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Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 27(4): 1413-1422, abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374936


Abstract This article aims to compare the prevalence of active commuting to work in adults in the Southern region of Brazil between 2006 and 2016 according to sociodemographic and labor characteristics. The data from the Brazilian System for the Surveillance of Risk and Protection Factors for Chronic Diseases - VIGITEL were compared in 2006 and 2016 (≥18 years). Active commuting to work, sex, age group, education and job characteristics were collected by telephone survey and transportation in the cities of Florianópolis, Curitiba and Porto Alegre, using absolute and relative frequencies with their respective 95% confidence intervals. Active commuting increased significantly in 2016 compared to 2006. Florianópolis had the highest prevalence in the two years analyzed. In all capitals, there was a significant increase in the prevalence of the outcome, mainly for women, with secondary education and only in Florianópolis for men, with low schooling. The prevalence has also increased for job characteristics in all capitals. Active commuting to work increased significantly among adults living in southern Brazil, with emphasis on Florianópolis. Expanding interventions in this context is a necessity in Brazil.

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é comparar a prevalência de deslocamento ativo para o trabalho em adultos na região Sul do Brasil entre 2006 e 2016 de acordo com características sociodemográficas e laborais. Os dados do Sistema Brasileiro de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas (VIGITEL) foram comparados em 2006 e 2016 (≥18 anos). Deslocamento ativo para o trabalho, sexo, faixa etária, escolaridade e características laborais foram coletados por inquérito telefônico e analisados nas cidades de Florianópolis, Curitiba e Porto Alegre, utilizando as frequências absolutas e relativas com seus respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95%. O deslocamento ativo aumentou significativamente em 2016 em relação a 2006. Florianópolis apresentou as maiores prevalências nos dois anos analisados. Em todas as capitais houve aumento significativo na prevalência do desfecho, principalmente para mulheres, com ensino médio e apenas em Florianópolis para homens, com baixa escolaridade. A prevalência também aumentou para características laborais em todas as capitais. O deslocamento ativo para o trabalho aumentou expressamente entre os adultos que vivem no Sul do Brasil, com destaque para Florianópolis. Ampliar intervenções nesse contexto é uma necessidade no Brasil.

Säo Paulo med. j ; 140(1): 115-122, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357461


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity due to non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) constitutes a significant challenge for healthcare systems. To attenuate its impacts, it is essential to identify the sociodemographic determinants of this condition, which can discriminate against population segments that are more exposed. OBJECTIVE: To identify associations between multimorbidity conditions and sociodemographic indicators among Brazilian adults and older adults. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional telephone-based survey in 26 Brazilian state capitals and the federal district. METHODS: The Vigitel 2013 survey was used, with data collected via a questionnaire. The outcome was multimorbidity (2, 3 or 4 NCDs), and the exposures were sociodemographic indicators (age, sex, skin color, marital status and education). The analysis consisted of multinomial logistic regression (odds ratio), stratified by age. RESULTS: Among adults, multimorbidity comprising two, three or four diseases was associated with advancing age (P < 0.001); two and three diseases, with having a partner (P = 0.004 and P < 0.001, respectively); and two, three or four diseases, with lower education (P < 0.001). Among older adults, two, three or four diseases were associated with female sex (P < 0.001); three diseases, with living with a partner (P = 0.018); two diseases, with black skin color (P = 0.016); and two or three diseases, with lower education (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: To control and prevent multimorbidity, strategies for individuals with existing chronic diseases, with partners and with lower education levels are needed. Particularly for adults, advancing age should be considered; and for older adults, being a woman and having black skin color.

