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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190517, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136911


Abstract Since the emergence of the chikungunya virus in Brazil in 2014, more than 700,000 cases have been reported throughout the country, corresponding to one-third of all cases reported in the Americas. In addition to its high attack rates, resulting in hundreds of thousands of cases, the disease has high chronicity rates with persistent joint manifestations for more than 3 months, which can spread to more than half of the patients affected in the acute phase. Pain associated with musculoskeletal manifestations, often disabling, has an effect on patients' quality of life at different stages of the disease. Currently, the challenge faced by specialists is identifying the best therapy to be instituted for symptom relief despite the limited number of published intervention studies. In 2016, a multidisciplinary group published pharmacological treatment protocols for pain in patients with chikungunya, which was incorporated into the guidelines for clinical management of the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2017; in that same year, a consensus was published by the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology about diagnosis and treatment. After 5 years of experience with chikungunya epidemics, in 2019, specialists involved in the protocols of the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology and Brazilian Ministry of Health prepared an update with the main objective of developing flowcharts for the therapeutic approach of musculoskeletal manifestations in adult patients to enable specialists at different levels of healthcare to spread and apply this guideline in a systematic and simplified manner.

Humans , Adult , Rheumatology , Chikungunya Fever/complications , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/therapy , Quality of Life , Brazil , Consensus
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180229, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013304


Abstract Sarcoidosis is a rare multisystem chronic inflammatory disease in children. We present a case of a five-year-old child with clinical features mimicking several diseases, including tuberculosis. After failure of treatment based on the suspected diagnosis, an axillary lymph node biopsy showed noncaseating granulomas compatible with sarcoidosis and appropriate treatment was then started.

Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Sarcoidosis/drug therapy , Thiabendazole/therapeutic use , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Biopsy , Brazil , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Diagnosis, Differential , Lymphoma/diagnosis , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 393-396, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957422


Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis is a systemic disease that is potentially severe and endemic in Brazil. It clinically manifests as fever, weight loss, swelling, hepatosplenomegaly, paleness, and edema. In this study, we discuss a case of a 1-year-old child diagnosed with refractory visceral leishmaniasis after being treated with liposomal amphotericin B in two distinct occasions. Considering the persistent clinical features and weak response to conventional treatment, a combination therapy with liposomal amphotericin B (ambisome), n-methylglucamine antimoniate (glucantime), and pentamidine isethionate was initiated, and response to treatment was good.

Humans , Male , Infant , Organometallic Compounds/administration & dosage , Pentamidine/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Meglumine/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination , Meglumine Antimoniate
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(5): 287-293, May 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782050


An unusually high incidence of microcephaly in newborns has recently been observed in Brazil. There is a temporal association between the increase in cases of microcephaly and the Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic. Viral RNA has been detected in amniotic fluid samples, placental tissues and newborn and fetal brain tissues. However, much remains to be determined concerning the association between ZIKV infection and fetal malformations. In this study, we provide evidence of the transplacental transmission of ZIKV through the detection of viral proteins and viral RNA in placental tissue samples from expectant mothers infected at different stages of gestation. We observed chronic placentitis (TORCH type) with viral protein detection by immunohistochemistry in Hofbauer cells and some histiocytes in the intervillous spaces. We also demonstrated the neurotropism of the virus via the detection of viral proteins in glial cells and in some endothelial cells and the observation of scattered foci of microcalcifications in the brain tissues. Lesions were mainly located in the white matter. ZIKV RNA was also detected in these tissues by real-time-polymerase chain reaction. We believe that these findings will contribute to the body of knowledge of the mechanisms of ZIKV transmission, interactions between the virus and host cells and viral tropism.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Microcephaly/virology , Viral Tropism/physiology , Zika Virus Infection/congenital , Zika Virus/physiology , Amniotic Fluid/virology , Brain/embryology , Brain/virology , Immunohistochemistry , Infant, Newborn , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , RNA, Viral/analysis
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(2): 260-262, Mar.-Apr. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782096


Abstract: Cryptosporidiosis is a very prominent disease in the field of public health, and usually causes diarrhea. We describe two immunocompetent patients who presented with chronic diarrhea that was ultimately found to be caused by continuous exposure to well water contaminated with the microbial cysts (oocysts) of the Cryptosporidium spp parasite. We describe the patients' histories and possible explanations for their prolonged symptoms.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Water Supply , Water/parasitology , Cryptosporidiosis/transmission , Chronic Disease , Immunocompromised Host , Cryptosporidiosis/diagnosis , Feces/parasitology , Middle Aged
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 8(2): 267-272, set. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-722899


