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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875471

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Understanding leukemic stem cell (LSC) is important for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment. However, association of LSC with patient prognosis and genetic information in AML patients is unclear. @*Methods@#Here we investigated the associations between genetic information and the various LSC phenotypes, namely multipotent progenitor (MPP)-like, lymphoid primed multipotent progenitor (LMPP)-like and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMP)-like LSC in 52 AML patients. @*Results@#In secondary AML patients, MPP-like LSC was significantly higher than de novo AML (p = 0.0037). The proportion of MPP-like LSC was especially high in post-myeloproliferative neoplasm AML (p = 0.0485). There was no correlation between age and LSC phenotype. Mutations of KRAS and NRAS were observed in MPP-like LSC dominant patients, TP53 and ASXL1 mutations in LMPP-like LSC dominant patients, and CEBPA, DNMT3A and IDH1 mutations in GMP-like LSC dominant patients. Furthermore, KRAS mutation was significantly associated with MPP-like LSC expression (p = 0.0540), and TP53 mutation with LMPP-like LSC expression (p = 0.0276). When the patients were separated according to the combined risk including next generation sequencing data, the poorer the prognosis, the higher the LMPP-like LSC expression (p = 0.0052). This suggests that the dominant phenotype of LSC is one of the important factors in predicting the prognosis and treatment of AML. @*Conclusions@#LSC phenotype in AML is closely associated with the recurrent mutations which has prognostic implication. Further research to confirm the meaning of LSC phenotype in the context of genetic aberration is warranted.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 142-145, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874568

ABSTRACT

Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in the aldolase B gene. HFI patients exhibit nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hypoglycemia, and elevated liver enzymes after dietary fructose exposure. Chronic exposure might lead to failure to thrive, liver failure, renal failure, and, eventually, death. HFI usually manifests in infants when they are being weaned off of breastmilk. Because HFI has an excellent prognosis when patients maintain a strict restrictive diet, some patients remain undiagnosed due to the voluntary avoidance of sweet foods. In the past, HFI was diagnosed using a fructose tolerance test, liver enzyme assays or intestinal biopsy specimens. Currently, HFI is diagnosed through the analysis of aldolase B mutations. Here, HFI was diagnosed in a 41-year-old woman who complained of sweating, nausea, and vomiting after consuming sweets. She had a compound heterozygous mutation in the aldolase B gene; gene analysis revealed pathogenic nonsense (c.178C>T, p.Arg60Ter) and frameshift (c.360_363delCAAA, p.Asn120LysfsTer32) variants. This is the first report of a Korean HFI patient diagnosed in adulthood.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874151

ABSTRACT

Background@#Conventional diagnosis of fragile X syndrome (FXS) is based on a combination of fragment analysis (FA) and Southern blotting (SB); however, this diagnostic approach is time- and labor-intensive and has pitfalls such as the possibility of missing large number alleles. Triplet repeat primed PCR (TP-PCR) is a current alternative used to overcome these limitations. We evaluated the diagnostic usefulness of TP-PCR compared with the conventional diagnostic protocol consisting of FA and/or SB in terms of allele categorization, repeat number correlation, and zygosity concordance in female genetic carriers. @*Methods@#From November 2013 to March 2018, 458 patients (326 males, 132 females) were simultaneously examined using FA and/or SB and TP-PCR by detecting CGG repeat numbers in FMR gene and diagnosed as per American College of Medical Genetics guidelines. @*Results@#The TP-PCR results showed high concordance with the FA and/or SB results for all three aspects (allele categorization, repeat number correlation, and zygosity concordance in female genetic carriers). TP-PCR detected CGG expansions ≥ 200 in all full mutation (FM) allele cases in male patients, as well as both the normal allele (NL) and FM allele in female carriers. In premutation (PM) allele carriers, the TP-PCR results were consistent with the FA and/or SB results. In terms of zygosity concordance in female genetic carriers, 12 NL cases detected by TP-PCR showed a merged peak consisting of two close heterozygous peaks; however, this issue was resolved using a 10-fold dilution. @*Conclusions@#TP-PCR may serve as a reliable alternative method for FXS diagnosis.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898131

