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J. appl. oral sci ; 24(6): 575-581, Nov.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841149


ABSTRACT Objective The antimicrobial effect of ultrasonic agitation of calcium hydroxide (CH) pastes in infected bovine dentin and their penetrability were evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and microbiological culture. Material and Methods Fifty-two bovine teeth were infected with Enterococcus faecalis using a new contamination protocol; then they received CH paste and were divided into groups with or without ultrasound. Ultrasonic agitation was conducted for 1 min with a plain point insert. After 15 d, the CLSM analyzed the viable and dead bacteria with Live and Dead assay. The dentinal wall debris was collected by burs, and the colony forming units (CFU/mL) were counted. The penetrability of the paste inside dentinal tubules was tested using the B-rodamine dye. Results The calcium hydroxide paste showed better results with the use of ultrasonic agitation (p<0.05). Conclusion The ultrasonic agitation of CH paste increased its antimicrobial action and was responsible for intradentinal penetration with the fulfilment of the tubules.

Animals , Cattle , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Dentin/microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Time Factors , Colony Count, Microbial , Reproducibility of Results , Microscopy, Confocal , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Microbial Viability/drug effects
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(3): 291-298, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-787545


ABSTRACT Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) remains the most used irrigation solution during root canal preparation because of characteristics such as wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity and organic tissue dissolution capacity. However, these solutions can alter dentin composition and there is no consensus on the optimal concentration of NaOCl to be used. Objectives To determine the organic matter dissolution and changes in dentin chemical composition promoted by different concentrations of NaOCl over time. Material and Methods: Fragments of bovine muscle tissue were weighed before and after 5, 10, and 15 min of immersion in the groups (n=10): G1- 0.9% saline solution; G2- 1% NaOCl; G3- 2.5% NaOCl; and G4- 5% NaOCl. Bovine dentin fragments were subjected to the same irrigants and absorption spectra were collected by Attenuated Total Reflectance of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) before and after 0,5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, and 10 min of immersion in the solutions. The ratios of the amide III/phosphate and carbonate/phosphate absorption bands were determined. The tissue dissolution and carbonate/phosphate ratios were submitted to the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey’s multiple-comparison test (α<0.05) and to the one-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s (α<0.05). The amide III/phosphate ratio was analyzed by Friedman test (α<0.05) and the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s post-hoc (α<0.05). Results The increase in NaOCl concentration and contact time intensified the dissolution of organic matter and dentin collagen with reduction in the amide III/phosphate ratio. Significant differences between all groups (p<0.05) were observed in the dissolution of organic matter at 10 min and in the amide III/phosphate ratio between the saline solution and 5% NaOCl at 5 min. The carbonate/phosphate ratio decreased significantly in G2, G3, and G4 after 0,5 min of immersion (p<0.05), but more alterations did not occur in the subsequent periods (p>0.05). Intergroup differences were not observed in this ratio (p>0.05). Conclusions The increase in the exposure time and in the concentration of NaOCl solution lead to an increase in the tissue dissolution and dentin collagen deproteination. Furthermore, some carbonate ions are removed from the dentin inorganic phase by the NaOCl.

Animals , Cattle , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Dentin/drug effects , Dentin/chemistry , Disinfectants/chemistry , Reference Values , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Solubility/drug effects , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Collagen/drug effects , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Immersion , Muscles/drug effects
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(6): 591-598, Nov.-Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-769816


Objectives To compare three methods of intratubular contamination that simulate endodontic infections using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Material and Methods Two pre-existing models of dentinal contamination were used to induce intratubular infection (groups A and B). These methods were modified in an attempt to improve the model (group C). Among the modifications it may be included: specimen contamination for five days, ultrasonic bath with BHI broth after specimen sterilization, use of E. faecalisduring the exponential growth phase, greater concentration of inoculum, and two cycles of centrifugation on alternate days with changes of culture media. All specimens were longitudinally sectioned and stained with of LIVE/DEAD® for 20 min. Specimens were assessed using CLSM, which provided images of the depth of viable bacterial proliferation inside the dentinal tubules. Additionally, three examiners used scores to classify the CLSM images according to the following parameters: homogeneity, density, and depth of the bacterial contamination inside the dentinal tubules. Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s tests were used to evaluate the live and dead cells rates, and the scores obtained. Results The contamination scores revealed higher contamination levels in group C when compared with groups A and B (p<0.05). No differences were observed between group A and B (p>0.05). The volume of live cells in group C was higher than in groups A and B (p<0.05). Conclusion The new protocol for intratubular infection resulted in high and uniform patterns of bacterial contamination and higher cell viability in all specimens when compared with the current methods.