Humans , Female , Aged , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Multimorbidity , Brazil/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 98(1): 92-98, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360551


Abstract Objective: To identify the associated factors to loneliness among Brazilian adolescents, considering this is a knowledge gap and given its severity. The United Nations estimates that mental health problems affect approximately 20% of adolescents worldwide. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with data from the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey 2015, conducted with students aged 13-17 in Brazil. The statistical analysis was performed with the calculation of the prevalence of feeling loneliness reported. Poisson regression with the adjusted Prevalence Ratio was used to evaluate the association between sociodemographic characteristics, family context, mental health and lifestyles, and feelings of loneliness. Results: 15,5% of Brazilian students reported loneliness in the last 12 months. Female gender, higher maternal education, insomnia and be bullying victims rarely or sometimes and most of the time or always had a higher prevalence rate of loneliness. Having friends, having a meal with parents or guardians 5 days or more a week and having understanding parents showed a lower prevalence ratio for loneliness. Conclusion: Loneliness feeling is frequent among adolescents and is associated with female gender, less social and family support, intra-family violence and risk behaviors such as alcohol consumption and bullying. Policies to promote physical and mental well-being in this age group, stimulating friendship and family participation in the lives of adolescents should be made.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior , Loneliness , Schools , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 36: e070, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1374761


Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of dental visits due to toothache and tooth extraction in Brazil and its association with individual and contextual variables. This two-step cross-sectional study included persons aged 18 years and older in the 2019 National Health Survey who had visited a dentist in the 12 months prior to the interview (n = 40,369). The individual-level outcome was having a dental visit due to toothache or tooth extraction. The ecological-level outcome was the proportion of dental visits for these reasons relative to all dental visits by Brazilian state. Associations with individual - sociodemographic characteristics, number of teeth, and type of health service used - and ecological variables - HDI and dental service coverage - were assessed using Poisson regressions. The prevalence of dental visits due to toothache or extraction was higher among individuals with no formal education, household income < 25% of the minimum wage, of black and brown skin color, living in rural areas, who consulted in the public health system, with 10-19 and 1-9 teeth, and men. The proportion of dental visits due to toothache/extraction in Brazilian states was negatively associated with the HDI and the rate of dental emergency team/100,000 inhabitants and positively associated with primary dental care coverage. The prevalence of dental visits due to toothache/extraction was associated with individual and ecological characteristics, indicating inequities in reasons for dental visits in Brazil. The potential of a well-structured oral health care network to overcome these inequities is suggested and needs to be better explored.

Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(supl.1): e00149321, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374860


The prevalence of diabetes has been growing worldwide. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported diabetes in Brazil in 2019, to describe its evolution from 2013, and to evaluate the role of population growth, aging, and other factors in the changes found. The 2019 Brazilian National Health Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey, queried a physician diagnosis of diabetes in a probabilistic multistage cluster sample. The crude prevalence of known diabetes in 2019 was 7.7% (7.4%-8.0%), a 24% relative increase to the prevalence of 2013. Though this increase was greater in men (30%) than women (20%), 2019 prevalence remained higher in women (8.4%) than in men (6.9%). Age-adjusted prevalence was uniformly lower in the North region, and uniformly higher in the Southeast and Central-West regions. In 2019, 12.3 million cases of diabetes were found, a 36.4% increase from the 9.0 million in 2013. Drivers of this rise include increase in size (9.9%) and aging (1.8%) of the Brazilian population, and to all other factors, including increased case-detection and incidence, as well as decreased diabetes mortality (24.7%). Main correlates of greater prevalence - adjusted by the Poisson regression with robust variance - were older age (PR = 27.2, 95%CI: 1.2-42.9 for ≥ 65 years vs. 18-24 years), hypertension (PR = 2.6, 95%CI: 2.4-2.8 vs. normotension), and obesity (PR = 2.3, 95%CI: 2.1-2.5 vs. BMI < 25kg/m2). Those with a complete higher education had a 40% lower prevalence (PR = 0.6; 95%CI: 0.54-0.70 vs. incomplete elementary education). In conclusion, accompanying a worldwide trend, Brazil presents an increasing prevalence of diabetes throughout its regions, posing a huge burden to its population and health systems.

