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Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2017; 16 (Supp. 10): 102-109
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-185699


Background: Licorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra [belong to Leguminosae family] is one of the most popular medicinal plants in the world and it is widely used in many fields such as medical, pharmaceutical, confectionery and health industries. Different parts of licorice [shoots, leaves and roots] were had various components such as Glycyrrhzin that was used for some proposes

Objective: The current study was done with the aim of gene transfer via Agrobacterium rhizogenes by ex vitro method for hairy root production in licorice

Methods: The experiment was laid out as a completely randomized design [CRD] with five treatments in three replications. At first, root of young plantlets was eliminated and excited plantlets were putted in the glass wool contain suspension of bacteria. After 10 to 14 days of inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, the roots were appeared. The percentage of root induction by four strains of Agrobacterium [ATCC 15834, GMI 9534, A4 and A13] with check [without bacteria] was investigated

Results: The results of PCR analysis with specific primers for roots of composite plants [putative transgenic] was shown that three strains of bacteria [A4, A13 and GMI 9534] and strain ATCC 15834, were produced 100% and 66.66% transgenic roots respectively

Conclusion: Thus, production of composite licorice plants was remarked due to it has low cost, fast and simple

Glycyrrhiza/genetics , Agrobacterium/genetics , Transformation, Genetic
Journal of Paramedical Science and Rehabilitation. 2015; 4 (2): 15-23
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-169511


The purpose of this study was to investigate the horizontal components of the ground reaction force with subjects' flat foot and to compare these changes with subjects with normal foot. Fifteen subjects were randomly selected from 86 children with flexible flat foot, with a mean age [10.40 +/- 1.12], height [124.60 +/- 8.76] and weight [24.10 +/- 6.70]. 15 subjects were randomly selected to the control group from the population with normal feet that were homogeneous with group flat foot of the height, age and weight. Flat-arched feet were determined by the navicular drop test with Brody method, and 1000Hz KISTLER force plate were used to measure horizontal components of ground reaction force at heel strike [Initial heel contact], transfer weight onto the heel [Loading response], touch the foot of land [Mid stance] and transfer weight onto the toes [Terminal stance] during the Stance phase. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 21 software and independent t-test was used [p< 0.05]. There was a significant difference in the initial heel contact between flat foot and a normal foot. However, no significant difference was noted between the two groups at loading response, mid stance and terminal stance. According to the present research findings, it may be concluded that there are differences between children with flat foot and normal foot in the direction and amount of force at the time of heel strike or initial heel contact

Journal of Islamic Dental Association of Iran [The]-JIDA. 2014; 25 (4): 366-372
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-148511


There is a reduction in bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sage [Salvia officinalis] on the shear bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel In this in vitro study, 60 labial surfaces of maxillary incisors were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: G1: bleaching; G2: bleaching and application of sodium ascorbate-containing solution; G3: bleaching and application of Salvia officinalis-containing solution; G4: control [no bleaching]. A composite resin [Z100; 3M ESPE, Dental products, St Paul, MN, USA] cylinder was bonded on each specimen after acid etching and application of a fifth generation bonding agent [Single Bond; 3M ESPE, Dental products, St Paul, MN, USA]. After thermocycling, the shear bond strengths of the samples were measured in MPa. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test [alpha=0.05] Minimum and maximum mean values of shear bond strengths were observed in G1 [12.31 +/- 2.44] and G3 [25. 04 +/- 3.52], respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in bond strength between the bleached and non-bleached groups after the antioxidant treatment [P>0.05]. There is a considerable decrease in bond strength of composite resin to enamel immediately after bleaching. Application of sodium ascorbate and Salvia officinalis solution can increase the bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel

Shear Strength , Composite Resins , Ascorbic Acid , Salvia officinalis , Dental Bonding , Antioxidants
Feyz-Journal of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. 2013; 17 (2): 173-180
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-130281


