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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 422-432, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364337

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Amiloidose sistêmica é uma doença com manifestações clínicas diversas. O diagnóstico envolve suspeita clínica, aliada a métodos complementares. Objetivo Descrever o perfil clínico, laboratorial, eletrocardiográfico e de imagem no acometimento cardíaco da amiloidose sistêmica. Métodos Estudo de uma amostra de conveniência, analisando dados clínicos, laboratoriais, eletrocardiográficos, ecocardiográficos, medicina nuclear e ressonância magnética. Considerou-se significância estatística quando p < 0,05. Resultados Avaliaram-se 105 pacientes (com mediana de idade de 66 anos), sendo 62 homens, dos quais 83 indivíduos apresentavam amiloidose por transtirretina (ATTR) e 22 amiloidose por cadeia leve (AL). Na ATTR, 68,7% eram de caráter hereditário (ATTRh) e 31,3% do tipo selvagem (ATTRw). As mutações mais prevalentes foram Val142Ile (45,6%) e Val50Met (40,3%). O tempo de início dos sintomas ao diagnóstico foi 0,54 e 2,15 anos nas formas AL e ATTR (p < 0,001), respectivamente. O acometimento cardíaco foi observado em 77,9% dos ATTR e 90,9% dos AL. Observaram-se alterações de condução atrioventricular em 20% e intraventricular em 27,6% dos pacientes, sendo 33,7 % na ATTR e 4,5% das AL (p = 0,006). A forma ATTRw apresentou mais arritmias atriais que os ATTRh (61,5% x 22,8%; p = 0,001). Ao ecocardiograma a mediana da espessura do septo na ATTRw x ATTRh x AL foi de 15 mm x 12 mm x 11 mm (p = 0,193). Observou-se BNP elevado em 89,5% dos indivíduos (mediana 249 ng/mL, IQR 597,7) e elevação da troponina em 43,2%. Conclusão Foi possível caracterizar, em nosso meio, o acometimento cardíaco na amiloidose sistêmica, em seus diferentes subtipos, através da história clínica e dos métodos diagnósticos descritos.


Abstract Background Systemic amyloidosis is a disease with heterogeneous clinical manifestations. Diagnosis depends on clinical suspicion combined with specific complementary methods. Objective To describe the clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic, and imaging profile in patients with systemic amyloidosis with cardiac involvement. Methods This study was conducted with a convenience sample, analyzing clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, nuclear medicine, and magnetic resonance data. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results A total of 105 patients were evaluated (median age of 66 years), 62 of whom were male. Of all patients, 83 had transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis, and 22 had light chain (AL) amyloidosis. With respect to ATTR cases, 68.7% were the hereditary form (ATTRh), and 31.3% were wild type (ATTRw). The most prevalent mutations were Val142Ile (45.6%) and Val50Met (40.3%). Time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 0.54 and 2.15 years, in the AL and ATTR forms, respectively (p < 0.001). Cardiac involvement was observed in 77.9% of patients with ATTR and in 90.9% of those with AL. Alterations were observed in atrioventricular and intraventricular conduction in 20% and 27.6% of patients, respectively, with 33.7% in ATTR and 4.5% in AL (p = 0.006). In the ATTRw form, there were more atrial arrhythmias than in ATTRh (61.5% versus 22.8%; p = 0.001). On echocardiogram, median septum thickness in ATTRw, ATTRh, and AL was 15 mm, 12 mm, and 11 mm, respectively (p = 0.193). Elevated BNP was observed in 89.5% of patients (median 249, ICR 597.7), and elevated troponin was observed in 43.2%. Conclusion In this setting, it was possible to characterize cardiac involvement in systemic amyloidosis in its different subtypes by means of clinical history and the diagnostic methods described.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cardiology , Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial/diagnostic imaging , Amyloidosis/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Referral and Consultation , Brazil , Prealbumin/genetics , Echocardiography
4.
5.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(2): 145-149, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251088