A prevalência do diabetes mellitus tem crescido em nível global. O estudo buscou estimar a prevalência de autorrelato de diabetes no Brasil em 2019, descrever a evolução a partir de 2013 e avaliar o papel do crescimento demográfico, envelhecimento e outros fatores observados. A Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde de 2019, um inquérito transversal com representatividade nacional, perguntou sobre diagnóstico médico de diabetes em uma amostra probabilística por conglomerados com múltiplos estágios. A prevalência bruta de diabetes conhecido em 2019 foi de 7,7% (7,4%-8,0%), um aumento de 24% em relação à prevalência em 2013. Embora o aumento relativo tenha sido maior em homens (30%) que em mulheres (20%), a prevalência em 2019 permaneceu mais elevada em mulheres (8,4%) que em homens (6,9%). A prevalência ajustada por idade foi consistentemente mais baixa na Região Norte, e consistentemente mais alta nas regiões Sudeste e Centro-oeste. Em 2019, foram diagnosticados 12,3 milhões de casos de diabetes, um aumento de 36,4% em relação aos 9,0 milhões de casos em 2013. Fatores que explicam esse crescimento incluem aumento do tamanho (9,9%) e do envelhecimento (1,8%) da população brasileira, e outros fatores como o aumento na detecção de casos e na incidência, além de uma queda na mortalidade por diabetes (24,7%). As principais associações para uma maior prevalência - ajustada por regressão de Poisson com variância robusta - foram idade mais velha (RP = 27,2; IC95%: 1,2-42,9 para ≥ 65 anos vs. 18-24 anos), hipertensão (RP = 2,6; IC95%: 2,4-2,8 vs. normotensão) e obesidade (RP = 2,3; IC95%: 2,1-2,5 vs. IMC < 25kg/m2). Indivíduos com Nível Universitário completo tiveram uma prevalência 40% mais baixa (RP = 0,6; IC95%: 0,54-0,70 vs. Fundamental incompleto). Como conclusão, refletindo uma tendência mundial, o Brasil apresenta prevalência crescente de diabetes em todas as macrorregiões, o que cria uma enorme carga para a população e os sistemas de saúde.

La prevalencia de la diabetes ha estado creciendo alrededor de todo el mundo. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la prevalencia de la diabetes autoinformada en Brasil en 2019, para describir su evolución desde 2013, así como para evaluar el papel del crecimiento de la población, envejecimiento, y otros factores en los cambios encontrados. Se utilizó la Encuesta Nacional de Salud brasileña de 2019, una encuesta transversal representativa nacionalmente, donde se consultó el diagnóstico médico de diabetes en una muestra probabilística por conglomerados multietapa. La prevalencia cruda de la diabetes conocida en 2019 fue 7,7% (7,4%-8,0%), con un 24% de incremento relativo respecto a la prevalencia de 2013. Sin embargo, este aumento fue mayor en hombres (30%) que en mujeres (20%). La prevalencia de 2019 permaneció más alta en mujeres (8,4%) que en hombres (6,9%). La prevalencia ajustada a la edad fue uniformemente más baja en la Región Norte, y uniformemente más alta en las regiones del Sudeste y Centro-oeste. En 2019, hubo 12,3 millones de casos de diabetes, lo que supuso un incremento de 36.4% desde los 9,0 millones en 2013. Las causas incluyen el aumento de peso (9,9%) y el envejecimiento (1,8%) de la población brasileña, así como para el resto de todos los factores, incluyendo el incremento de la detección de casos e incidencia, al igual que el decremento en la mortalidad por diabetes (24,7%). Los principales factores de correlación para una mayor prevalencia -ajustados por regresión de Poisson con variancia robusta- fueron una edad más avanzada (PR = 27,2; IC95%: 1,2-42,9 para ≥ 65 años vs. 18-24 años), hipertensión (PR = 2,6; IC95%: 2,4-2,8 vs. normotensión), y obesidad (PR = 2,3; IC95%: 2,1-2,5 vs. BMI < 25kg/m2). Quienes contaban con una educación superior completa tenían una prevalencia un 40% más baja (PR = 0,6; IC95%: 0,54-0,70 vs. quienes tenían la educación básica incompleta). En conclusión, acompañando una tendencia global, Brasil presenta un incremento de prevalencia de la diabetes a través de sus regiones, planteando una carga inmensa para su población y sistemas de salud.

Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(supl.1): e00125421, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1374861


This study compared indicators of care and access to health services by adults who self-reported hypertension in 2013 and 2019, analyzing those indicators according to gender, age group, schooling level, and race/color. This is an analytic study with data from the Brazilian National Health Survey (PNS), conducted in 2013 and 2019 in Brazil. The indicators to care and access to health services by individuals with arterial hypertension in both surveys were compared. For 2019, those indicators were analyzed according to sociodemographic characteristics. This study estimated the proportions, prevalence ratio (PR), and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). In total, 60,202 individuals were evaluated in 2013 and 88,531 in 2019, of these 24.4% reported arterial hypertension in 2013 and 23.9% in 2019. Women received more medical care for hypertension within the last year (PR = 1.07; 95%CI: 1.04; 1.11), had the last physician appointment at an basic health unit (PR = 1.11; 95%CI: 1.05; 1.17) than men. About race/color, black people had more hospitalization for hypertension or some complication (PR = 1.2; 95%CI: 1.05; 1.38) and intense or very intense degree of limitation in performing daily activities (PR = 1.37; 95%CI: 1.06; 1.76). In 2019, inequalities were evidenced and worse indicators were observed for males, black, with low education and young age. Therefore, investments in the Brazilian Unified National Health System, as well as public policies and strategic actions are essential to reduce inequalities, promote health care.

Este estudo comparou indicadores de cuidados e acesso aos serviços de saúde por adultos que se autodeclararam hipertensos em 2013 e 2019, analisando esses indicadores de acordo com o sexo, grupo etário, nível de escolaridade, e rala/cor. Estudo analítico com dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS), realizado em 2013 e 2019 no Brasil. Os indicadores de cuidados e acesso aos serviços de saúde por indivíduos com hipertensão arterial em ambos os inquéritos foram comparados. Para 2019, esses indicadores foram analisados de acordo com características sociodemográficas. Este estudo estimou as proporções, as razões de prevalência (RP), e os respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95%). No total, 60.202 indivíduos foram avaliados em 2013 e 88.531 em 2019, destes 24,4% referiram hipertensão arterial em 2013 e 23,9% em 2019. As mulheres receberam mais cuidados médicos para hipertensão no último ano (RP = 1,07; IC95%: 1,04; 1,11) e a última consulta médica na unidade básica de saúde (RP = 1,11; IC95%: 1,05; 1,17) que homens. Sobre raça/cor, os negros tiveram mais hospitalização por hipertensão ou alguma complicação (RP = 1,2; IC95%: 1,05; 1,38) e grau de limitação intenso ou muito intenso na realização de atividades diárias (RP = 1,37; IC95%: 1,06; 1,76). Em 2019, foram evidenciadas desigualdades e piores indicadores foram observados em homens, negros, com baixa escolaridade e idade jovem. Investimentos no Sistema Único de Saúde brasileiro, bem como políticas públicas e ações são essenciais para reduzir as desigualdades, promover os cuidados de saúde.

Este estudio comparó indicadores de atención y acceso a servicios de salud por parte de los adultos que se autodeclararon hipertensos en 2013 y 2019, analizando estos indicadores según género, grupo de edad, nivel de educación y raza/color. Estudio analítico con datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud (PNS) realizada en 2013 y 2019 en Brasil. Se compararon indicadores de atención y acceso a los servicios sanitarios de los individuos con hipertensión en ambas encuestas. Para 2019, estos indicadores se analizaron según características sociodemográficas. Este estudio estimó las proporciones, la razón de prevalencia (RP) y los respectivos intervalos de 95% de confianza (IC95%). En total, 60.202 individuos fueron evaluados en 2013 y 88.531 en 2019, de los cuales 24,4% declaró ser hipertenso en 2013 y 23,9% en 2019. Las mujeres recibieron mas atención médica por hipertensión en el último año (RP = 1,07; IC95%: 1,04; 1,11) y la última consulta médica en unidad básica de salud (RP = 1,11; IC95%: 1,05; 1,17) que los hombres. En cuanto raza/color, los negros tuvieron más hospitalizaciones por hipertensión o alguna complicación (RP = 1,2; IC95%: 1,05; 1,38) y un grado intenso o muy intenso de limitación para realizar actividades diarias (RP = 1,37; IC95%: 1,06; 1,76). En 2019, se evidenciaron desigualdades y se observaron peores indicadores en hombres, los negros, con baja educación y la edad joven. Las inversiones en el Sistema Único de Salud brasileño, así como políticas públicas y acciones son esenciales para reducir las desigualdades, promover la atención sanitaria.

Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 25: e220014, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376640


RESUMO: Objetivo: Descrever a prevalência de indicadores do tabagismo entre escolares brasileiros segundo características sociodemográficas em 2019 e comparar as prevalências entre 2015 e 2019. Métodos: Utilizaram-se dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar de 2015 e 2019. Foram analisados os indicadores referentes ao uso do tabaco, que foram comparados entre as edições de 2015 e 2019. Foram calculadas as prevalências e os respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) para a população total e segundo sexo, faixa etária e tipo de escola. Resultados: Dos escolares, 22,6% (IC95% 21,7-23,4) já experimentaram cigarro alguma vez, porcentagem mais elevada entre os de 16 a 17 anos de idade (32,6%; IC95% 31,4-33,8) e no sexo masculino (35,0%; IC95% 33,6-36,4). A experimentação de narguilé, cigarro eletrônico e outros produtos do tabaco também se mostra elevada, com 26,9% (IC95% 26,0-27,8), 16,8% (IC95% 16,2-17,4) e 9,3% (IC95% 8,8-9,8), respectivamente, sendo mais alta entre os escolares do sexo masculino de 16 a 17 anos. Destaca-se que não houve mudanças nos indicadores "experimentação do cigarro", "fumar pela primeira vez antes dos 13 anos", "fumar nos 30 dias anteriores à pesquisa" e "ter ao menos um dos pais fumantes" entre os anos indicados. Conclusão: Embora os indicadores de tabaco fumado estejam estáveis entre 2015 e 2019, destacam-se as elevadas prevalências de experimentação de produtos como narguilé e cigarro eletrônico, que chamam a atenção para a necessidade de novas medidas regulatórias.

ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe the prevalence of smoking indicators among Brazilian students according to sociodemographic characteristics in 2019, and compare the prevalence between 2015 and 2019. Methods: Data from the National Survey of School Health 2015 and 2019 were used. Indicators related to tobacco use were analyzed. Indicators were compared between the 2015 and 2019 editions. Prevalence and respective 95% Confidence Interval (95%IC) were calculated for the total population and according to sex, age group and type of school. Results: 22.6% (95%CI 21.7-23.4) of the students had tried any cigarette and it was higher between 16 and 17 years of age (32.6%; 95% CI 31.4-33, 8) and in males (35.0%; 95%CI 33.6-36.4). The experimentation of hookah, electronic cigarette and other tobacco products are also high, with 26.9% (95%CI 26.0-27.8), 16.8% (95%CI 16.2-17.4) and 9.3% (95%CI 8.8-9.8), respectively, being higher among boys aged 16 to 17 years. It is noteworthy that there were no changes in the indicators of cigarette experimentation, smoking for the first time before the age of 13, smoking in the 30 days prior to the survey, and at least one of the smoking parents. Conclusion: Although smoked tobacco indicators are stable between 2015 and 2019, the high prevalence of experimentation with products such as hookah and electronic cigarettes is highlighted, drawing attention to the need for new regulatory measures.

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0264, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356780


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a great impact on the behavior of individuals and the organization of health systems. This study analyzed the COVID-19 pandemic's effect on public hospitalizations for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in a large city in Brazil, Belo Horizonte, MG, with approximately 2.5 million inhabitants. METHODS: In a time-series analysis, this study used administrative data from the national "Hospital Information System" from 2010 to February 2020 to estimate the expected number of hospitalizations for CVD by month during the COVID-19 pandemic in Belo Horizonte in 2020 using the Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average model. For CVD, this study compared the expected number of hospital admissions, intensive care use, deaths during hospitalization, and mean length of stay with the observed number during the period. RESULTS: There were 6,517 hospitalizations for CVD from March to December 2020, a decrease of 16.3% (95% CI: 4.7-25.3) compared to the projected. The number of intensive care hospitalizations for CVD fell 24.1% (95% CI 13-32.7). The number of deaths also decreased (17.4% [80% CI: 0 - 0.30]), along with the reduction in hospitalizations, as did the length of stay for CVD hospitalizations. These reductions, however, were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalizations for CVD were 16.3% lower than expected in a large Brazilian city, possibly due to the fear of getting infected or going to hospitals. Public campaigns informing how to proceed in case of CVD show that prompt urgent attention is essential to mitigate the indirect effects of the pandemic on CVD.