Group B Streptococcus [GBS] has been described as an important pathogen in newborns and pregnant women. Maternal vaccination against GBS can reduce maternal GBS colonization and enhance antibody transfer to the fetus and also prevent the subsequent infections. Nine serotypes can be identified based on capsular polysaccharide: Ia, Ib, II-VIII. Due to the changes in serotypes' distribution pattern over time and also variation in different geographic areas, production of a universally optimal vaccine is impossible. This study aimed to evaluate the serotype distribution of GBS using the multiplex PCR among the pregnant women. This study was performed on 382 pregnant women. Vaginal swab samples were placed in the LIM selective medium and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Then the samples were cultured in blood Agar medium and the GBS was identified and confirmed using the standard tests and gene encoding dlts, respectively. Capsular typing was performed using the multiplex PCR method to identify the Ia, Ib, II-VIII serotypes. Thirty-six [9.4%] out of 382 pregnant women were carriers of GBS. The most common types were III [32.14%], V [21.43%], and IV [14.3%], respectively. Types II and VIII were not identified in this study. Considering the high prevalence of III, V and IV serotypes in this study, they are potential sources for the production of multivalent GBS vaccines in near future

Humans , Female , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Vaccination
Journal of School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research. 2013; 11 (1): 17-28
in English, Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-161461


Current traditional research methods for solving social problems were challenged due to limited participation of community. The health companion project was carried out with the aim of determining effective model of community participation for solving health problems in Boyerahmad and Dena township. This study is a community based participatory research performed in Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad province 2005-2009.The study population was the entire rural and urban households of Boyerahmad and Dena county. The strategic committee of project including academic researchers, managers of health and health related sectors was formed and this committee selected six regions for research activities. In each region local directing group; [health companion] was established with participation of stakeholders: academic researchers, local leaders, health providers and public representatives to guide all aspects of project. The members of the group empowered and enabled by attending training workshops for need assessment, priority setting, research methodology that through these activities the health problem priorities of the regions were recognized, the research area determined and intervention programs were designed and implemented according to these research area. The most important achievement of this project is the methods of activities to reaching goals. Implementation of six participatory interventional proposal for solving health problems and needs are the other achievement. The frequency and means of health problems and their risk factors significantly reduced after the completion of intervention program in each region. Establishing and activities of health companion groups followed model of Planned Approach to Community Health [PATCH] that help community to form health promotion team, collecting and organizing of data, choosing health priorities, developing a comprehensive intervention plan and evaluation

Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences. 2012; 14 (1): 33-37
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-163153


Abdominal operations as gynaecological procedures result in gastrointestinal dysmotility. Early feeding and ambulation are nonpharmacologic interventions which can be useful in re-initiation of bowel function. This study was done to evaluate the effect of early oral hydration on the return of bowel function and woman's satisfaction after elective caesarean section in primiparous women. In this randomized clinical trial, 120 primiparous women undergone elective cesarean section were assigned to control and intervention groups in Hajar hospital, Shahrekord, Iran during 2007. In the interventional group, oral hydration with liquids was started 4 hours after surgery regardless of presence of bowel sounds and solid food was started after bowel sounds appeared. The control group recieved liquid diet 12 hours after the operation if it was tolerated, they were given soft diet and regular food at the next meal. The return of bowel activity, time of ambulating, satisfaction, discharge from the hospital and complications were compared in two groups. The data were analyzed using SPSS-15, Chi-Square, T and one way ANOVA tests. The mean postoperative time interval to first hearing of normal intestinal sounds in interventional versus control groups were [9.5 +/- 1.38 and 12.5 +/- 2.5 hours] the first passage of flatus [15.7 +/- 3.61 vs.22.4 +/- 4.1 hours], time to first sensation of bowel movement [10.8 +/- 1.99 versus 15.7 +/- 3.4 hours] and defecation [18.9 +/- 3.65 versus 23.4 +/- 4.85 hours]. These differences were significant [P<0.05]. Also discharge from the hospital [0.96 +/- 0.18 versus 1.1 +/- 34 days] were significantly shorter in interventional group [P<0.05]. The women in the early feeding group got out of bed [patient mobilisation] earlier than their interventional group [14.1 hours versus 18.8 hours [P<0.05]. Maternal satisfaction was significantly higher among the early fed women [P<0.05]. Early oral hydration after elective cesarean section associated with rapid resumption of intestinal motility and increased woman's satisfaction