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas (PPGL) are known as tumors with the highest level of heritability, approximately 30% of all cases. Clinical practice guidelines of PPGL recommend genetic testing for germline variants in all patients. In this study, we used whole exome sequencing to identify novel causative variants associated with PPGL to improve the detection of rare genetic variants in our cohort. @*Methods@#Thirty-six tested negative for pathogenic variants in previous Sanger sequencing or targeted gene panel testing for PPGL underwent whole exome sequencing. Whole exome sequencing was performed using DNA samples enriched using TruSeq Custom Enrichment Kit and sequenced with MiSeq (Illumina Inc.). Sequencing alignment and variant calling were performed using SAMtools. @*Results@#Among previously mutation undetected 36 patients, two likely pathogenic variants and 13 variants of uncertain significance (VUS) were detected in 32 pheochromocytoma-related genes. SDHA c.778G>A (p.Gly260Arg) was detected in a patient with head and neck paraganglioma, and KIF1B c.2787-2A>C in a patient with a bladder paraganglioma. Additionally, a likely pathogenic variant in BRCA2, VUS in TP53, and VUS in NFU1 were detected. @*Conclusion@#Exome sequencing further identified genetic alterations by 5.6% in previously mutation undetected patients in PPGL. Implementation of targeted gene sequencing consisted of extended genes of PPGL in routine clinical screening can support the level of comprehensive patient assessment.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836189

ABSTRACT

F-box only protein 7 (FBXO7) is a rare monogenic cause of hereditary Parkinson’s disease (PD) with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance and a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Here, we report a de novo PD patient with onset at the age of 28 with novel compound heterozygous variants in the FBXO7 gene (c.1162C>T, p.Gln388X; c.80G>A, p.Arg27His). The clinical features of the patient were problematic impulse control disorder behaviors and pyromania, and pyramidal signs were negative. We describe the novel pathogenic variants of the FBXO7 gene with detailed clinical pictures to report the expanding genotypes and phenotypes of FBXO7-associated parkinsonism.

6.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835774

ABSTRACT

The Shprintzen–Goldberg syndrome (SGS) is an extremely rare genetic disorder caused by heterozygous variant in SKI . SGS is characterized by neurodevelopmental impairment with skeletal anomaly. Recognition of SGS is sometimes quite challenging in practice because it has diverse clinical features involving skeletal, neurological, and cardiovascular system. Here we report a case of a 6-month-old boy who initially presented with developmental delay and marfanoid facial features including prominent forehead, hypertelorism, high arched palate and retrognathia. He showed motor developmental delay since birth and could not control his head at the time of first evaluation. His height was above 2 standard deviation score. Arachnodactyly, hypermobility of joints, skin laxity, and pectus excavatum were also noted. Sequencing for FBN1 was negative, however, a novel missense variant, c.350G>A in SKI was identified by sequential whole exome sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first case with SGS with phenotypic features of SGS overlapping with those of the Marfan syndrome, diagnosed by next generation sequencing in Korea.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890427

ABSTRACT

Background@#Pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas (PPGL) are known as tumors with the highest level of heritability, approximately 30% of all cases. Clinical practice guidelines of PPGL recommend genetic testing for germline variants in all patients. In this study, we used whole exome sequencing to identify novel causative variants associated with PPGL to improve the detection of rare genetic variants in our cohort. @*Methods@#Thirty-six tested negative for pathogenic variants in previous Sanger sequencing or targeted gene panel testing for PPGL underwent whole exome sequencing. Whole exome sequencing was performed using DNA samples enriched using TruSeq Custom Enrichment Kit and sequenced with MiSeq (Illumina Inc.). Sequencing alignment and variant calling were performed using SAMtools. @*Results@#Among previously mutation undetected 36 patients, two likely pathogenic variants and 13 variants of uncertain significance (VUS) were detected in 32 pheochromocytoma-related genes. SDHA c.778G>A (p.Gly260Arg) was detected in a patient with head and neck paraganglioma, and KIF1B c.2787-2A>C in a patient with a bladder paraganglioma. Additionally, a likely pathogenic variant in BRCA2, VUS in TP53, and VUS in NFU1 were detected. @*Conclusion@#Exome sequencing further identified genetic alterations by 5.6% in previously mutation undetected patients in PPGL. Implementation of targeted gene sequencing consisted of extended genes of PPGL in routine clinical screening can support the level of comprehensive patient assessment.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915018