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic brought an unprecedented lack of control of what was to come. The intent of this document is to provide a balance of how much was ceased to be done for patients with aortic disease, to assess the mortality of these patients, and to show what happened to those who became COVID-19 positive during their hospitalization. Methods: From April 1st to July 31st 2020, the worst period of the pandemic in São Paulo, Brazil, the Institute's aortic surgical patients operated on were evaluated and those were compared with patients operated during the same period in 2019. Results: In 2019, 88 surgeries were performed; most of them were elective (66 [75%]), 10 were urgent, and 12 were emergency surgeries. In 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, we operated on only 31 patients, being 74.2% non-elective surgeries (P<0,001). There was a higher mortality for patients operated on during the pandemic surge of COVID-19 (P<0,001), but it was not specifically related to infected patients. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on surgical volume and outcome of patients with aortic disease, although it did not directly increase mortality.

6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(2): 248-256, fev. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153000

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento As características histopatológicas da doença de Chagas (DCC) são: presença de miocardite, destruição das fibras cardíacas e fibrose miocárdica. A Galectina-3 (Gal-3) é um biomarcador envolvido no mecanismo de fibrose e inflamação que pode ser útil para a estratificação de indivíduos com DCC por risco. Objetivos Nosso objetivo foi avaliar se níveis elevados de Gal-3 estão associados a formas graves de cardiomiopatia chagásica (CC) e são preditivos de mortalidade. Métodos Estudamos doadores de sangue (DS) positivos para anti-T. cruzi: não-CC-DS (187 DS sem CC com eletrocardiograma [ECG] e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo [FEVE] normais); CC-Não-Dis-DS (46 DS com CC e apresentando ECG anormal, mas FEVE normal); e 153 controles negativos correspondentes. Esta amostra foi composta por 97 pacientes com CC grave (CC-Dis). Usamos as correlações de Kruskall-Wallis e Spearman para testar a hipótese de associações, assumindo um p bicaudal <0,05 como significativo. Resultados O nível de Gal-3 foi de 12,3 ng/mL para não-CC-DS, 12,0 ng/mL para CC-Não-Dis-DS, 13,8 ng/mL para controles e 15,4 ng/mL para CC-Dis. FEVE <50 foi associada a níveis mais elevados de Gal-3 (p=0,0001). Em nosso modelo de regressão linear ajustado, encontramos associação entre os níveis de Gal-3 e os parâmetros do ecocardiograma em indivíduos positivos para T. cruzi. Nos pacientes CC-Dis, encontramos uma associação significativa de níveis mais elevados de Gal-3 (≥15,3 ng/mL) e morte ou transplante cardíaco em acompanhamento de cinco anos (Hazard ratio - HR 3,11; IC95% 1,21- 8,04; p=0,019). Conclusões Em pacientes com CC, níveis mais elevados de Gal-3 estiveram significativamente associados a formas graves da doença e maior taxa de mortalidade em longo prazo, o que significa que pode ser um meio efetivo para identificar pacientes de alto risco. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):248-256)


Abstract Background The histopathological characteristics of Chagas disease (ChD) are: presence of myocarditis, destruction of heart fibers, and myocardial fibrosis. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a biomarker involved in the mechanism of fibrosis and inflammation that may be useful for risk stratification of individuals with ChD. Objectives We sought to evaluate whether high Gal-3 levels are associated with severe forms of Chagas cardiomyopathy (CC) and whether they are predictive of mortality. Methods We studied anti-T. cruzi positive blood donors (BD): Non-CC-BD (187 BD without CC with normal electrocardiogram [ECG] and left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]); CC-Non-Dys-BD (46 BD with CC with abnormal ECG but normal LVEF); and 153 matched serum-negative controls. This cohort was composed of 97 patients with severe CC (CC-Dys). We used Kruskall-Wallis and Spearman's correlation to test hypothesis of associations, assuming a two-tailed p<0.05 as significant. Results The Gal-3 level was 12.3 ng/mL for Non-CC-BD, 12.0 ng/mL for CC-Non-Dys-BD, 13.8 ng/mL for controls, and 15.4 ng/mL for CC-Dys. LVEF<50 was associated with higher Gal-3 levels (p=0.0001). In our linear regression adjusted model, we found association between Gal-3 levels and echocardiogram parameters in T. cruzi-seropositive subjects. In CC-Dys patients, we found a significant association of higher Gal-3 levels (≥15.3 ng/mL) and subsequent death or heart transplantation in a 5-year follow-up (Hazard ratio - HR 3.11; 95%CI 1.21-8.04; p=0.019). Conclusions In ChD patients, higher Gal-3 levels were significantly associated with severe forms of the disease and more long-term mortality, which means it may be a useful means to identify high-risk patients. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(2):248-256)


