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Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-846916


Salacca zalacca (Gaertn.) Voss (family Arecaceae) is the snake fruit commonly known in Malay language as salak in Malaysia. This exotic fruit has diverse and potential pharmacological properties due to its high antioxidant content. It is often consumed due to its sweet taste. The abundant natural sugar and fibre along with minerals and vitamin makes it a nutritious fruit. Phytochemical investigation on this fruit has revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenolics, glycosides as well as some volatile and aromatic compounds, including gallic acid, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, proanthocyanidins, lycopene and β-carotene. Pharmacological studies on the fruit flesh and peel have shown some tremendous antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antidiabetic potential. This review provides the botanical information of Salacca zalacca as well as its scientific investigations involving the distinct pharmacological and phytochemical benefits. This could help in highlighting the lacking data and research gaps on this plant.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820309


Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the seven neglected endemic zoonoses targeted by the World Health Organization. It is considered a common infection of the nervous system caused by the Taenia solium and is known to be the primary cause of preventable epilepsy in many developing countries. NCC is commonly resulted by the ingestion of Taenia solium eggs after consuming undercooked pork, or contaminated water. The parasite can grow in the brain and spinal cord within the nervous system, causing severe headache and seizures beside other pathological manifestations. Immigration and international travel to endemic countries has made this disease common in the United States. NCC can be diagnosed with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. The treatment of the NCC including cysticidal drugs (e.g., albendazole and praziquantel), and neurosurgical procedure, depending upon the situation. A patient of Asian origin came to our clinic with complaints of dizziness, headaches and episodes seizures for the past twelve years without proper diagnosis. The computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans indicated multilobulated cystic mass in the brain with the suspicion of neurocysticercosis.

MJEM-Mediterranean Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2015; (23): 33-41
in English, French | IMEMR | ID: emr-184886


Ophthalmological emergencies are of diverse etiology and severity while warning signs are less diverse. In front of cardinal signs that are redness, pain and impaired vision, it is necessary for emergency physician to structure the diagnostic process. Some of these situations require an urgent ophthalmologic care as in acute angle-closure glaucoma or endophthalmitis. The neuro-ophtalmic emergencies, in turn, must be imperatively identified because of the vital risk involved. The emergency physician will be able to, through appropriate interrogation, optimize patient care and to refer him to the ophthalmologist based on level of appropriate emergency. In case of experience and suitable equipment, he will also carry out a slit-lamp examination that will help him detect the most obvious defects and in some cases to achieve an adapted treatment such as extraction of a foreign body from cornea or under eyelid

Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences. 2015; 19 (3): 1084-1090
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-185399


Background and objective: Community medicine is an important discipline for medical students who are going to be future doctors and deal with different health problems. Community Medicine is taught in 3[rd], 4[th] and 6[th] year of study at Hawler College of Medicine. The aim of the study was to explore students' perception about this subject because it plays an important role in determining educational outcome

Methods: This study was carried out in Hawler College of Medicine, Erbil city, Iraqi Kurdistan Region in the academic year 2013-2014. It was based on a self-administered questionnaire survey of 4th year students. The questionnaire consisted of closed and open ended questions related to the attitude of students toward community medicine course, views on the positive and negative aspects and recommendations to improve the course. The quantitative data were analysed through using the statistical package for the social sciences [version 19], while qualitative data analysis comprised thematic analysis of open-ended questions using common coding techniques

Results: The result of this study suggested that high percentage of the students had positive attitude toward the course. Sixty-six respondents [55.4%] mentioned that there are positive aspects in the course like research project [33.3.1%], having respectful and friendly teachers [31.8%] and participation of students in discussions in the classroom. Sixty-six respondents [55.4%] mentioned that there are negative aspects in the course like short duration of the course [27.2%] and some topics were repeated from other years. Fifty-seven respondents [47.8 %] have recommended a number of priorities for improving the quality of the course like: increasing practical sessions with more student participation [36.8%]; decreasing theoretical lectures [22.8%] and the time for the research should be isolated without lectures [19.2%]