Humans , Female , Fluid Therapy , Time Factors , Cesarean Section , Patient Satisfaction , Ileus/prevention & control , Postoperative Care , Treatment Outcome
Journal of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. 2012; 20 (80): 40-50
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-147657


Gastric cancer [GC] is one the most common causes of death worldwide. Despite the decreasing rate for GC in the world during recent years, it remains the most common cancer in our country, especially among men. This study aimed to assess the survival of the patients with GC and to determine the risk factors involved. A total of 400 patients with GC in the Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital, were entered in the study during 2003 - 2007. Patients were followed up through periodical referrals and hospital visits and/or phone calls. The survival time was considered as the time period from diagnosis to either death or the end of study. The effects of various risk factors such as gender, age at diagnosis, tumor site, pathologic stage, type of treatment, and tumor size were evaluated by Cox Proportional Hazard [PH] model. Data were analyzed using SPSS16 statistical software. Of the total of 400 cases studied, 303 [75.8%] were males. About one third of the patients [130; 32.5%] experienced death. The survival mean and median were 41.8 +/- 3.1 and 26 months, respectively. The percentages of one-, three-, and five-year survivals were 74%, 31% and 23%, respectively. Gender, age at diagnosis, pathologic stage, and tumor size appear to be the most significant factors affecting the survival rate among GC patients. The majority of the risk factors, affecting the survival rate in this study, were related to the delayed diagnosis. Therefore, it seems that if the cancer is diagnosed at early stages, it may lead to better prognosis

Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal. 2012; 6 (2): 65-68
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-155743


Nanoparticles are very small pieces of material that have different applications in medical fields. Nanosilver technology is a functional branch in nanotechnology. Different studies have proved antimicrobial effects and useful functions of nanosilver in biotechnology field and its specific inhibitory effects on microbes. As no exact report about antibacterial effects of these nanoparticles has been made, this study was conducted to investigate silver inhibitory effects on E.coli. Nanosilver particles at concentration of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm were inseminated on blank anti biogram discs and were placed on cultivated nutrient agar environment by 0.5 Mac Farland`s standard. Then, inhibition zone diameter was measured in the first, second, and sixth day. T-test was used to compare the average inhibition zone in control and treatment groups and the value p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. In the first day after the treatment of nanosilver particles at a concentration of 400ppm, the average inhibition zone diameter was 2.30 +/- 0.43mm in E.coli that has been increased significantly in comparison with control culture [p=0.01]. In the second day after treatment at a concentration of 400ppm, the average disc diameter was 2.48 +/- 0.39mm which shows that these values have been increased significantly in comparison with control groups [p=0.01], but they were not significantly different from the first day. Since Nonotechnology has various applications in different fields, expanding these results could be helpful in biomedical therapeutic of bacteria diseases. In conclusion, our results may provide this important insight that nanoparticles could replace many antibiotics without many side effects

Silver , Nanoparticles
Scientific and Research Journal of Army University of Medical Sciences-JAUMS. 2012; 10 (1): 72-77
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-128948