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Genetic defects in the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases were first identified as causes of various disorders in 2007. Variants in IARS2, which encodes a mitochondrial isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, were first reported in 2014. These variants are associated with diverse phenotypes ranging from CAGSSS (CAtaracts, Growth hormone deficiency, Sensory neuropathy, Sensorineural hearing loss, and Skeletal dysplasia) and Leigh syndrome to isolated nonsyndromic cataracts. Here, we describe the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of Korean patients with IARS2-related disorders.@*MATERIALS AND METHODS@#Using whole-exome sequencing followed by Sanger sequencing, we identified five patients with IARS2 mutations. Their medical records and brain magnetic resonance images were reviewed retrospectively.@*RESULTS@#All five patients presented with developmental delay or regression before 18 months of age. Three patients had bilateral cataracts, but none had hearing loss or sensory neuropathy. No evidence of skeletal dysplasia was noted, but two had short stature. One patient had cardiomyopathy and another exhibited renal tubulopathy and hypoparathyroidism. Their brain imaging findings were consistent with Leigh syndrome. Interestingly, we found the recurrent mutations p.R817H and p.V105Dfs*7 in IARS2.@*CONCLUSION@#To our knowledge, this is the first report of Korean patients with IARS2-related disorders. Our findings broaden the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of IARS2-related disorders in Korea and will help to increase clinical awareness of IARS2-related neurodegenerative diseases.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765062

ABSTRACT

The authors regret that there were errors in Table 2 and Supplementary Table.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764988

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Because of genetically and phenotypically heterogenous features, identification of causative genes for inherited retinal diseases (IRD) is essential for diagnosis and treatment in coming gene therapy era. To date, there are no large-scale data of the genes responsible for IRD in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the distribution of genetic defects in IRD patients in Korea. METHODS: Medical records and DNA samples from 86 clinically diagnosed IRD patients were consecutively collected between July 2011 and May 2015. We applied the next-generation sequencing strategy (gene panel) for screening 204 known pathogenic genes associated with IRD. RESULTS: Molecular diagnoses were made in 38/86 (44.2%) IRD patients: 18/44 (40.9%) retinitis pigmentosa (RP), 8/22 (36.4%) cone dystrophy, 6/7 (85.7%) Stargardt disease, 1/1 (100%) Best disease, 1/1 (100%) Bardet-Biedl syndrome, 1/1 (100%) congenital stationary night blindness, 1/1 (100%) choroideremia, and 2/8 (25%) other macular dystrophies. ABCA4 was the most common causative gene associated with IRD and was responsible for causing Stargardt disease (n = 6), RP (n = 1), and cone dystrophy (n = 1). In particular, mutations in EYS were found in 4 of 14 autosomal recessive RP (29%). All cases of Stargardt disease had a mutation in the ABCA4 gene with an autosomal recessive trait. CONCLUSION: This study provided the distribution of genetic mutations responsible for causing IRD in the Korean patients. This data will serve as a reference for future genetic screening and treatment for Korean IRD patients.


Subject(s)
Bardet-Biedl Syndrome , Choroideremia , Diagnosis , DNA , Genetic Testing , Genetic Therapy , Humans , Korea , Macular Degeneration , Mass Screening , Medical Records , Night Blindness , Retinal Diseases , Retinaldehyde , Retinitis Pigmentosa , Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 700-703, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762089

ABSTRACT

Congenital analbuminemia (CAA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by extremely low serum levels of albumin. CAA is caused by various homozygous or heterozygous mutations of the ALB gene. Patients often exhibit no clinical symptoms, aside from rare accompanying conditions, such as fatigue, ankle edema, and hypotension. This case report describes the case of a 28-year-old asymptomatic Korean male referred to our center with hypocalcemia, vitamin D deficiency, and hypoalbuminemia who was diagnosed with CAA. To determine the cause of hypoalbuminemia in the patient, laboratory tests, radiological examination, and DNA sequencing were performed. The patient was confirmed to not exhibit any other clinical conditions that can induce hypoalbuminemia and was diagnosed with CAA using DNA sequencing. The present case of CAA is the first to be reported in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ankle , Edema , Fatigue , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia , Hypocalcemia , Hypotension , Korea , Male , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Vitamin D Deficiency
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719219