Conclusion: Community medicine course is well perceived by the students with some negative aspects. Some recommendations have been made for improving the quality of the course

Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics [The]. 2015; 16 (1): 35-40
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-161665


Apelin is an adipokine that was identified to play a role in the control of glucose homeostasis. Apelin rs2235306 gene polymorphism was linked to insulin resistance and poor glycemic control. To assess the relation of apelin rs2235306 polymorphism with metabolic syndrome and its component traits in Egyptian women from Suez Canal area. The study included 100 metabolic syndrome patients and 100 healthy female subjects. The component traits of metabolic syndrome were determined and the genotypes of the polymorphisms were assessed using tetra amplification refractory mutation system polymer-ase chain reaction [T-ARMS-PCR] technique. There was no significant difference in the allele frequencies between the metabolic syndrome and control groups [P = 0.841]. There was also no association of the different genotypes of this polymorphism with any of the component traits of metabolic syndrome. Apelin rs2235306 polymorphism is not associated with the incidence of metabolic syndrome in the studied population

Journal of the Arab Society for Medical Research. 2015; 10 (1): 1-8
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-166988


Worldwide, more than half of all unintended pregnancies end in abortion, indicating the preference for increasingly smaller families. The present work aimed to assess the determinants of unintended pregnancy and its impact on women's health in El Fayoum and Benisuef governorates. A community-based cross-sectional household survey was conducted among 827 married women of reproductive age. The study was conducted in two governorates, El Fayoum and Benisuef, for a period of 6 months. The current study revealed that 15.9% of women who participated in the study had an unmet need for family planning, with subsequent unintended pregnancy. Higher age of women and her age at the time of marriage, illiteracy, short interpregnancy spacing, exceeding the desired number of children, negative attitude of husbands toward the use of family planning methods, and absence of discussion between partners on the use of means to postpone pregnancy increased the number of unintended pregnancies. Also, women with unintended pregnancy were at a higher risk of experiencing health problems during her pregnancy. Despite the efforts taken by family planners, the problem of unintended pregnancy continues to increase in Egypt, with its adverse effect on pregnancy and maternal outcomes. Therefore, the strategy for maternal mortality reduction in Egypt should focus on addressing the unmet needs of high-parity, uneducated, nonworking women

Journal of the Arab Society for Medical Research. 2015; 10 (1): 9-17
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-166989


Awareness towards the symptoms of obstetric complications will lead to timely access to appropriate emergency obstetric care. The aim of the study was to assess and compare the awareness towards obstetric danger symptoms among never-pregnant and ever-pregnant women and to identify predictors of their awareness as a measure for the need to promote a preconceptional educational program in Egypt. This study was conducted in selected villages of Alfayoum and Benisuef governorates as a comparative study between 173 newly married never-pregnant women and 827 ever-pregnant women who were randomly targeted by a structured interview during a period of 8 months. The questionnaire included personal data, social data, and data related to awareness of obstetric danger symptoms, complications, and action taken on having any of these symptoms. The scoring system was designed for women's awareness, with one degree allocated for a correct answer. The study revealed that the percent of women who gained a score of knowledge of at least 50% was higher among ever-pregnant women than among never-pregnant women [43.9 and 19.1%, respectively]. Although bleeding is the highest reported cause for obstetric complications and is one of the reported causes of maternal deaths in the studied villages, only 26.6 and 20.2% of the never pregnant and 43.9 and 34.3% of the ever pregnant groups, respectively, knew that bleeding is a danger symptom during delivery and the postnatal period. Meanwhile, better awareness about obstetric danger symptoms and exposure to health educational messages was significantly higher among ever-pregnant women [OR = 3.08 and 2.28, respectively] [P < 0.001]. This study reflects the need for intensifying antenatal health educational messages given to pregnant women and the need for the implementation of preconceptional health education programs