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0286, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356781


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cancers are the second main cause of morbidity worldwide, but robust information on lip, oral cavity, and pharynx cancers in Brazil is lacking. This study aimed to analyze the trends of incidence and mortality caused by lip, oral cavity, and pharynx cancers and age-period-cohort effects in the Brazilian population of 30 years of age and over, in the period of 1990 to 2019. METHODS: A time series study of the incidence and mortality rates for oral cavity and pharynx cancer ("Lip and oral cavity cancer", "Nasopharynx cancer", and "Other pharynx cancer") was conducted, with corrected data from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2019. Age-standardized rates per 100,000 inhabitants, for the global population, were gathered according to the individuals' sex. The annual average percentage change (AAPC) was estimated, as was the age-period-cohort effects. RESULTS: The incidence and mortality rates were higher for men in the studied anatomical regions. The cancers tended to decrease for men, except for nasopharynx cancer, which increased in individuals of both sexes. Mortality tended to present a decline in most of the groups studied. For men and women, the age-period-cohort model presented a better adjustment for both incidence and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Incidence and mortality caused by the main head and neck cancers showed a tendency to decline over the past 30 years in Brazil, except for nasopharynx cancer, which showed an increase in incidence and mortality in some segments of the population. Higher rates were found for lip and oral cavity cancers in men.

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0252, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356782


Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to estimate the burden of stroke mortality due to low levels of physical activity (PA) in Brazil from 1990 to 2019. METHODS: Data from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study for Brazil and Brazilian states were used. We used the number of deaths, age-standardized mortality rates, summary exposure value, and fraction of population risk attributable to low levels of PA. To standardize all estimates, data from the population aged 25 years or older were considered. RESULTS: The risk of exposure to low PA, SEV values, for the Brazilian male population was 11.8% (95%UI: 6.7; 19.9) and for the Brazilian female population was 13.2% (95%UI: 8.6; 19.2) in 2019. For males, it was estimated that there were, respectively, 2,025 (95%UI: 271; 4,839) and 3,595 (95%UI: 658; 7,302) deaths in 1990 and 2019 due to stroke attributable to low PA. For females, there were 2,518 (95%UI: 498; 5,006) and 4,735 (95%UI: 1,286; 8,495) deaths in 1990 and 2019 due to stroke attributable to low PA, respectively. From 1990 to 2019, reductions of 44.0% for males (95%UI: −0.54; -0.05) and 52.0% for females (95%UI: −0.60; -0.30) in age-standardized mortality rates due to stroke attributed to low PA were observed. Approximately 6.1% (for males) and 7.3% (for females) of deaths in 2019 due to stroke could be avoided if the Brazilian population were physically active. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the promotion of PA in all Brazilian states for preventing early mortality due to stroke.

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0263, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356784


Abstract INTRODUCTION: To better understand trends in the main cause of death in Brazil, we sought to analyze the burden of cardiovascular risk factors (RF) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) attributable to specific RFs in Brazil from 1990 to 2019, using the estimates from the GBD 2019 study. METHODS: To estimate RF exposure, the Summary Exposure Value (SEV) was used, whereas for disease burden attributed to RF, mortality and disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) due to CVD were used. For comparisons over time and between states, we compared age-standardized rates. The sociodemographic index (SDI) was used as a marker of socioeconomic conditions. RESULTS: In 2019, 83% of CVD mortality in Brazil was attributable to RF. For SEV, there was a reduction in smoking and environmental RF, but an increase in metabolic RF. High systolic blood pressure and dietary risks continue to be the main RF for CVD mortality and DALY. While there was a decline in age-standardized mortality rates attributable to the evaluated RF, there was also a stability or increase in crude mortality rates, with the exception of smoking. It is important to highlight the increase in the risk of death attributable to a high body mass index. Regarding the analysis per state, SEVs and mortality attributable to RF were higher in those states with lower SDIs. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the reduction in CVD mortality and DALY rates attributable to RF, the stability or increase in crude rates attributable to metabolic RFs is worrisome, requiring investments and a renewal of health policies.