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Cardiomyopathy , Chagas Disease , Stroke Volume , Biomarkers , Ventricular Function, Left , Galectin 3
7.
Clinics ; 76: e1958, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153932

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of sympathectomy on the myocardium in an experimental model. METHODS: The study evaluated three groups of male Wistar rats: control (CT; n=15), left unilateral sympathectomy (UNI; n=15), and bilateral sympathectomy (BIL; n=31). Sympathectomy was performed by injection of absolute alcohol into the space of the spinous process of the C7 vertebra. After 6 weeks, we assessed the chronotropic properties at rest and stress, cardiovascular autonomic modulation, myocardial and peripheral catecholamines, and beta-adrenergic receptors in the myocardium. The treadmill test consisted of an escalated protocol with a velocity increment until the maximal velocity tolerated by the animal was reached. RESULTS: The bilateral group had higher levels of peripheral catecholamines, and consequently, a higher heart rate (HR) and blood pressure levels. This suggests that the activation of a compensatory pathway in this group may have deleterious effects. The BIL group had basal tachycardia immediately before the exercise test and increased tachycardia at peak exercise (p<0.01); the blood pressure had the same pattern (p=0.0365). The variables related to autonomic modulation were not significantly different between groups, with the exception of the high frequency (HF) variable, which showed significant differences in CT vs UNI. There was no significant difference in beta receptor expression between groups. There was a higher concentration of peripheral norepinephrine in the BIL group (p=0.0001), and no significant difference in myocardial norepinephrine (p=0.09). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that an extra cardiac compensatory pathway increases the sympathetic tonus and maintains a higher HR and higher levels of peripheral catecholamines in the procedure groups. The increase in HF activity can be interpreted as an attempt to increase the parasympathetic tonus to balance the greater sympathetic activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Sympathectomy , Myocardium , Blood Pressure , Rats, Wistar , Heart Rate
8.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(6): 869-877, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143995

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a surgery with the use of valved conduit is capable of leading to better immediate and late results than those obtained by the valve-sparing aortic root reconstruction technique. Methods: Between January 2002 and June 2016, 448 patients underwent aortic root reconstruction. These were divided into three groups according to the technique used: 319 (71.2%) patients received mechanical valved conduits, 49 (10.9%) received biological valved conduits, and 80 (17.9%) underwent the valve-sparing aortic root reconstruction technique. The results were examined by univariate and multivariate analyses of Cox proportional hazards models with multiple logistic regression. Results: The hospital mortality rate was 7.5%. The mortality rates were 8.2%, 12%, and 2.5% in the mechanical valved conduit, biological valved conduit, and aortic valve-sparing groups, respectively, with no significant difference between groups (P=0.1). Thromboembolic complications and reoperation-free survival were also similar (P=0.169 and P=0.688). However, valve-sparing aortic root replacement was superior in terms of long-term survival (P<0.001), hemorrhagic-free survival (P<0.001), and endocarditis-free survival (P=0.048). Multivariate analysis showed that the following aspects had an impact on mortality: age > 70 years (P<0.001; hazard ratio [HR] 1.05), preoperative acute kidney injury (P<0.0042; HR 2.9), diagnosis of dissection (P<0.01; HR 2.0), previous cardiac surgery (P<0.027; HR 2.3), associated coronary artery bypass grafting (P<0.038; HR 1.8), reoperation for postoperative tamponade (P<0.004; HR 2.2) and postoperative acute kidney injury (P<0.02; HR 3.35). Conclusion: Valve-sparing technique seems to be the operation of choice, whenever possible, for aortic root reconstruction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aortic Valve/surgery , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Aorta/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Reoperation , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(6): 1051-1060, dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152934