ABSTRACT

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a rare genetic disease caused by various abnormalities in the androgen receptor (AR). The AR is an essential steroid hormone receptor that plays a critical role in male sexual differentiation and development and preservation of the male phenotype. Mutations in the AR gene on the X chromosome cause malfunction of the AR so that a 46,XY karyotype male has some physical characteristics of a woman or a full female phenotype. Depending on the phenotype, AIS can be classified as complete, partial or mild. Here, we report 2 cases of complete AIS in young children who showed complete sex reversal from male to female as a result of AR mutations. They had palpable inguinal masses and normal female external genitalia, a blind-end vagina and absent Müllerian duct derivatives. They were both 46,XY karyotype and AR gene analysis demonstrated pathologic mutations in both. Because AIS is inherited in an X-linked recessive manner, we performed genetic analysis of the female family members of each patient and found the same mutation in the mothers of both patients and in the female sibling of case 2. Gonadectomy was performed in both patients to avoid the risk of malignancy in the undescended testicles, and estrogen replacement therapy is planned for their adolescence. Individuals with complete AIS are usually raised as females and need appropriate care.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome , Child , Disorders of Sex Development , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Female , Genitalia , Humans , Karyotype , Male , Mothers , Phenotype , Receptors, Androgen , Sex Differentiation , Siblings , Testis , Vagina , X Chromosome
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718773

ABSTRACT

Quality control for genetic analysis has become more important with a drastic increase in testing volume and clinical demands. The molecular diagnostics division of the Korean Association of Quality Assurance for Clinical Laboratory conducted two trials in 2017 on the basis of molecular diagnostics surveys, involving 53 laboratories. The molecular diagnostics surveys included 37 tests: gene rearrangement tests for leukemia (BCR-ABL1, PML-RARA, AML1-ETO, and TEL-AML1), genetic tests for Janus kinase 2, FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication, FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-tyrosine kinase domain, nucleophosmin, cancer-associated genes (KRAS, EGFR, KIT, and BRAF), hereditary breast and ovarian cancer genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2), Li-Fraumeni syndrome (TP53), Wilson disease (ATP7B), achondroplasia (FGFR3), hearing loss and deafness (GJB2), Avellino (TGFBI), multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 (RET), Huntington disease, spinocerebellar ataxia, spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes, myoclonic epilepsy ragged red fibre, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, Prader-raderd Angelman syndrome, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, fragile X syndrome, apolipoprotein E genotyping, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotyping, and ABO genotyping. Molecular genetic surveys revealed excellent results for most participants. The external quality assessment program for genetic analysis in 2017 proved useful for continuous education and the evaluation of quality improvement.


Subject(s)
Achondroplasia , Acidosis, Lactic , Angelman Syndrome , Apolipoproteins , Brain Diseases , Breast , Deafness , Education , Epilepsies, Myoclonic , Fragile X Syndrome , Gene Rearrangement , Hearing Loss , Hepatolenticular Degeneration , Huntington Disease , Janus Kinase 2 , Korea , Laboratory Proficiency Testing , Leukemia , Li-Fraumeni Syndrome , Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2) , Molecular Biology , Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia , Muscular Atrophy, Spinal , Muscular Disorders, Atrophic , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne , Optic Atrophy, Hereditary, Leber , Ovarian Neoplasms , Pathology, Molecular , Phosphotransferases , Quality Control , Quality Improvement , Spinocerebellar Ataxias , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739103

