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1.
Adv Rheumatol ; 62: 3, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360070

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To provide guidelines on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in patients with immune-mediated rheumatic diseases (IMRD) to rheumatologists considering specific scenarios of the daily practice based on the shared-making decision (SMD) process. Methods: A task force was constituted by 24 rheumatologists (panel members), with clinical and research expertise in immunizations and infectious diseases in immunocompromised patients, endorsed by the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology (BSR), to develop guidelines for COVID-19 vaccination in patients with IMRD. A consensus was built through the Delphi method and involved four rounds of anonymous voting, where five options were used to determine the level of agreement (LOA), based on the Likert Scale: (1) strongly disagree; (2) disagree, (3) neither agree nor disagree (neutral); (4) agree; and (5) strongly agree. Nineteen questions were addressed and discussed via teleconference to formulate the answers. In order to identify the relevant data on COVID-19 vaccines, a search with standardized descriptors and synonyms was performed on September 10th, 2021, of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, and LILACS to identify studies of interest. We used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess the quality of nonrandomized studies. Results: All the nineteen questions-answers (Q&A) were approved by the BSR Task Force with more than 80% of panelists voting options 4—agree—and 5—strongly agree—, and a consensus was reached. These Guidelines were focused in SMD on the most appropriate timing for IMRD patients to get vaccinated to reach the adequate covid-19 vaccination response. Conclusion: These guidelines were developed by a BSR Task Force with a high LOA among panelists, based on the literature review of published studies and expert opinion for COVID-19 vaccination in IMRD patients. Noteworthy, in the pandemic period, up to the time of the review and the consensus process for this document, high-quality evidence was scarce. Thus, it is not a substitute for clinical judgment.

2.
Adv Rheumatol ; 61: 4, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152735

ABSTRACT

Abstract Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a group of chronic inflammatory systemic diseases characterized by axial and/or peripheral joints inflammation, as well as extra-articular manifestations. Over some decades, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been the basis for the pharmacological treatment of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). However, the emergence of the immunobiologic agents brought up the discussion about the role of NSAIDs in the management of these patients. The objective of this guideline is to provide recommendations for the use of NSAIDs for the treatment of axSpA. A panel of experts from the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials for 15 predefined questions. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology to assess the quality of evidence and formulate recommendations were used, and at least 70% agreement of the voting panel was needed. Fourteen recommendations for the use of NSAIDs in the treatment of patients with axSpA were elaborated. The purpose of these recommendations is to support clinicians' decision making, without taking out his/her autonomy when prescribing for an individual patient.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Decision Making
3.
Adv Rheumatol ; 61: 60, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345107

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: There is a lack of information on the role of chronic use of hydroxychloroquine during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Our aim was to compare the occurrence of COVID-19 between rheumatic disease patients on hydroxychloroquine with individuals from the same household not taking the drug during the first 8 weeks of community viral transmission in Brazil. Methods: This baseline cross-sectional analysis is part of a 24-week observational multi-center study involving 22 Brazilian academic outpatient centers. All information regarding COVID-19 symptoms, epidemiological, clinical, and demographic data were recorded on a specific web-based platform using telephone calls from physicians and medical students. COVID-19 was defined according to the Brazilian Ministry of Health (BMH) criteria. Mann-Whitney, Chi-square and Exact Fisher tests were used for statistical analysis and two binary Final Logistic Regression Model by Wald test were developed using a backward-stepwise method for the presence of COVID-19. Results: From March 29th to May 17st, 2020, a total of 10,443 participants were enrolled, including 5166 (53.9%) rheumatic disease patients, of whom 82.5% had systemic erythematosus lupus, 7.8% rheumatoid arthritis, 3.7% Sjögren's syndrome and 0.8% systemic sclerosis. In total, 1822 (19.1%) participants reported flu symptoms within the 30 days prior to enrollment, of which 3.1% fulfilled the BMH criteria, but with no significant difference between rheumatic disease patients (4.03%) and controls (3.25%). After adjustments for multiple confounders, the main risk factor significantly associated with a COVID-19 diagnosis was lung disease (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.03-2.58); and for rheumatic disease patients were diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.19-6.63) and glucocorticoids above 10 mg/ day (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.31-3.19). In addition, a recent influenza vaccination had a protective effect (OR 0.674; 95% CI 0.46-0.98). Conclusion: Patients with rheumatic disease on hydroxychloroquine presented a similar occurrence of COVID-19 to household cohabitants, suggesting a lack of any protective role against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Trial registration Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC; RBR - 9KTWX6).