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Em regiões endêmicas da doença de Chagas, por muitos anos, existe uma observação empírica recorrente de que a doença arterial coronariana (DAC) é incomum em pacientes com doença de Chagas. Estudos anteriores baseados em análise patológica ou angiografia coronária invasiva apresentam resultados controversos. Objetivo Investigar se a DAC é menos prevalente e menos grave em pacientes com doença de Chagas crônica em comparação a uma população pareada controle, com perfil de risco para DAC similar. Métodos Um total de 86 participantes, 43 pacientes com doença de Chagas crônica consecutivos e 43 indivíduos assintomáticos, sem qualquer história prévia de doença cardíaca ou doença DAC conhecida (grupo controle), foram incluídos no estudo. Pacientes e controles foram pareados quanto sexo, idade e escore de risco de Framingham. Todos os pacientes foram analisados quanto ao escore de cálcio coronário (ECC) e submetidos à angiotomografia coronária usando um tomógrafo de 320 detectores. O nível de significância estatística adotado foi de p < 0,05. Resultados O ECC foi significativamente mais baixo em pacientes com doença de Chagas em comparação aos controles (p<0,05). A presença de placas ateroscleróticas coronárias foi significativamente menos frequente em pacientes com doença de Chagas que nos controles (20,9% versus 41,9%, p=0,037). Após ajuste quanto ao escore de Framingham, o odds ratio para a presença de qualquer calcificação coronária foi de 0,26 (IC95%: 0,07-0,99, p=0,048). O padrão é similar para escore de cálcio coronário (ECC) > 10 (OR: 0,11, IC95%: 0,01-0,87, p=0,04), e para a presença de estenose (OR: 0,06, IC95%: 0,01-0,47, p=0,001). O pareamento por escore de propensão também mostrou um efeito da doença de Chagas no ECC (-21,6 pontos no escore absoluto e 25% menos pacientes com ECC > 10; p=0,015). Conclusões A prevalência e a gravidade da DAC são mais baixas nos pacientes com doença de Chagas crônica em comparação a uma população pareada e perfil de risco para DAC similar. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(6):1051-1060)


Abstract Background In Chagas' disease endemic regions, there has been for many years a recurrent empirical observation that coronary artery disease (CAD) is uncommon in patients with Chagas' disease. Previous pathological and invasive coronary angiography studies led to controversial results. Objective We sought to investigate whether CAD is less prevalent and less severe in patients with chronic Chagas' disease when compared with a matched population with a similar CAD risk profile. Methods A total of 86 participants, 43 consecutive patients with chronic Chagas' disease and 43 asymptomatic individuals, without any prior history of cardiac disease or known CAD (control group), were included. Patients and controls were matched according to gender, age, and Framingham risk score. All participants underwent coronary calcium scoring and coronary computed tomography angiography on a 320-row detector scanner. Statistical significance level adopted was p < 0.05. Results The coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was significantly lower in patients with Chagas' disease than in controls (p<0.05). The presence of coronary atherosclerotic plaques was significantly less frequent in patients with Chagas' disease than in controls (20.9% versus 41.9%, p=0.037). After adjustment for the Framingham score, the odds ratio for the presence of any coronary artery calcium (CAC) in Chagas patients was 0.26 (95%CI: 0.07-0.99, p=0.048). The pattern is similar for CACS > 10 (OR: 0.11, 95%CI: 0.01-0.87, p=0.04) and for the presence of any stenosis (OR: 0.06, 95%CI: 0.01-0.47, p=0.001). Propensity score matching also indicated an effect of Chagas disease on the CACS (-21.6 points in the absolute score and 25% less of patients with CACS >10, p=0.015). Conclusions CAD is less prevalent and less severe in patients with chronic Chagas' disease when compared with a matched population with a similar CAD risk profile. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(6):1051-1060)