This article describes a case of recurrence of chronic paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) 11 years following the initial diagnosis. The patient was a 51-year-old white Brazilian female, which had been previously diagnosed with PCM. The physical examination revealed the presence of a single crusted lesion in the upper lip and an elevated lesion with fibrous scar appearance on right buccal mucosa. Although the diagnosis of PCM, the absence of pulmonary involvement led to the biopsy of the lesion localized on the buccal mucosa and the histopathological analysis in H&E and PAS stains revealed no morphological changes suggestive of any lesion. However, the exfoliative cytology stained with Grocott-Gomori showed the presence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and the infection caused by this fungus was proven. Of this way, we emphasize the importance of stomatologic evaluation to the diagnosis of diseases that usually manifestssystemically. So, the correct diagnosis of oral manifestations of PCM, is essential to ensure early and safe intervention.

En este artículo se describe un caso de paracoccidioidomicosis crónica (PCM) recurrente 11 años después del diagnóstico inicial. La paciente una mujer blanca de Brasil de 51 años de edad, que había sido diagnosticada previamente con PCM. El examen físico reveló la presencia de una lesión única en el labio superior y una lesión elevada con apariencia de cicatriz fibrosa en la mucosa bucal derecha. No obstante el diagnóstico de PCM, la ausencia de compromiso pulmonar llevó a la biopsia de la lesión localizada en la mucosa bucal y el análisis histopatológico no demostró cambios morfológicos indicativos de cualquier lesión. Sin embargo, la citología exfoliativa teñida con Grocott-Gomori mostró la presencia de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis y la infección causada por este hongo fue probado. De esta manera, hacemos hincapié en la importancia de la evaluación odontológica para el diagnóstico de enfermedades que se manifiestan generalmente por vía sistémica. Por lo tanto, el diagnóstico correcto de las manifestaciones orales de PCM es esencial para asegurar la intervención temprana y segura.

J. bras. patol. med. lab ; 50(4): 278-279, Jul-Aug/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723978


Chromobacterium violaceum is a rare pathogen that can potentially cause fatal infections in humans. An 8-year-old child from Natal, northeast of Brazil, presented history of fever, sore throat, and abdominal pain, during 5 days before admission, and died 4 hours after hospitalization. Chromobacterium violaceum was isolated from oropharynx scrapings and was resistant to ampicillin, cefotaxime, cefalotin, ceftazidime, and ceftriaxone...

Chromobacterium violaceum é um patógeno raro que potencialmente pode causar infecções fatais em humanos. Relatamos o caso de uma criança de 8 anos de idade, moradora da cidade de Natal, nordeste do Brasil, que apresentou história de febre, dor na garganta e no abdome durante os cinco dias anteriores à internação, e veio a falecer após 4 horas de hospitalização. A bactéria Chromobacterium violaceum foi isolada da orofaringe e apresentou resistência a ampicilina, cefotaxima, cefalotina, ceftazidima e ceftriaxona...

Humans , Female , Child , Ampicillin Resistance , Chromobacterium/pathogenicity , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Cefotaxime , Ceftriaxone , Cephalothin , Fatal Outcome
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(1): 119-121, Jan-Feb/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703148


Lymphadenitis caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria is an uncommon manifestation in immunocompetent individuals. Here, we report a case of Mycobacterium fortuitum infection in a previously healthy 9-year-old patient who developed cervical lymphadenitis evolving to a suppurative ulcer associated with a varicella-zoster virus infection. We discuss the relationship between the varicella-zoster virus and the immune response of the host as an explanation for the unusual progression of the case.

Child , Female , Humans , Herpes Zoster/complications , Lymphadenitis/microbiology , Mycobacterium fortuitum , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/complications , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/complications , /isolation & purification , Immunocompromised Host , Lymphadenitis/complications , Mycobacterium fortuitum/isolation & purification , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/microbiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(2): 257-259, Mar.-Apr. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-586094


Rhinocerebral zygomycosis is the most frequent form of fungal infection caused by members of the Zygomycetes class. A fatal case of rhinocerebral zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus (oryzae) arrhizus with histopathological and mycological diagnosis is reported in a diabetic patient.