SDJ-Saudi Dental Journal [The]. 2015; 27 (4): 201-207
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-173304


Objective: This study aimed to evaluate stress patterns generated within implantsupported mandibular overdentures retained by two different attachment types: ball and socket and locator attachments

Materials and methods: Commercial CAD/CAM and finite element analysis software packages were utilized to construct two 3D finite element models for the two attachment types. Unilateral masticatory compressive loads of 50, 100, and 150 N were applied vertically to the overdentures, parallel to the longitudinal axes of the implants. Loads were directed toward the central fossa in the molar region of each overdenture, that linear static analysis was carried out to find the generated stresses and deformation on each part of the studied model

Results: According to FEA results the ball attachment neck is highly stressed in comparison to the locator one. On the other hand mucosa and cortical bone received less stresses under ball and socket attachment

Conclusions: Locator and ball and socket attachments induce equivalent stresses on bone surrounding implants. Locator attachment performance was superior to that of the ball and socket attachment in the implants, nylon caps, and overdenture. Locator attachments are highly recommended and can increase the interval between successive maintenance sessions

SQUMJ-Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal. 2015; 15 (3): 360-367
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-169558


This study aimed to assess risky driving behaviours among medical students in Erbil, Iraq, and to explore the relationship between risky driving behaviours and perceptions of risky driving. This self-administered questionnaire-based survey was conducted from January to May 2014 among a random sample of 400 medical students at Hawler Medical University in Erbil. The questionnaire was designed to assess the frequency of engagement in 21 risky driving behaviours, the perceived risk of each behaviour and the preference for each behaviour as ranked on a 5-point scale. A total of 386 students responded to the survey [response rate: 96.5%]. Of these, 211 reported that they currently drove a vehicle [54.7%]. Drivers most frequently engaged in the following behaviours: playing loud music [35.9%], speeding [30.4%], allowing front seat passengers to not wear seat belts [27.9%] and using mobile phones [27.7%]. Least frequent driving behaviours included not stopping at a red light [3.9%], driving while sleepy [4.4%], driving after a mild to moderate intake of alcohol [4.5%] and drunk driving [6.4%]. Mean risky driving behaviour scores were significantly higher among males [P <0.001] and those who owned a car [P = 0.002]. The mean risk perception score was higher among >20-year-olds [P = 0.028]. There was a significant positive relationship between the preference for risky behaviours and risky driving behaviours [beta = 0.44; P <0.001]. Medical students in Erbil reported high frequencies of several serious risky driving behaviours. The preference for risky behaviours was found to be an important predictor of risky driving behaviours among medical students in Erbil

Assiut Medical Journal. 2014; 38 (2): 9-30
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-160283


The hypothalamus is a distinct neurological entity concerned with a variety of regulatory processes. Recently, the prescence of variations in the level of neurosecretions wth the progress of age was reported. To study the changes in the structure of magnocellular neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei during the period of postnatal development. Furthermore, to study the changes which occurred in the structure of these neurons in the old age had been studied. A total of 52 albino rats were used. The age groups of the animals include: one day, 10 days, 20 days, 2 months and 2 years old animals. Brains were processed to be studied with Einarson's gallocyanin-chrome alum stain, Golgi- Cox method and transmission electron microscope. In addition, the number of cells in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei were measured in all studied age groups and statistically analyzed. In the newly born rats, the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei were composed of small rounded condensed cells. At the age of 10 days old rats, the paraventricular nucleus appeared to be well differentiated into ventromedial [parvocellular] and dorsolateral [magnocellular] parts. With the progress of age from 10 days up to the adult stage, the cells of the supraoptic nucleus and the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus appeared to be densely stained which indicated increase in the Nissl granules. Ultrastructural study showed that the cells had abundant amount of free ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. The nucleus had fine dispersed chromatin. Golgi-Cox study showed marked increase in extension and branching of dendrites with the progress of age during the developmental period. Morphometric study showed significant increase in the number of cells from the new born up to the adult stage. In old aged rats, the cells of the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus appeared to be faintly stained. Some cells had vacuolated cytoplasm. Ultrastructural study showed marked decrease in the free ribosomes and the presence of many lipofuscin pigment in the cytoplasm of cells. The nucleus showed chromatin condensation and irregularity of the nuclear membrane. In addition, there was apparent decrease in the amount of the synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminals making contacts with the magnocellular neurons. Golgi-Cox study revealed marked decrease in the extension and branching of dentrites. Morphometric analysis showed significant decrease in the number of cells. This study demonstrated in the presence of structural changes in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus during the period of development. In old age, the presence of many degenerative changes was observed. This cytoarchitectonic analysis and morphological study could help in the explanation of the functional differences in the various ages