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Chagas Disease/complications , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/diagnostic imaging , Prevalence , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography , Computed Tomography Angiography
11.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(3): 345-352, Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136196

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Cardiac amyloidosis is an infiltrative disease which requires a high degree of clinical suspicion for appropriate diagnosis. Early diagnosis and the definition of the type of amyloidosis play a key role in the early treatment and prognosis of this disease. In this context, the use of cardiac biomarkers such as troponins and NT-proBNT associated with analysis by multimodality imaging methods like echocardiographic techniques such as strain, nuclear medicine, and cardiovascular resonance imaging have an increasing role in patients with cardiac amyloidosis. This article details the role of non-invasive diagnostic methods in patients with cardiac amyloidosis.


RESUMO A amiloidose cardíaca é uma doença infiltrativa que exige um alto grau de suspeição clínica para o diagnóstico apropriado. O diagnóstico precoce e a definição do subtipo de amiloidose têm um papel fundamental para a terapêutica e prognóstico desta doença. Nesse contexto, o emprego de biomarcadores cardíacos como as troponinas e NT-proBNT associados à análise por métodos de imagem multimodalidade por técnicas ecocardiográficas atuais como o strain, medicina nuclear e a ressonância magnética cardíaca têm papel crescente em pacientes com amiloidose. Este artigo detalha a utilização dos métodos não invasivos para a avaliação de pacientes com amiloidose cardíaca.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amyloidosis/diagnosis , Prognosis , Echocardiography , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Biomarkers , Radionuclide Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190488, 2020. tab
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136799

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. One-third of infected patients will develop the cardiac form, which may progress to heart failure (HF). However, the factors that determine disease progression remain unclear. Increased angiotensin II activity is a key player in the pathophysiology of HF. A functional polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is associated with plasma enzyme activity. In CD, ACE inhibitors have beneficial effects supporting the use of this treatment in chagasic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: We evaluated the association of ACE I/D polymorphism with HF, performing a case-control study encompassing 343 patients with positive serology for CD staged as non-cardiomyopathy (stage A; 100), mild (stage B1; 144), and severe (stage C; 99) forms of Chagas heart disease. For ACE I/D genotyping by PCR, groups were compared using unconditional logistic regression analysis and adjusted for nongenetic covariates: age, sex, and trypanocidal treatment. RESULTS: A marginal, but not significant (p=0.06) higher prevalence of ACE I/D polymorphism was observed in patients in stage C compared with patients in stage A. Patients in stage C (CD with HF), were compared with patients in stages A and B1 combined into one group (CD without HF); DD genotype/D carriers were prevalent in the HF patients (OR = 2; CI = 1.013.96; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results of this cohort study, comprising a population from the Northeast region of Brazil, suggest that ACE I/D polymorphism is more prevalent in the cardiac form of Chagas disease with HF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Chagas Disease/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Brazil , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Genotype , Heart Failure/genetics , Middle Aged
14.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(2): 152-157, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-988204