Zigomicose rinocerebral é a forma mais frequente das infecções fúngicas causadas por membros da classe Zygomicetes. É relatado um caso fatal de zigomicose rinocerebral por Rhizopus (oryzae) arrhizus com diagnóstico histopatológico e micológico, em paciente diabética.

Adult , Female , Humans , Brain Diseases/microbiology , Diabetes Complications/microbiology , Nose Diseases/microbiology , Rhizopus/isolation & purification , Zygomycosis/pathology , Brain Diseases/pathology , Diabetes Complications/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Nose Diseases/pathology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 43(4): 393-395, jul.-ago. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-556003


INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease with a complex immune response in different organs. This pattern of organ-specific immune response has never been evaluated in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to determine the in situ immune response in duodenal biopsies on patients with VL. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted on 13 patients with VL in comparison with nine controls. The immune response was evaluated using immunohistochemistry, for CD4, CD8, CD68, IL-4, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10. Histological findings from the villi, crypts and inflammatory process were analyzed. RESULTS: All the cases of VL presented Leishmania antigens. No antigen was detected in the control group. The villus size was greater in the VL patients (p < 0.05). CD68 (macrophages) and CD4 levels were higher in the VL patients (p < 0.05). No differences in the expression of CD8, TNF-α, IL-10 or IL-4 were demonstrated. The number of cells expressing IFN-γ was lower in the VL patients (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of cytokines were found in the gastrointestinal tract of patients with VL. This pattern was not found in other organs affected by the disease. Immunotolerance of this tissue against Leishmania could explain these findings, as occurs with intestinal bacteria.

INTRODUÇÃO: Leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença tropical negligenciada com uma resposta imune complexa em diferentes órgãos. Este padrão de resposta imune órgão-específica nunca foi avaliada no trato gastrointestinal. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a resposta imune in situ em biópsias duodenais de pacientes com LV. MÉTODOS: Um estudo de caso controle com 13 pacientes com LV foi comparado com 9 controles. A resposta imune foi avaliada por imunohistoquímica para CD4, CD8, CD68, IL-4, IFN-γ, TNF-α e IL-10. Achados histológicos nos vilos, criptas e processo inflamatório foram analisados. RESULTADOS: Todos os casos de LV apresentaram antígenos de Leishmania. Nenhum antígeno foi encontrado no grupo controle. O tamanho do vilo foi maior em pacientes com LV (p < 0,05). CD68 (macrófagos) e CD4 estavam aumentados em pacientes com LV (p < 0,05). Nenhuma diferença foi demonstrada na expressão de CD8, TNF-α, IL-10 e IL-4. O número de células expressando IFN-γ foi mais baixo que no grupo controle (p < 0,05). CONCLUSÕES: Baixos níveis de citocinas foram encontrados no trato gastrointestinal de pacientes com LV. Este padrão não foi encontrado em outros órgãos acometidos pela doença. Uma imunotolerância do tecido contra Leishmania poderia explicar estes achados, como ocorre com as bactérias entéricas.

Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Cytokines/analysis , Duodenum/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Duodenum/parasitology , Immunohistochemistry , Intestinal Mucosa/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/pathology
São Paulo; s.n; 2005. [107] p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-431400


Introdução: A leishmaniose visceral é uma doença que acomete cerca de 500 mil pessoas por ano no mundo e se caracteriza principalmente por um quadro de febre, hepatoesplenomegalia e pancitopenia. Há uma imunossupressão específica frente a Leishmania chagasi. Classicamente esta resposta é modulada pelas células dendríticas, que são as primeiras células que entram em contato com o parasita / Introduction: Visceral leishmaniasis is a disease that strikes around 500 thousand people in the world per year and its major characteristics are fever hepatoesplenomegaly and pancytopenia. There is a specific immunussupression in face of the Leishmania chagasi. Classically this response is modulated by the dendritic cells that are the first cells to get in contact with the parasite...

Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Humans , Duodenum/parasitology , Intestine, Small/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/immunology , Interleukins
In. Farhat, Calil Kairalla; Carvalho, Eduardo da Silva; Carvalho, Luiza Helena Falleiros Rodrigues; Succi, Regina Célia de Menezes. Infectologia pediátrica. Säo Paulo, Atheneu, 2 ed; 1998. p.563-78, ilus.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-260927