Spinal anesthesia is a route for anesthesia. In this route some drugs like Lidocaine, Procaine, Ropivacaine used. For decreasing the side effects and increasing the quality also duration of anesthesia added to the others drugs like Morphine, Sufentanil, Fentanyl and Epinephrine. This study was compared the effect of sufentanil and lidocaine to anesthesia in surgery. We selected randomly 90 patients who referred to Amir-Al-Momenin Hospital, Semnan, Iran from 21 June to 20 August 2008. The patients divided into two groups [S and L]. The S group received Lidocaine and Sufentanil and L group received Lidocaine alone. We recorded the initiation of spinal anesthesia and its duration. Also the changes in the heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure [at zero, 5, 10 and 20 minute after injection] were recorded. There were significant differences in both studied groups about some variables including; duration of spinal anesthesia [37/7 + 11/86][P< 0.001], initiation of anesthesia effect [82/7+55/64] [P=0.001], systolic blood pressure [P=0.014] and diastolic blood pressure [P=0.008]. But the other variables such as age, sex and heart rate have not any difference in two studied groups [P>0.05]. This study shows that adding of Sufentanil to Lidocaine result the increase of spinal anesthesia quality and decrease the homodynamic changes

Humans , Sufentanil , Lidocaine , Hemodynamics , Treatment Outcome
Iranian Journal of Epidemiology. 2012; 7 (4): 1-8
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-160899


Diabètes is a major heaith issue worldwide. This study evaluâtes whether a community-based participatory program may improve diabètes care in adult in west area of Yasouj. A community based participatory research was designed. A local leading group was established consisted of academie researchers, local leaders, heaith providers and public representatives. Ail the 30-65 years old residents of designated area [2569 persons] were screened for detecting diabètes; anthropometrie measurements and biochemical tests were measured. Educational interventions about improving the diet and physical activities were performed for high risk individuels through a 3-months period. Out of 2569 individuels, 1336 were at high risk. Approximately 228 persons [17%] identified having diabètes. After the intervention, the mean FBS, HbAlC, TG and cholesterol of participant significantly decreased [p<0.05], decreasing in systolic and dîastolic blood pressure and body mass index were seen however this was not statistically significant. The mean physical activity and exercise increased and consumption of frying foods, saturated oil decreased significantly. Community-Based Participatory cares could be a feasible model for control of diabètes and its risk factors

Journal of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences and Health Services [The]. 2011; 15 (3): 19-26
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-122703


Root canal therapy [RCT] is the gold standard and commonly used treatment for pulpitis. However, regarding the importance of tooth survival, pulpotomy has become of great concern. The aim of this study was to compare the RCT and vital pulp therapy treatment in teeth with irreversible pulpitis. This was a clinical trial carried out in 4 provinces of Iran including Khorasan Razavi, Tehran, Yazd, and Pars in 2008. Patients were randomly allocated into three arms: The RCT, pulpotomy with CEM, and pulpotomy with MTA. Periapical lesion and percussion test were evaluated at baseline, 6th and 12th month follow ups. Data were analyzed using marginal regression and generalized estimating equations by SAS software version 9.1. The odds ratio of periapical lesion in RCT group was 5.07 times higher than that of pulpotomy with MTA and 3.25 times higher than CEM cement group [P<.001]. The difference between MTA and CEM cement groups was insignificant, statistically. Also, the odds ratio of percussion test failed to show any statistically significant difference in treatment group. In addition, neither the age nor the gender influenced the percussion test and periapical lesion responses, statistically. Regarding the data found in our study, Pulpotomy can be considered as an alternative treatment for RCT

Humans , Root Canal Therapy , Pulpotomy , Treatment Outcome
Journal of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences [The]. 2011; 15 (1): 21-25
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-110204