ABSTRACT

Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an inherited cardiac disease characterized by a prolonged heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval. We investigated the genetic causes in patients with prolonged QTc intervals who were negative for pathogenic variants in three major LQTS-related genes (KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A). Molecular genetic testing was performed using a panel including 13 LQTS-related genes and 67 additional genes implicated in other cardiac diseases. Overall, putative genetic causes of prolonged QTc interval were identified in three of the 30 patients (10%). Among the LQTS-related genes, we detected a previously reported pathogenic variant, CACNA1C c.1552C>T, responsible for cardiac-only Timothy syndrome. Among the genes related to other cardiac diseases, a likely pathogenic variant, RYR2 c.11995A>G, was identified in a patient with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Another patient who developed dilated cardiomyopathy with prolonged QTc interval was found to carry a likely pathogenic variant, TAZ c.718G>A, associated with infantile dilated cardiomyopathy. Comprehensive screening of genetic variants using multigene panel sequencing enables detection of genetic variants with a possible involvement in QTc interval prolongation, thus uncovering unknown molecular mechanisms underlying LQTS.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated , Heart , Heart Diseases , Humans , Long QT Syndrome , Mass Screening , Molecular Biology , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel , Tachycardia, Ventricular
16.
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 135-140, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of acute congestive heart failure. A point-of-care test (POCT) could rapidly detect the presence of NT-proBNP during emergencies. We evaluated the analytical performance of the new Samsung LABGEO PA CHF Test (Samsung Electronics, Korea). METHODS: Based on the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), we compared the precision, linearity, and method with those of the E170 (Roche Diagnostics, Switzerland). Matrix comparison between the NT-proBNP values in whole blood and plasma was also performed, and the reference interval was determined using residual samples from healthy adults selected based on the evaluation criteria. RESULTS: The Samsung LABGEO PA CHF Test provided results in approximately 18 min. The coefficient of variation (CV) of within-laboratory precision was below 6.8%. A desirable linearity was observed in the range of 0–10,000 pg/mL, with R²=0.99. The correlation with E170 was also excellent (N=108, r=0.96). NT-proBNP values in the whole blood were correlated with those in the plasma (N=36, r=0.99). The reference interval for the circulating NT-proBNP concentration was determined in 118 plasma samples from healthy subjects (26-75 yr of age). The 97.5th percentile was found to be 58.3 pg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: The Samsung LABGEO PA CHF Test demonstrated a good analytical performance. It could be a powerful tool as a POCT for clinical practice, particularly during emergencies.


Subject(s)
Adult , Diagnosis , Emergencies , Healthy Volunteers , Heart Failure , Humans , Methods , Plasma , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184025

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is one possible treatment for patients resistant to conventional antithyroid drugs or requiring urgent attention for thyrotoxicosis. We report a 35-yr-old man with thyrotoxicosis, ultimately attributed to Graves' disease in whom antithyroid drug used initially was soon discontinued, due to abnormal liver function, and replaced by Lugol's solution. Three weeks later, an escape phenomenon (to Lugol's solution) was apparent, so we performed TPE to control the thyrotoxicosis. Two courses of TPE by a centrifugal type machine resulted in diminished levels of thyroid hormone levels, which then rebounded after another two courses of membrane filtration type TPE. However, the patient could be treated with radioactive iodine therapy without any complications at present.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antithyroid Agents/adverse effects , Cetirizine/adverse effects , Graves Disease/radiotherapy , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Humans , Iodides/therapeutic use , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , Male , Methimazole/adverse effects , Plasmapheresis/methods , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyrotoxicosis/therapy
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-185947

ABSTRACT

The causes of temporomandiublar joint(TMJ) ankylosis are classified into trauma, systemic or local infection, and systemic diseases. Recent reports have implicated taruma as the main cause, with infection being a distant one. Local infections of surrounding structures(eg, mastoiditis and otitis media) can spread to TMJ by a direct extension or a hematogenous spread. In childhood, dense barrier of bone between the middle ear and the joint cavity may not be developed to prevent the spead of the infection. Otitis media is known to be a common complication of measles in children. Therefore children are more susceptible to TMJ ankylosis secondary to otitis media caused by measles. In the present case, the patient was 21 years old. At the age of 5 years, he had been caught by measles and accompanying otitis media. Since then, he had suffered from trismus for over 15 years. He was diagnosed as bony ankylosis of the left TMJ. We reconstructed his TMJ with 1) the resection of the condylar mass, 2) ipsilateral coronoidectemy, 3) contralateral coronoidectomy, 4) recontouring of glenoid fossa, and 5) replacement with a metal prosthesis(titanium condyle). In the choice of the graft material, we preferred metal prosthesis to autogenous costochnodral rib bone because the patient was still in the state of chronic otitis media and mastoditis. His mandibular function was improved significantly postoperatively. Unitl now he gets along without any postoperative complication.


Subject(s)
Ankylosis , Child , Ear, Middle , Humans , Joints , Mastoid , Mastoiditis , Measles , Otitis Media , Otitis , Postoperative Complications , Prostheses and Implants , Ribs , Temporomandibular Joint , Transplants , Trismus , Young Adult
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