ABSTRACT

Background: Galectin-3 is the designation given to the protein that binds to ß-galactosides, expressed by activated macrophages and described as a cardiac fibrosis mediator. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), myocardial fibrosis is an independent predictor of adverse outcome; however, the association between Galectin-3 and myocardial fibrosis has not been studied in this cardiopathy. Objective: To evaluate the association of Galectin-3 and the presence of myocardial fibrosis in a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods: Galectin-3 was measured in automated equipment using the Elisa technique in 100 participants divided into two groups: 50 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 50 healthy control subjects. All patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy underwent magnetic nuclear resonance with the late enhancement technique to investigate myocardial fibrosis. For the statistical analysis, p values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Galectin-3 levels were low and did not show significant differences between patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and the control group,10.3 ± 3.1 ng/dL and 11.3 ± 2.6 ng/dL (p = 0.12) respectively. Myocardial fibrosis was a common finding and was identified in 84% (42/50) of patients with HCM, but no differences were observed between Galectin-3 levels when comparing patients with and without fibrosis, 10.3 ± 2.4 ng/dL and 10.1 ± 2.1 ng/dL (p = 0.59). Conclusion: The results did not show an association between Galectin-3 and myocardial fibrosis in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, suggesting that non-inflammatory mechanisms of myocardial fibrosis formation and cardiac remodeling are involved in this cardiopathy


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/diagnostic imaging , Galectin 3 , Endomyocardial Fibrosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Biomarkers , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Statistical Analysis
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(6): 533-540, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887973

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is a rare disease, characterized by diastolic dysfunction which leads to reduced peak oxygen consumption (VO2). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has been proved to be a fundamental tool to identify central and peripheral alterations. However, most studies prioritize peak VO2 as the main variable, leaving aside other important CPET variables that can specify the severity of the disease and guide the clinical treatment. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate central and peripheral limitations in symptomatic patients with EMF by different CPET variables. Methods: Twenty-six EMF patients (functional class III, NYHA) were compared with 15 healthy subjects (HS). Functional capacity was evaluated using CPET and diastolic and systolic functions were evaluated by echocardiography. Results: Age and gender were similar between EMF patients and HS. Left ventricular ejection fraction was normal in EMF patients, but decreased compared to HS. Peak heart rate, peak workload, peak VO2, peak oxygen (O2) pulse and peak pulmonary ventilation (VE) were decreased in EMF compared to HS. Also, EMF patients showed increased Δ heart rate /Δ oxygen uptake and Δ oxygen uptake /Δ work rate compared to HS. Conclusion: Determination of the aerobic capacity by noninvasive respiratory gas exchange during incremental exercise provides additional information about the exercise tolerance in patients with EMF. The analysis of different CPET variables is necessary to help us understand more about the central and peripheral alterations cause by both diastolic dysfunction and restrictive pattern.


Resumo Fundamento: A endomiocardiofibrose (EMF) é uma doença rara, caracterizada por disfunção diastólica que leva à redução consumo de oxigênio (VO2) pico. O teste de esforço cardiopulmonar (TECP) tem se mostrado uma ferramenta fundamental na identificação de alterações centrais e periféricas. No entanto, a maioria dos estudos prioriza o VO2 pico como a variável principal, em detrimento de outras importantes variáveis do TECP que poderiam identificar a gravidade da doença e direcionar o tratamento clínico. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar limitações centrais e periféricas em pacientes com EMF sintomáticos por meio de variáveis do TECP. Métodos: Vinte e seis pacientes com EMF (classe funcional III, NYHA) foram comparados com 15 indivíduos controle saudáveis (CS). A capacidade funcional foi avaliada por TECP e funções sistólicas e diastólicas por ecocardiografia. Resultados: A idade e o gênero foram similares entre pacientes com EMF e CS. A fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo foi normal em pacientes com EMF, porém diminuída em comparação aos CS. Os picos de frequência cardíaca, carga de trabalho, VO2, pulso de oxigênio (O2) e da ventilação pulmonar (VE) estavam diminuídos em pacientes com EMF em comparação aos CS. Ainda, os pacientes com EMF apresentaram Δ frequência cardíaca /Δ consumo de oxigênio e Δ consumo de oxigênio /Δ taxa de trabalho aumentados em comparação aos CS. Conclusão: A determinação da capacidade aeróbica por troca respiratória não invasiva durante exercício progressivo fornece informações sobre a tolerância ao exercício em pacientes com EMF. É necessária uma análise das diferentes variáveis do TECP para nos ajudar a compreender mais acerca das alterações centrais e periféricas causadas tanto pela disfunção diastólica como pelo padrão restritivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Respiratory Function Tests , Endocardium/surgery , Endomyocardial Fibrosis/etiology , Exercise Test , Heart Failure/surgery , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Oxygen Consumption , Echocardiography , Case-Control Studies , Exercise Tolerance , Endomyocardial Fibrosis/physiopathology
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(5): 457-465, Nov. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887962