Animals, Laboratory , Hypothalamus, Anterior/physiology , Midline Thalamic Nuclei/physiology , Aging , Cellular Senescence , Rats/growth & development
MJEM-Mediterranean Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2014; (21): 32-37
in French | IMEMR | ID: emr-183880


Ocular burns are a common emergency situation where the cooperation between the emergency physician and ophthalmologist is essential for evaluation and for optimum treatment of patient. A prompt and appropriate management will allow minim functional sequelae that can be very disabling. Knowledge of the causative agents, well-performed clinical examination and efficient eyewash are needed before more specialized treatments are considered

Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis [The]. 2014; 63 (1): 145-153
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-154307


The safety and quality of the administration of medications by nurses raise the opportunity to study risk factors such as circadian rhythm sleep disorders, fatigue, and depression. This study was conducted to explore the extent of nurses' circadian rhythm sleep disorders, fatigue, and depression and their impact on medication administration errors. Both approval from the hospital ethics committee and formal patient consent were obtained. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted using a demographic data sheet, a depression scale [CES-D], a modified fatigue severity scale, a medication errors observation sheet and an AASM two week sleep diary. The average number of medication errors per nurse per shift was 1.40 +/- 2. [Wrong time [and] wrong rate] were the most frequent medication errors [23.1% each]. About half [51.9%] of the nurses reported deficient sleep hours. Medication errors were negatively correlated with average working hours and positively correlated with depression score; errors peaked with irregular shift work patterns and irregular night sleep patterns in nurses with more than 4 night shifts in the preceding 2 weeks. Fatigue was significantly correlated with total depression score and significantly associated with deficient sleep hours. Additionally, the depression score was significantly affected by irregular sleep patterns. There were significant relationships between sleep medication intake and medication errors, depression, and fatigue. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that the independent predictors of medication errors were the number of patients under the nurses' direct care and the depression score of the nurses. Medication administration errors, fatigue and depression were all significantly affected by circadian sleep disorders. An administration's control of work flow to provide convenient sleep hours will help in improving sleep circadian rhythms and consequently minimize these problems

Humans , Male , Female , Fatigue/diagnosis , Depression/drug therapy , Medication Errors/adverse effects , Body Mass Index , Hospitals, University
Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis [The]. 2014; 63 (1): 259-265
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-154322