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0269, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356785


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Larynx cancer is one of the most common head and neck cancers, whose main risk factors are smoking and alcohol use, and its occurrence and prognosis depend on adequate and timely preventive measures. This study aimed to investigate the burden of larynx cancer in Brazil and its states. METHODS: Using estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, this study analyzed the trends of incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for larynx cancer between 1990 and 2019, besides the mortality-to-incidence ratio and the socio demographic index. RESULTS: Incidence and mortality due to larynx cancer in Brazil, which are approximately eight-fold higher for men, showed a declining trend between 1990 and 2019 (APPC: -0.4% and -1.0%, respectively). The DALYs also showed negative variation between 1990 and 2019 for both sexes in Brazil, mainly due to the decrease in premature deaths, with the greatest reduction in the state of São Paulo. For the states of Brazil in 2019, the higher age-standardized incidence rate (Rio Grande do Sul, 3.83 cases per 100,000 inhabitants) is twice the lowest rate (Piauí, 1.56 cases per 100,000 inhabitants). CONCLUSIONS: A fall in the burden of larynx cancer was observed in Brazil over the past 30 years, which may be attributed to a reduction in smoking and to an improvement in treatment. However, the regional inequalities in the country remain evident, especially for males. This data can guide public policy priorities to control the disease in Brazil.

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0320, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356790


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil is an important consumer market for cocaine. However, the consequences of this consumption and the pattern of distribution of the estimates are still poorly studied in the Brazilian states. The Global Burden of Disease study - 2019 (GBD-2019) has enabled us to describe and analyze indicators of mental disorders (MD) attributable by cocaine use in Brazil and its states, in 1990 and 2019. METHODS: A descriptive study of the burden of cocaine use disorders, using prevalence, age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR), years of life lost (YLL) due to premature death, years lived with disabilities (YLD), and disability adjusted life years (DALY), which accounts for YLL+YLD. RESULTS: Brazil ranks 8th as DALYs due to cocaine use disorder in the world (42.83/100.000; 95% uncertainty intervals [95% UI]: 35.28 to 61.43). Significant increases have occurred in the age-standardized rate prevalence (ASRP), ASMR, DALY, YLD, and YLL, in Brazil and its states, between 1990 and 2019. The ASRP in 2019 was 2.7-fold higher for men (278.60/100.000; 95% UI: 208.20 to 374.39) in comparison to women (104.01/100.000; 95% UI: 76.70 to 143.02). There is a predominance of YLD in the composition of DALYs; however, the YLL had the biggest increases between 1990 and 2019. CONCLUSIONS: The high rate of DALYs and the increase in mortality rates show the need to scale up effective interventions to prevent and reduce the burden of disease attributable to cocaine use disorder, which is a preventable cause of death and disability.

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0261, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356791


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brazil ranks 5th in the number of deaths due to road injuries. This study aimed to analyze mortality and disabilities resulting from road injuries in Brazil, and to assess the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) target of reducing deaths due to road injuries by 50% by 2030. METHODS: This descriptive and exploratory study used the estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2019: indicators of mortality, premature deaths, and disabilities according to sex, age group, and type of transport for 1990, 2015, and 2019. Time trends in mortality rates from 1990 to 2019 were assessed, and a projection for 2030 was calculated, applying a linear regression model. RESULTS: Deaths due to road injuries were 44,236 in 1990, and 44,529 in 2019, representing a 43% reduction in mortality rates. The highest rates were in the North, Northeast, and Midwest regions of Brazil, in males and young adults. A 77% reduction was observed in mortality rates for pedestrians and an increase of 53% for motorcyclists and of 54% for cyclists during the period. In terms of motorcycle road injuries, the mortality rate for men increased from 7.3/100,000 (1990) to 11.7/100,000 inhabitants (2019). The rates of premature deaths and disabilities were also higher for men when compared to women. Amputations, fractures, spinal cord injuries, and head trauma were the main types of road injuries. The projections for 2030 show that Brazil might not reach the SDG target. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the decline in mortality rates, the 2030 Agenda's target might not be achieved.