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: International studies have reported the value of the clinical profile and laboratory findings in the diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis. However, Brazilian population data are scarce. Objective: To assess the clinical characteristics, sensitivity of imaging tests and factors related to the death of patients with constrictive pericarditis undergoing pericardiectomy. Methods: Patients with constrictive pericarditis surgically confirmed were retrospectively assessed regarding their clinical and laboratory variables. Two methods were used: transthoracic echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Mortality predictors were determined by use of univariate analysis with Cox proportional hazards model and hazard ratio. All tests were two-tailed, and an alpha error ≤ 5% was considered statically significant. Results: We studied 84 patients (mean age, 44 ± 17.9 years; 67% male). Signs and symptoms of predominantly right heart failure were present with jugular venous distention, edema and ascites in 89%, 89% and 62% of the cases, respectively. Idiopathic etiology was present in 69.1%, followed by tuberculosis (21%). Despite the advanced heart failure degree, low BNP levels (median, 157 pg/mL) were found. The diagnostic sensitivities for constriction of echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging were 53.6% and 95.9%, respectively. There were 9 deaths (10.7%), and the risk factors were: anemia, BNP and C reactive protein levels, pulmonary hypertension >55 mm Hg, and atrial fibrillation. Conclusions: Magnetic resonance imaging had better diagnostic sensitivity. Clinical, laboratory and imaging markers were associated with death.


Resumo Fundamento: Estudos internacionais têm relatado o valor de perfil clínico e exames de imagem no diagnóstico e prognóstico da pericardite constritiva. Entretanto, dados da população brasileira são escassos. Objetivo: Avaliar as características clínicas, sensibilidade de exames de imagem e fatores relacionados ao óbito em uma série de casos de pericardite constritiva submetidos à pericardiectomia. Métodos: Pacientes com pericardite constritiva confirmada por cirurgia foram avaliados retrospectivamente quanto a variáveis clínicas e laboratoriais. Dois métodos diagnósticos foram utilizados: ecocardiograma transtorácico e ressonância cardíaca. Preditores de mortalidade foram determinados por análise univariada usando metodologia das proporções de Cox e hazard ratio. Todos os testes foram considerados bicaudais e um erro alfa ≤ 5% foi considerado como significante. Resultados: Foram estudados 84 pacientes com idade média de 44 ± 17,9 anos, sendo 67% do sexo masculino. Sinais e sintomas de insuficiência cardíaca (IC) predominantemente direita estiveram presentes com estase jugular, edema e ascite em 89%, 89% e 62% dos casos, respectivamente. Etiologia idiopática foi observada em 69% dos casos, seguida por tuberculose em 21%. Apesar do grau de IC, encontramos baixos níveis de BNP (mediana de 157 pg/mL). As sensibilidades diagnósticas para constrição do ecocardiograma e da ressonância foram 53,6% e 95,9%, respectivamente. Durante a evolução clínica, houve 9 óbitos (10,7%) e os fatores de risco foram: anemia, elevações de BNP, PCR, hipertensão pulmonar > 55 mmHg e fibrilação atrial. Conclusões: Pericardite constritiva manifesta-se com sinais e sintomas de IC biventricular com predomínio à direita e baixos níveis de BNP. A ressonância magnética apresenta melhor sensibilidade para diagnóstico. Marcadores clínicos, laboratoriais e de imagem estiveram associados ao óbito.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pericarditis, Constrictive/surgery , Pericarditis, Constrictive/diagnosis , Pericarditis, Constrictive/mortality , Prognosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pericardiectomy , Echocardiography , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Treatment Outcome , Kaplan-Meier Estimate
19.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 32(5): 361-366, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897944