Chronic hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection is associated with both pulmonary involvement and cryoglobulinemia. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between pulmonary involvement and mixed cryoglobulinemia in chronic HCV infected patients and to investigate the role of TNF-alpha in the pathogenesis of pulmonary changes. After hospital ethics committee approval and formal patient consent were obtained, 100 patients with compensated hepatitis C virus infection as confirmed by PCR were recruited in this cross sectional study. Their demographic and laboratory data, abdominal ultrasound findings, pulmonary function tests [spirometry], arterial blood gas [ABG] parameters, TNF-alpha levels, and data from high-resolution chest CT were collected and analyzed using SPSS version 16, and a serum cryoglobulin assay was performed in all of the studied patients The prevalence of mixed cryoglobulinemia was 61.7% in the studied HCV patients. Pulmonary symptoms were observed in more than half of these patients. The most common complaint among the symptomatic patients was dyspnea [51.7%], followed by cough [43.3%]. Oxygen saturation [Spo[2] and Sao[2]%], and FEVi and FVC levels, were significantly decreased in the cryoglob-ulin positive patients compared to the cryoglobulin negative patients. A statistically significant correlation was found between the presence of cryoglobulins and FEV level, FVC level, serum albumin level, viremia level, thrombocytopenia and arterial blood gas parameters. No correlation was found between cryoglobulinemia and TNF-alpha level. The results of this study suggest that pulmonary involvement is common in patients with chronic HCV infection and mixed cryoglobulinemia. Cryoglobulinemia may lead to pulmonary involvement through vascular and interstitial deposition of cryoglobulins, which results in impaired gas exchange and airway affection

Chronic Disease , Cryoglobulinemia/blood , Prevalence , Pulmonary Gas Exchange , Liver Function Tests , Respiratory Function Tests , alpha-Fetoproteins , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hospitals, University
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2014; 44 (1): 79-96
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-154431


A zoonosis is an animal disease that is transmissible to humans. Humans are usually an accidental host that acquires disease through close contact with an infected animal, who may or may not be symptomatic. Children are at highest risk for infection because they are more likely to have close contact with pets. Pets are responsible for transmission of an extensive array of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic zoonotic pathogens. The route of transmission can be through the saliva [e.g., bites or contaminated scratches], feces, respiratory secretions, direct contact, or by the animal acting as a vehicle and source of tick or flea exposure. Although pets have been implicated in transmission of zoonoses to their owners, risk of transmission from contact with pets is low and may be further reduced by simple precautions

Animals , Pets/parasitology , Horses/parasitology , Equidae/parasitology , Escherichia coli , Salmonella Infections , Salmonella/microbiology , Salmonella/complications , Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data
IPMJ-Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2013; 12 (4): 551-561
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138037


Growing evidence indicates that serum Anti-mullerian hormone [AMH] levels could be of great importance for understanding the relationship with oocyte quality for IVF. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of serum level of AMH in differentiation of infertile female patients with good quality oocytes, who are good responder and ready to enter the IVF cycles. This study included 25 infertile females classified into two groups: [15] females with Tubal obstruction and 10 females with polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS]. Also, nineteen fertile females were served as controls. Investigation included serum measurements of AMH, Inhibin B, FSH, LH, E2, Prolactin and TSH on day 3 of previous menstrual cycle, serum measurement of progesterone [P4] on day 21 of previous menstrual cycle [before starting ovulation induction]. Also AMH, Inhibin B and E2 were measured on day of hCG administration [after long ovulation protocol]. The mean [ +/- SD] value of serum AMH was significantly decreased in female patients after ovarian stimulation protocol compared to that before ovarian stimulation,[P< 0.01]. Also, the mean [ +/- SD] value of serum AMH of female patients with good quality oocyte was significantly higher than that of those with bad quality oocyte, [P<0.01]. This study revealed that measurement of serum AMH is good marker in prediction of good responder infertile females for IVF technique after ovarian stimulation protocol

Humans , Female , Anti-Mullerian Hormone/blood , Infertility, Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Fallopian Tube Diseases , Oocytes , Treatment Outcome
Smile Dental Journal. 2013; 8 (4): 26-29
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-136466


The aim of this study was to compare enamel shear bond strength to resin composite following preparation with a carbide bur, fine diamond bur, or erbium doped, yttrium-aluminium-garnet [Er:YAG] laser. Forty-eight human anterior teeth, randomly assigned to each preparation group, were studied. Each tooth was mounted in self-curing acrylic resin with the desirable flat facial surface exposed and was randomly assigned to 3 groups according to surface preparation: Er:YAG laser irradiation, carbide bur, or fine-grit diamond bur. A polypropylene cylinder was fixed to the prepared surface, which was demarcated for the area to be bonded with the single bonding system. Restorative composite was then incrementallyinserted into the tubing lumens. The teeth were shear tested to failure at a crosshead speed of 1.0mm/minute. One-way ANOVA and the Tukey test were used for analysis. The mean bond strength values were as follows: fine diamond bur, 23.88MPa; carbide bur, 13.28 MPa; and Er:YAG laser, 12.61 MPa. Different enamel preparation methods affect the shear bond strength between enamel and resin composite