Regarding the undesirable effects of anxiety on physiologic indexes of human body and development of post-surgery intensified symptoms, attempt to reduce the degree of anxiety is of prime necessity. The goal of this study was to study the effect of two verbal and audio methods of training on patient's anxiety before surgery. This was an empirical study carried out at Imam Khomeini Medical Center in Sari [Iran] during 2009-2010. Three groups of patients, each group consisting of 35 individuals were included in the study. Samples were taken through accessibility while grouping was made completely at random. The research tools were demographic questionnaires, checklist for vital signs as well as characteristics anxiety questionnaires. The results showed significant differences between the two test groups and also the control group in terms of anxiety levels and their conditions two hours before operation [P=0.03]. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the group under verbal education two hours before operation was 17.2 +/- 2 and 8.6 +/- 1 cmHg, and in group trained with handout 18.9 +/- 1 and 8.9 +/- 1 cmHg, respectively. There was a significant difference between two test and control groups. Based on results found through this study, it is suggested that at the time a patient is admitted to anesthesia clinic, in addition to routine examinations, some verbal education should be given to lower the unwanted and harmful physiological effects of anxiety which provides a better ground for risk free post-operation recovery for patient

Humans , Verbal Learning , Anxiety/prevention & control , Random Allocation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Case-Control Studies , Anesthesia Department, Hospital
Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences. 2011; 16 (4): 50-59
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-162951


Today, chlorine is the most common material used for effluent disinfection. Chlorination is an established and effective method for effluent disinfection. But the use of chlorine for disinfection of effluent due to several major concerns should be reassessed. The aim of this study was to compare long-term benefits and costs of chlorination/de chlorination with those of UV by pilot studies. This pilot study consisted of pre-treatment units clarification and filtration systems with two types of low pressure and medium pressure UV lamps designed and installed at the wastewater treatment plant in the north of Isfahan. Medium pressure UV systems with dose of 230 mw.s/cm2 for disinfection of filtered effluent with SOR of 1090 lit/ is more economical than a low pressure system and chlorination/dechlorination process and has the least environmental and health adverse effects. In wastewater treatment plants use of UV disinfection technology should be considered in preference to chlorination, especially if the dechlorination of chlorinated effluent is required. Before application of this system pilot studies on actual effluent at plant sites are required

Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences. 2011; 18 (1): 55-66
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-180020


Background and Purpose: Human health largely depends on health-related physical fitness status, particularly overweight and under weight. In this regard, the adolescence is a unique life span. However, the information about adolescent's physical fitness is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was the investigation of health-related physical fitness elements with an emphasis on overweight and underweight in male adolescents in Sabzevar, Iran

Materials and methods: In the cross sectional descriptive and analytical study, the study population consisted of schoolboy students with the age of 12-14 years old in Sabzevar, Iran. Based on sample size calculation formula, a number of 368 schoolboys of 12-14 years-old were selected based on randomized cluster sampling. After medical examinations and filling out the written informed consent forms, anthropometric factors and physical fitness were assessed [height, weight, aerobic fitness with 20- meter shuttle run, strength via dynamometer, explosive power via Sergeant jump, flexibility via flexibility box, agility via Illinois test, and body Composition via skin-fold fat caliper and subcutaneous fat thickness. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5 using central tendency, dispersion and Pearson Correlation coefficient [P<0.05]

Results: The results of the study, based on BMI, indicated that 17.7% were thin, 69.2% normal, 9.2% overweight and 3.7% were obese. Also, based on WHR, 11.1% were at a high risk, and 5.7% were very high-risk cases. Based on the fat percentage, 13.9% had much fat and 13# very high fat. Mean VO2max of the 12-14-year-old schoolboys in Sabzevar was obtained to be 50.6 [ml/kg/min], which indicates that 10% of the boys had aerobic fitness lower than the average in comparison with reference values

Conclusion: The study findings showed that considerable percentage of Sabzevar adolescents suffer from overweight on the one hand and underweight on the other. Physical fitness status in some factors is not desirable too

Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences. 2011; 18 (3): 166-171
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-180034


Background and Purpose: Microbial, physical and chemical irritants may lead to dental pulp inflammation. For irreversible pulpitis, root canal therapy is the only option. In these situations, vital pulp therapy is usually uncomplicated and inexpensive. The main aim of the present study was comparing three different treatments of dental pulp inflammation, including root canal therapy and pulpotomy. Since there were missing data in the 6 and 12 months follow-ups, the missing mechanism was considered in data analysis process