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Conventional techniques of surgical correction of arch and descending aortic diseases remains as high-risk procedures. Endovascular treatments of abdominal and descending thoracic aorta have lower surgical risk. Evolution of both techniques - open debranching of the arch and endovascular approach of the descending aorta - may extend a less invasive endovascular treatment for a more extensive disease with necessity of proximal landing zone in the arch. Objective: To evaluate descending thoracic aortic remodeling by means of volumetric analysis after hybrid approach of aortic arch debranching and stenting the descending aorta. Methods: Retrospective review of seven consecutive patients treated between September 2014 and August 2016 for diseases of proximal descending aorta (aneurysms and dissections) by hybrid approach to deliver the endograft at zone 1. Computed tomography angiography were analyzed using a specific software to calculate descending thoracic aorta volumes pre- and postoperatively. Results: Follow-up was done in 100% of patients with a median time of 321 days (range, 41-625 days). No deaths or permanent neurological complications were observed. There were no endoleaks or stent migrations. Freedom from reintervention was 100% at 300 days and 66% at 600 days. Median volume reduction was of 45.5 cm3, representing a median volume shrinkage by 9.3%. Conclusion: Hybrid approach of arch and descending thoracic aorta diseases is feasible and leads to a favorable aortic remodeling with significant volume reduction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aorta, Thoracic/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/surgery , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Aneurysm, Dissecting/surgery , Aorta, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Computed Tomography Angiography , Aneurysm, Dissecting/diagnostic imaging
20.
Clinics ; 72(4): 207-212, Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840070

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The effect of performing aortic valve repair in combination with valve-sparing operation on the length of time for which patients are free from reoperation is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if the performance of aortic valve repair during valve-sparing operation modified the freedom from reoperation time. METHODS: From January 2003 to July 2014, 78 patients with a mean age of 49±15 years underwent valve-sparing operation. Sixty-eight percent of these patients were male. Twenty-two (28%) aortic valve repair procedures were performed in this patient population. In the aortic valve repair + valve-sparing operation group, 77.3% of patients had moderate/severe aortic insufficiency, while in the valve-sparing operation group, 58.6% of patients had moderate/severe aortic insufficiency (ns = not significant). Additionally, 13.6% of patients in the aortic valve repair + valve-sparing operation group had functional class III/IV, while 14.2% of patients in the valve-sparing operation group had functional class III/IV (ns). RESULTS: The in-hospital and late mortality rates, for the aortic valve repair + valve-sparing operation and valve-sparing operation groups were similar, as they were 4.5% and 3.6%; and 0% and 1.8%, respectively. In the aortic valve repair + valve-sparing operation group, 0% of patients presented moderate/severe aortic insufficiency during late follow-up, while in the valve-sparing operation group, 14.2% of patients presented with moderate/severe aortic insufficiency during this period (ns). In the aortic valve repair + valve-sparing operation group, 5.3% of patients presented with functional class III/IV, while in the valve-sparing operation group, 4.2% of patients presented with functional class III/IV (ns). In the aortic valve repair + valve-sparing operation group, 0% of patients required reoperation, while in the valve-sparing operation group, 3.6% of patients required reoperation over a mean follow-up period of 1621±1156 days (75 patients). CONCLUSION: Valve-sparing operation is a safe and long-lasting procedure and performance of aortic valve repair when necessary does not increase risk of reoperation on the aortic valve.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aortic Valve/surgery , Heart Valve Diseases/surgery , Operative Time , Organ Sparing Treatments , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Reoperation , Aortic Valve Insufficiency/mortality , Aortic Valve Insufficiency/surgery , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Valve Diseases/mortality , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Reoperation/statistics & numerical data , Replantation/methods , Replantation/mortality , Survival Rate , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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