4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e08552021, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288089

ABSTRACT

Abstract The persistence of serum-specific anti-chikungunya IgM antibodies (CHIKV-IgM) can vary after chikungunya fever (CHIK) infection. However, the factors related to its production are not yet known. We described a case series drawn up from data collected from 57 patients between 12 and 36 months after the acute phase of CHIK infection in Northeastern Brazil. CHIKV-IgM was detectable in 7/57 (12.3%) patients after 28.3 months of infection. No frequency differences in chronic musculoskeletal manifestations and underlying conditions were detected between patients with or without CHIKV-IgM. CHIKV-IgM was detected for up to 35 months in Brazilian patients after CHIK infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chikungunya virus , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Brazil , Immunoglobulin M , Antibodies, Viral
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190517, 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1136911

ABSTRACT

Abstract Since the emergence of the chikungunya virus in Brazil in 2014, more than 700,000 cases have been reported throughout the country, corresponding to one-third of all cases reported in the Americas. In addition to its high attack rates, resulting in hundreds of thousands of cases, the disease has high chronicity rates with persistent joint manifestations for more than 3 months, which can spread to more than half of the patients affected in the acute phase. Pain associated with musculoskeletal manifestations, often disabling, has an effect on patients' quality of life at different stages of the disease. Currently, the challenge faced by specialists is identifying the best therapy to be instituted for symptom relief despite the limited number of published intervention studies. In 2016, a multidisciplinary group published pharmacological treatment protocols for pain in patients with chikungunya, which was incorporated into the guidelines for clinical management of the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2017; in that same year, a consensus was published by the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology about diagnosis and treatment. After 5 years of experience with chikungunya epidemics, in 2019, specialists involved in the protocols of the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology and Brazilian Ministry of Health prepared an update with the main objective of developing flowcharts for the therapeutic approach of musculoskeletal manifestations in adult patients to enable specialists at different levels of healthcare to spread and apply this guideline in a systematic and simplified manner.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Rheumatology , Chikungunya Fever/complications , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/therapy , Quality of Life , Brazil , Consensus
6.
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 19, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088654

ABSTRACT

Abstract Spondyloarthritis is a group of chronic inflammatory systemic diseases characterized by axial and/or peripheral joints inflammation, as well as extra-articular manifestations. The classification axial spondyloarthritis is adopted when the spine and/or the sacroiliac joints are predominantly involved. This version of recommendations replaces the previous guidelines published in May 2013. A systematic literature review was performed, and two hundred thirty-seven studies were selected and used to formulate 29 recommendations answering 15 clinical questions, which were divided into four sections: diagnosis, non-pharmacological therapy, conventional drug therapy and biological therapy. For each recommendation the level of evidence supporting (highest available), the strength grade according to Oxford, and the degree of expert agreement (inter-rater reliability) is informed. These guidelines bring evidence-based information on clinical management of axial SpA patients, including, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Spondylarthritis/diagnosis , Spondylarthritis/therapy , Prognosis , Brazil
7.
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 32, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130792

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, also known as antimalarial drugs, are widely used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases and have recently become the focus of attention because of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Rheumatologists have been using antimalarials to manage patients with chronic immune-mediated inflammatory rheumatic diseases for decades. It is an appropriate time to review their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms impact on disease activity and survival of systemic lupus erythematosus patient, including antiplatelet effect, metabolic and lipid benefits. We also discuss possible adverse effects, adding a practical and comprehensive approach to monitoring rheumatic patients during treatment with these drugs.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology
8.
Adv Rheumatol ; 59: 17, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088607

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: In Brazil, we are facing an alarming epidemic scenario of Yellow fever (YF), which is reaching the most populous areas of the country in unvaccinated people. Vaccination is the only effective tool to prevent YF. In special situations, such as patients with chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (CIMID), undergoing immunosuppressive therapy, as a higher risk of severe adverse events may occur, assessment of the risk-benefit ratio of the yellow fever vaccine (YFV) should be performed on an individual level. Main body of the abstract: Faced with the scarcity of specific orientation on YFV for this special group of patients, the Brazilian Rheumatology Society (BRS) endorsed a project aiming the development of individualized YFV recommendations for patients with CIMID, guided by questions addressed by both medical professionals and patients, followed an internationally validated methodology (GIN-McMaster Guideline Development). Firstly, a systematic review was carried out and an expert panel formed to take part of the decision process, comprising BRS clinical practitioners, as well as individuals from the Brazilian Dermatology Society (BDS), Brazilian Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Study Group (GEDIIB), and specialists on infectious diseases and vaccination (from Tropical Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Immunizations National Societies); in addition, two representatives of patient groups were included as members of the panel. When the quality of the evidence was low or there was a lack of evidence to determine the recommendations, the decisions were based on the expert opinion panel and a Delphi approach was performed. A recommendation was accepted upon achieving ≥80% agreement among the panel, including the patient representatives. As a result, eight recommendations were developed regarding the safety of YFV in patients with CIMID, considering the immunosuppression degree conferred by the treatment used. It was not possible to establish recommendations on the effectiveness of YFV in these patients as there is no consistent evidence to support these recommendations. Conclusion: This paper approaches a real need, assessed by clinicians and patient care groups, to address specific questions on the management of YFV in patients with CIMID living or traveling to YF endemic areas, involving specialists from many areas together with patients, and might have global applicability, contributing to and supporting vaccination practices. We recommended a shared decision-making approach on taking or not the YFV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Chronic Disease , Yellow Fever Vaccine/administration & dosage , Brazil/epidemiology , Efficacy/standards , Treatment Outcome
9.
Cad. Bras. Ter. Ocup ; 26(1): 145-152, marc. 30, 2018.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-994860