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0287, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356792


Abstract INTRODUCTION Aggression against women is an important cause of morbidity and death. This study compares the variation of deaths and years of life lost to death or disability (DALY) caused by interpersonal violence against women in Brazil and its states. METHODS This descriptive study analyzed estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) referring to interpersonal violence against women, aged 15 to 49 years, examining the mortality and DALY rates for Brazil and its states, in 1990 and 2019. RESULTS In this study, 3,168 deaths of women between 15 and 49 years of age, caused by interpersonal violence, were estimated in 1990, and 4,262 in 2019, which represents an increase of 33.8%. Regardless of the Maria da Penha Law and the progress in policies for curbing violence against women, one can observe a stability in the mortality and DALY rates in most of the Brazilian states. Only Bahia had a significant increase in those rates, while Federal District, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo showed a significant decline. CONCLUSIONS The rates of female homicide have remained stable when comparing 1990 and 2019. Although there were improvements in terms of women's rights in the early 2000's, the chauvinist and conservative society of Brazil has not been able to protect women, and the country might not reach the targets established by the UN's 2030 Agenda.

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0328, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356793


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The goal of reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) requires close monitoring. Our objective is to characterize the decline of premature NCD mortality in Brazil based on Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) Study 2019 estimates. METHODS: We used GBD 2019 data to estimate death rates of the four main NCDs - cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases. We estimated the unconditional probability of death between ages 30 to 69, as recommended by the World Health Organization, as well as premature crude- and age-standardized death rates and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost for these conditions. We also estimated trends in suicide (self-harm) death rates. RESULTS: From 2010 to 2019, the age-standardized unconditional probability of premature death declined -1.4%/year (UI: -1.7%;-1.0%) . Age-standardized death rates declined -1.5%/year (UI: -1.9%; -1.2%), and crude death rates -0.6%/year (UI: (-1.0%; -0.2%). Level of development correlated strongly with the rate of decline, with greatest declines occurring in the Southeast, Center West and South regions. Age-standardized mortality from self-harm declined, most notably in the elderly. CONCLUSIONS: Premature mortality due to the main NCDs has declined from 1990 in Brazil, although at a diminishing rate over time. The unconditional probability of death and the age-standardized mortality rate produced similar estimates of decline for the four main NCDs, and mirror well decline in mortality from all NCDs. Declines, especially more recent ones, fall short of the international goals. Strategic public health actions are needed. The challenge to implement them will be great, considering the political and economic instability currently faced by Brazil.

Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 55(supl.1): e0282, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356794


Abstract INTRODUCTION: An unhealthy diet is a modifiable risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), one of the most important public health problems in Brazil. This study aimed to analyze the burden of NCDs attributable to dietary risks in Brazil between 1990-2019. METHODS: Secondary data from the Global Burden of Disease Study were used to estimate the burden attributable to fifteen dietary risks in Brazil. The main sources of data for Brazil were national surveys and international databases. A comparative risk assessment was used to obtain the population attributable fraction. We described the intake of each dietary risk and the distribution of number and rates of deaths and Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to diet by sex, age, state, and year from 1990-2019. RESULTS: Cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and neoplasms were the main NCDs attributable to an unhealthy diet. Age-standardized mortality and DALYs rates attributable to unhealthy diet decreased between 1990-2019 (-51.5% and -48.8, respectively). Diet high in red meat and sodium, and low in whole grains were the three main risk factors contributing to the burden of NCDs both in 1990 and 2019. The burden of NCDs was higher among males in the middle-aged population (around 50 years), as well as in the states of Maranhão, Rio de Janeiro, and Alagoas. CONCLUSIONS: The present study found a suboptimum diet among the Brazilian population. The major contributors to this burden were diet high in red meat and sodium and low in whole grains. This study supports priorities in public policies on food and nutrition to reduce the burden of NCDs.