Animals , Cattle , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Dentin/microbiology , Disease Models, Animal , Enterococcus faecalis , Centrifugation , Culture Media , Dentin/ultrastructure , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Microbial Viability , Microscopy, Confocal , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors
Braz. dent. j ; 24(5): 474-476, Sep-Oct/2013.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697642


Enterococcus faecalis is a bacterial species often found in root canals with failed endodontic treatment. Alkaline pastes are widely used in Endodontics because of their biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity, but this microorganism can resist alkalinity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the alkaline pH resistance of E. faecalis for different periods up to 14 days. Samples were obtained from the oral cavity of 150 patients from the Endodontic clinic. The pH of the experimental tubes (n=84) was first adjusted with 6M NaOH to pH values of 9.5, 10.5, 11.5 and 12.5 (21 tubes per pH). Twenty clinical isolates and the ATCC 29212 strain were tested. The 5 positive controls and experimental tubes of each pH were inoculated with 10 µL of bacterial suspension and incubated at 36 °C for 24, 48 and 72 h, 7 and 14 days. For each period, the turbidity of the medium was visually compared with a 0.5 McFarland standard. The presence of the microorganism was confirmed by seeding on M-Enterococcus agar. Four tubes containing BHI broth adjusted to the tested pHs were incubated for 14 days to verify if pH changes occurred. The pH of inoculated BHI broth was also measured on day 14 to determine if the microorganism acidified the medium. The growth of all E. faecalis strains occurred at pH 9.5 to 11.5 in all periods. Although turbidity was not observed at pH 12.5, there was growth of 13 and 2 strains at 24 and 48 h, respectively, on M-Enterococcus agar. No tube showed growth at pH 12.5 after 72 h. It was concluded that E. faecalis can survive in highly alkaline pH, and some clinical isolates require 72 h at pH 12.5 to be killed.

Enterococcus faecalis é uma espécie bacteriana frequentemente encontrada em canais radiculares com insucesso do tratamento endodôntico. Pastes alcalinas são amplamente utilizada em Endodontia por causa de sua biocompatibilidade e atividade antimicrobiana, porém esse microrganismo pode ser resistente a alcalinidade. Este estudo avaliou in vitro a resistência do E. faecalis ao pH alcalino por diferentes períodos até 14 dias. Amostras foram obtidas da cavidade oral de 150 pacientes da Clínica de Endodontia. O pH dos tubes experimentais (n=84) foram inicialmente ajustados com NaOH 6M a valores de pH 9.5, 10.5, 11.5 e 12.5 (21 tubes per pH). Vinte isolados clínicos e a cepa ATCC 29212 foram testados. Os 5 controles positivos e os tubos experimentais de cada pH foram inoculados com 10 µL de suspensão bacteriana e incubados a 36 °C por 24, 48 e 72 h, 7 e 14 dias. Para cada período, turvação do meio foi compara visualmente com padrão 0.5 da escala de McFarland. A presença de microorganism foi confirmada por semeadura no meio ágar M-Enterococcus. Quatro tubos contendo caldo BHI ajustado aos pHs testados foram incubados por 14 dias para verificar a ocorrência de alterações de pH. O pH do caldo BHI inoculado também foi medido no 14° dia para determinar se o microrganismo acidificou o meio. O crescimento de todas as cepas de E. faecalis ocorreu com pH entre 9.5 e 11.5 em todos os períodos. Embora não tenha sido observada turvação do meio no pH 12.5, houve crescimento de 13 e 2 cepas às 24 e 48 h, respectivamente, no meio ágar M-Enterococcus. Nenhum tube apresentou crescimento bacteriano no pH 12.5 após 72 h. Concluiu-se que o E. faecalis pode sobreviver em pH altamente alcalino, que alguns isolados clínicos requerem 72 h em pH 12.5 para serem eliminados.

Humans , Alkalies/metabolism , Enterococcus faecalis/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Culture Media , In Vitro Techniques