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Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135132


Rabies remains a public health problem in many parts of the less developed world. Much is known about the virology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and methods for control but this knowledge is not applied in many countries. Thailand has been on the frontline of efforts to conduct research in rabies for almost a century, starting with Dr. Leopold Robert from the Institute Pasteur of Paris. He was invited by the Thai King in 1913 to develop a research and production facility for rabies vaccine and snake antivenins which later became the Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute. Thai physicians, scientists and nurses, jointly with some notable expatriate colleagues, were then responsible for major advances in rabies vaccine development, rational application of preand postexposure prophylaxis and better understanding of immunology and pathophysiology of this dread disease. They not only discovered new scientific principles but also cost-benefit methods for their application and set the foundation for the work conducted in Thailand during the next two decades. Many concepts developed by Thai scientists have been incorporated into WHO and US-CDC rabies management guidelines. This is an overview of significant developments during the past two decades [1-8].

Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-43726


Rabies post exposure treatment and rapid diagnosis in an endemic area requires skillful and an experienced medical staff and veterinary specialists. A software program was introduced in 2000 as a tool to diagnose rabies based on clinical symptoms and signs of suspicious dogs where veterinarian service and other laboratory diagnostic options are not immediately available. It is easily accessed from the website:

Algorithms , Animals , Bayes Theorem , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Vectors , Expert Systems , Humans , Rabies/diagnosis , Software , Thailand , Time Factors
Article in Thai | IMSEAR | ID: sea-41819


A study of bat lyssavirus survey was done in Thailand from 2001 to 2003. A total of 932 bats of 11 species were captured in 8 provinces for blood collection and testing for neutralizing antibodies against rabies virus (RABV), Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) and broader panel of other lyssaviruses (Irkut, Aravan and Khujand). All Thai bat samples were negative to RABV Sixteen samples of 394 with sufficient volume of serum had detectable neutralizing antibodies against Irkut, Aravan, Khujand and ABL viruses. Another 13 samples were also found to have antibody to ABLV. However, due to insufficient volume, further analysis to other lyssaviruses could not be performed. Nevertheless, this showed that the prevalence of lyssavirus infection in Thai bats could be as high as 7.3% (29/396). The present study showed that natural occurrence of lyssavirus antibodies found in Thai bats were related to newer putative lyssavirus genotype(s) other than those previously described. These data also suggest that several lyssaviruses are in circulation throughout Thailand as well as other Asian countries, such as in the Philippines, Central Asia, and in certain parts of Russia. The present study and preparation of this article was supported by grants from the Thailand Research Fund and the National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Thailand.

Animals , Lyssavirus/isolation & purification , Rhabdoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Thailand/epidemiology
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-45793


The Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute (QSMI), Thai Red Cross Society was founded in 1922 to carry out the production of the nervous tissue vaccines, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) treatment, research, and laboratory diagnosis. The diagnostic laboratory had replaced the Seller's staining with direct fluorescent test (DFA) as standard technique in 1987 and the mouse inoculation technique (MIT) had been employed as the confirmatory test to ensure the result of the diagnosis. Other techniques conducted at our facility such as tissue culture infection and polymerase chain reaction techniques are less practical although the sensitivity is competitive with DFA but mainly for research references.

Animals , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Culture Techniques , Dogs , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rabies/diagnosis , Rabies virus/immunology , Thailand