Methods and Materials: In this clinical trial, 615 patients were randomly allocated into three arms: RCT [n=203], pulpotomy with CEM cement [n=205], and with MTA [n=207]. The presence of periapical lesion in the baseline, 6th and 12th month was assessed radiographically. After evaluating the mechanism of the missing data, weighted generalized estimating equations [WGEE] methodology was utilized for the analysis of data. To do this, the SAS software, version 9.1 was used

Results: The success rate of pulpotomy with MTA in 6 and 12 months follow-up was 96% and 95%, respectively. These rates were 92% and 93% for pulpotomy with CEM. Additionally, the success rate of root canal therapy was 78% and 82% in the above mentioned follow-up periods respectively, which indicate the significant superiority of pulpotomy with MTA and CEM over RCT [P<0.05]; but no significant difference was found between MTA and CEM success rates. Presence rate of periapical lesion were 8%, 4% and 22% of CEM, MTA and RCT groups, respectively, in six months follow-up. These figures were 7%, 5% and 18% respectively, in one-year follow-up; however, no significant difference was observed between the two pulpotomy methods, but the difference was significant for pulpotomy techniques and RCT [P<0.05]. Also, the effect of age and sex on periapical lesion were not significant [P>0.05]

Conclusion: Results of multiple statistical modeling on comparing the success rate of three therapies indicated that pulpotomy using two biomaterials [CEM and MTA] seems to be more successful than the traditional RCT

Journal of Shaheed Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. 2010; 18 (3): 191-198
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-145055


Overcoming social problems requires a participatory approach. This study was performed in order to determine the effect of community based educational prevention program of drug abuse in reduction of high risk behavior. This study was a community based participatory research. According to planned approach to community health model, "the health companion group" was established with participation of public representatives of villages, researchers, and managers of health sectors. Need assessment and priority setting of health problems was done. Drug abuse was selected as the topmost priority of health problems. By interviewing 10 year olds and older members of households, the questionnaires were completed. By conducting workshops, distributing educational pamphlets and face to face training for six months, the educational program was carried out. After this period, the study population was interviewed again. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, X2, and T tests. The mean score of drug abuse related high risk behavior was 26.8 +/- 2.05 before educational program and 25.2 +/- 2.3 after the program. The mean score of psychological health was 26.2 +/- 5.8 before educational program and 26.4 +/- 5.7 after the program. The rate of negative drug abusing related behavior decreased and positive behavior increased after the educational program. The community based participatory research with participation of the public can be a proper pattern to prevent drug abuse and related high risk behaviors and as a result reduce costs and complications of this problem

Humans , Substance-Related Disorders , Drug Users , Education , Health Planning
Feyz-Journal of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. 2010; 14 (4): 439-446
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-104870


Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] is the main cause of hospital infection. The aim of present study was to investigate the molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus [SA], to detect mecA gene, and to type SCCmec in the strains isolated from patients at Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital. This descriptive study was carried out on SA isolates [n=150] collected from the clinical samples at Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Iran during 2009. The identification of all tested isolates were confirmed using Gram's stain, coagulase, DNase and manitol salt agar. In addition, the genotypes of SCCmec in the MRSA isolates were determined by multiplex PCR. Eighty seven [58%] out of 150 SA isolates were confirmed as MRSA harboring mecA gene detected by PCR. Thirty four out of 87 [39.1%] were HA-MRSA and the remainig 53 [60.9%] were CA-MRSA. The multiplex PCR assay for SCCmec complex of MRSA strains [n=87] showed that 3[3.4%] samples were SCCmec type I, 12[13.8%] SCCmec type II, 8[9.2]% SCCmec type IVb, 4[4.6%] SCCmec type IVd and 3[3.4%] SCCmec type V. More than 50% of SA strains were positive for mecA gene and more than 60% of them were CA-MRSA. Moreover, SCCmec type II was the predominant strain of the identified MRSA

Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences. 2010; 15 (3): 89-98
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-122317


Groundwater pollution due to leakage and penetration of leachate containing variety of compounds and contaminants is a problem in landfill sites that leads to diverse healthy and environmental problems. The purpose of this study was to assess groundwater chemical pollution in downstream regions of Sanandaj landfill. In this study, 5 wells near the landfill were selected. Water samples were obtained 6 times in spring and summer, and different parameters such as hardness, alkalinity, turbidity, COD, PO4, NO3, TDS, pH and EC were measured by standard methods and the results were compared with those of control wells and standards of drinking and agricultural water. Results of this investigation showed the chemical parameters in water of surveyed wells, compared with those in water of control wells and standards of drinking water, were higher and showed significant differences [p<0.05]. But, most of these parameters in surveyed wells were lower than those of standards of agricultural water. The water of the wells of the study area due to the high values of most of the chemical parameters measured is not potable, but can not be used in agriculture. Therefore fundamental and continuous monitoring of groundwater resources in this area is necessary to prevent contamination of water and soil resources

Groundwater , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Waste Management
Scientific and Research Journal of Army University of Medical Sciences-JAUMS. 2010; 7 (4): 256-260
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-123650


Tonsillectomy is the most frequent major procedure performed in children in the world. Patients may experience postoperative pain, vomiting, halitosis, trismus, weight lose and bleeding during their post surgical recovery, so preoperative steroid administration might be useful in decreasing postoperative symptoms in patients. This study performed on 50 patients. In case group after induction with halotan and nitrous oxide children received 1mg/kg to a maximum 25mg dexamethason prior to surgical procedure and in control group administered a single dose of distilled water. Episodes of PONV were recorded for the first 24h after operation. Results analysed with the software of SPSS Version 12. The prevalence of vomiting in case group at the recovery was 0% but in control group was 21.7% one time and 4.3% two times. There wasn't a significant relationship in PO time between both groups [P<0.005]. Vomiting in outpatient of case group were 85.2% no time, 11.1% one times, 3.7% three times and in control group 43.5% no time, 39.1% one time, 8.7% three times, 8.7% three times. The incidence and severity of PONV in the first 24 h were significantly less in the dexamethason group than in placebo group

Humans , Vomiting/prevention & control , Tonsillectomy , Preoperative Care , Child , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting
Journal of Army University of Medical Sciences of the I.R.Iran. 2009; 7 (3): 228-240
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-125417


Considering the increasing prevalence of HCV in diabetes type 2 and chronic and progressive nature of HCV infection to cirrhosis and hepato_cellular tumors, we aimed to determine the frequency of HCV infection in diabetes type 2 in order to diagnose and treat these patients as soon as possible. Essential information gathered by prepared check list from diabetic type two patients admitted at endocrinology institute of Firuzgar hospital in a year [from June 2007 to June 2008]. From patients agreed to enroll in this study, blood samples got for detecting HCV Ab and FBS, lipid profile and HCV infection risk factors, also Blood pressure measured in all as well. Results analyzed by the SPSS. Totally 235 diabetes type 2 enrolled in our study with mean age of 60.8 +/- 10 [42-78] years old, most of them were females 146[62.1%]. The mean duration of diabetes was 9.5 +/- 7.7 years. The prevalence of HCV infection risk factors were as follow: surgery history 139 [59.1%], blood transfusion 39 [16.6%], dentistry procedures 175 [74.5%], positive family for HCV infection 30 [12.8%]. Finally, no HCV infection found among our patients, so as expected no association is observed between HCV infection and diabetes duration and various levels of HbA1C. In the present study, no HCV infection reported among our patients which is congruent with another study in Iran. It seems that geographical distribution of various HLA and prevalence of HCV infection in a region are important factors for finding any relationships between HCV infection and diabetes incidence

Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Male , Female , Prevalence , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Incidence