AJM-Alexandria Journal of Medicine. 2013; 36 (1): 31-47
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-170532


Certain oils and surfactants were screened to select the most suitable ones for the preparation of microemulsions. Labrafil M 1944 CS, Labrafil M 2125 CS and Capryol 90 were selected as oils while Tween 80 was selected as a surfactant. Tween 80 was mixed with n-butanol [n-Bu] at different w/w ratios [K[m]] 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 as surfactant to cosurfactant [S/CoS] respectively. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using the selected oils [Labrafil M 1944 CS, Labrafil M 2125 CS and Capryol 90] with the different K[m] ratios. Microemulsion formulations were prepared using Labrafil M 1944 CS, Tween 80 and n-Bu with K[m] 2:1. The physicochemical characteristics involving viscosity, refractive index [RI], conductivity and pH were determined for these systems. In addition, the solubility of acyclovir in the prepared microemulsion systems [MEs] was measured. Acyclovir was incorporated to three MEs [ME[10], ME[50] and ME[80]] representing three different regions in the phase diagram; water in oil [w/o], bicontinuous [Bc] and oil in water [o/w] respectively. All of the prepared formulations were subjected to thermodynamic stability studies. The droplets size, polydispersity index [PDI] and zetapotential [ZP] of both before and after drug incorporation were determined. Acyclovir release from drug loaded MEs was determined and the kinetic of the release data was calculated. The conductivity and viscosity results proved the presence of three regions in the phase diagram [w/o, Bc and o/w]. The refractive index showed that the prepared MEs were transparent and isotropic. All the formulations were thermodynamically stable. The droplet size of drug loaded MEs was higher than that of corresponding unloaded ones but all have droplet size in nano range. PDI was found to be less than 0.5 and ZP in the range of-0.101 to 2.5 mV. Release of acyclovir from ME[80] [0.1, 1.99, 17.98 and 79.92 w/w for acyclovir, oil, S/CoS and water respectively] was the highest among the other ones, Model of non-Fickian "anomalous" transport release was the mechanism of drug release from the selected MEs. In conclusion, stable isotropic microemulsion systems using Labrafil M 1944 CS, Tween 80 and n-butanol as oil, surfactant and cosurfactant respectively with K[m] 2:1 could be formulated. The viscosity and electric conductivity results proved the presence of three areas; w/o, Bc and o/w in phase diagram. Acyclovir could be loaded into different microemulsion systems. The percent drug release increased by increasing the water content of microemulsion

Antiviral Agents , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Surface-Active Agents
IJVM-Iranian Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2013; 7 (1): 51-56
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-161331


Abortion is one of the most important factors reducing lambing rate and consequently profitability of sheep farms. In addition to financial losses, it is also important from a zoonotic point of view. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial abortifacient agents in an outbreak of abortion occurring in Afshari sheep in the northwest of Zanjan province. Vaginal swab samples were collected from 217 Afshari ewes [129 samples were taken from aborted ewes, 3 samples from ewes with crippled and deformed lambs, and 85 samples from animals that had given birth to healthy lambs] from reported flocks involved in outbreak. Swabs were examined by PCR assay to detect DNA from Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila abortus, Salmonellaenterica, Yersiniaenterocolitica, Campylobacter fetus, Brucella ovis and Leptospira interrogans. Based on the results, only DNA of Campylobacter was detected in the samples. A 266 bp fragment specific for Campylobacter was amplified from 51.52% and 34.12% samples belonging to aborted and non-aborted ewes, respectively. Significant presence of the bacterium in aborted ewes [p<0.001] compared to the non-aborted groups with odd ratio of 3, emphasizes that Campylobacter could be involved in the outbreak of the abortion. Considering the importance of the disease, prophylactic measures are needed to reduce the disease. However, further investigations are required to determine the impact of this bacterium in prevalence of abortion in sheep in other areas

