysipelotrichaceae</italic> and<italic> Candidatus</italic>_<italic>Stoquefichus</italic>.<italic> </italic>These intestinal bacteria were related to the immune system, cell proliferation, and metabolism regulation. Conclusion:The total contents of 6 components in the powder, the ethanol and the water extracts of Chijian are higher than or close to those of the corresponding samples of Gastrodiae Rhizoma, the pharmacological activity of Chijian water extract is similar to that of Gastrodiae Rhizoma water extract, indicating that Chijian is worthy of further research and development.

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