Journal of Family and Community Medicine. 2013; 20 (1): 27-34
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-130201


The objective of the study was to examine maternal complications that occur during the third trimester and their neonatal outcome in Arab women residing in Qatar. This is a prospective hospital-based study. The survey was carried out in women's hospital. The study was based on the log book of the women's hospital, from which we recruited women in their third trimester of pregnancy between the first week of January 2010 and April 2011. Of the 1824 Arab women who were approached to participate in the study, 1432 [78.5%] consented. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with the pregnant women in the third trimester attending routine antenatal clinics at a women's hospital. The questionnaire covered variables related to sociodemographic factors, family history, medical history, maternal complications, and neonatal outcome. Medical records of the patients were referred to collect the clinical variables. Of the pregnant women studied, 39.8% were less than 30 years of age. The risk of maternal complications was higher in housewives [60.8%] and women with a low monthly household income [38.2%]. Most of the pregnant women [77.6%] had antenatal care. Normal delivery [69.7%] was more common in expatriate Arab women, whereas caesarean was more prevalent in Qatari women [22.2%]. Women aged 35 years or older had a significantly higher risk of maternal complications such as gestational diabetes [20.8% vs 13.4%; P < 0.01], gestational hypertension [21.6% vs 15.2%; P = 0.003], and ante-partum hemorrhage [17.9% vs 13.7%; P = 0.042] than younger women. Gestational diabetes increased the risk of caesarean delivery [25.1%] and macrosomia [42.3%]. The frequency of caesarean delivery [22.1%] was higher in women with gestational hypertension. Neonatal complications such as Apgar score [<7] 1 minute [33.1% vs 21.2%; P < 0.001], 5 minutes [13.1% vs 8.2%; P = 0.005], and congenital anomalies [2.9% vs 0.9%; P = 0.007] were significantly higher in newborns of older women. Low birth weight [11.1%] and Apgar 1[st] minute < 7 rate [28.2%] were higher in newborns of mothers with ante-partum hemorrhage. The study findings revealed that maternal complications such as gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, ante-partum hemorrhage, and maternal anemia were significantly higher in older pregnant women. Similarly, neonatal complications were higher in the newborns of older women. Gestational hypertension was the leading maternal complication observed in Arab women

Humans , Female , Pregnancy Complications/etiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Developing Countries , Cesarean Section , Arabs , Prevalence
KMJ-Kuwait Medical Journal. 2012; 44 (1): 20-25
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-118240


To examine the microbiology of vaginal discharge and to estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and its association with sexually transmitted infections in a cohort of non-pregnant women in Kuwait. Retrospective study conducted during a six-month period [November 2009 - April 2010]. The gynecology outpatient clinic at the South Ardyia Health Unit, Farwania, Kuwait. Retrospective evaluation of medical records of 668 women, who attended the gynecology outpatient clinic at the South Ardyia Clinic, Farwania, Kuwait complaining of vaginal discharge during the study period. Retrospective review of the files for complaints, history, clinical examination and investigations of the vaginal discharge. A retrospective microbiological study of the infective etiology of vaginal discharge, the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and its association with sexually transmitted infections. Microbiological causes of vaginal discharge accounted for 43.4% of cases. The commonest causes were bacterial vaginosis [prevalence = 18.9%] and candida infections [prevalence = 11.8%]. There was no significant association of bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted infections. Bacterial vaginosis is the commonest microbiological cause of vaginal discharge. Bacterial vaginosis is not a sexually transmitted disease

Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Vaginosis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Gardnerella vaginalis