ABSTRACT

[{"text": "Introdução: A osteoartrite de mãos é uma doença articular que acarreta dor, rigidez, deformidade e perda\r\nda mobilidade, gerando grande impacto funcional na vida das pessoas, por tornar as atividades comuns do dia a dia\r\ndifíceis e dolorosas, repercutindo negativamente na sua qualidade de vida. Dispositivos de assistência são estratégias\r\nutilizadas por terapeutas ocupacionais para o tratamento sintomático da osteoartrite de mãos. Objetivo: Identificar e\r\ndescrever dispositivos de assistência indicados para indivíduos com osteoartrite de mãos a partir de uma intervenção\r\ndo terapeuta ocupacional. Método: Estudo observacional, descritivo de corte transversal. Realizado em população\r\ndiagnosticada com Osteaoartrite de mãos, no ambulatório de terapia ocupacional de um hospital referência, no\r\nperíodo de agosto a setembro de 2015. Dezesseis participantes responderam a um questionário semiestruturado\r\nelaborado com enfoque na descrição e frequência de uso dos dispositivos de assistência indicados e ofertados em\r\numa pesquisa mestre. A análise de dados ocorreu por estatística descritiva através de medida de tendência central e\r\ndistribuição de probabilidade. Resultados: Os dispositivos de assistência utilizados no dia a dia dos 16 indivíduos\r\nentrevistados foram adaptadores para o vestir, adaptadores para o banho, descascadores, engrossadores, abridores e\r\ncortadores. Foram incluídos na rotina dos participantes 84% destes dispositivos de assistência com frequência diária,\r\nsemanal e mensal. Conclusão: Os dispositivos de assistência utilizados pela população estudada foram adaptadores\r\npara o vestir, adaptadores para o banho, descascadores, engrossadores, abridores e cortadores.", "_i": "pt"}, {"text": "Introduction: Hands osteoarthritis is a joint disease that causes pain, stiffness, deformity and loss of\r\nmobility. It has huge functional and negative impact on people's quality of life by making the common daily\r\nactivities difficult and painful. Assistive devices are strategies used by occupational therapists for the symptomatic\r\ntreatment hands osteoarthritis. Objective: To identify and describe assistive devices indicated for individuals with\r\nhands osteoarthritis through an Occupational Therapy intervention. Method: Cross-sectional study, conducted on\r\nsubjects diagnosed with hands osteoarthritis in an Occupational Therapy clinic at a reference hospital in the state,\r\nfrom August to September 2015. Sixteen participants answered a researcher-developed semi-structured questionnaire,\r\nfocusing on the description and frequency of use of specified assistive devices. Data were analyzed using descriptive\r\nstatistics through measure of central tendency and probability distribution. Results: The assistive devices used in the\r\ndaily lives of the 16 individuals interviewed were: adapters for dressing, adapters for bathing, peelers, thickeners,\r\njar/bottle openers and cutters. were in the routine of individuals 84% of these assistive devices with a daily, weekly\r\nand monthly frequency. Conclusion: In this study, individuals suffering from hand osteoarthritis used adapters for\r\ndressing, adapters for bathing, thickeners, peelers, jar/bottle openers and cutters as assistive devices.", "_i": "en"}]

10.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 57(supl.2): s421-s437, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899486

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chikungunya fever has become a relevant public health problem in countries where epidemics occur. Until 2013, only imported cases occurred in the Americas, but in October of that year, the first cases were reported in Saint Marin island in the Caribbean. The first autochthonous cases were confirmed in Brazil in September 2014; until epidemiological week 37 of 2016, 236,287 probable cases of infection with Chikungunya virus had been registered, 116,523 of which had serological confirmation. Environmental changes caused by humans, disorderly urban growth and an ever-increasing number of international travelers were described as the factors responsible for the emergence of large-scale epidemics. Clinically characterized by fever and joint pain in the acute stage, approximately half of patients progress to the chronic stage (beyond 3 months), which is accompanied by persistent and disabling pain. The aim of the present study was to formulate recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of Chikungunya fever in Brazil. A literature review was performed in the MEDLINE, SciELO and PubMed databases to ground the decisions for recommendations. The degree of concordance among experts was established through the Delphi method, involving 2 in-person meetings and several online voting rounds. In total, 25 recommendations were formulated and divided into 3 thematic groups: (1) clinical, laboratory and imaging diagnosis; (2) special situations; and (3) treatment. The first 2 themes are presented in part 1, and treatment is presented in part 2.


Resumo A febre chikungunya tem se tornado um importante problema de saúde pública nos países onde ocorrem as epidemias. Até 2013, as Américas haviam registrado apenas casos importados quando, em outubro desse mesmo ano, foram notificados os primeiros casos na Ilha de Saint Martin, no Caribe. No Brasil, os primeiros relatos autóctones foram confirmados em setembro de 2014 e até a semana epidemiológica 37 de 2016 já haviam sido registrados 236.287 casos prováveis de infecção pelo chikungunya vírus (CHIKV), 116.523 confirmados sorologicamente. As mudanças ambientais causadas pelo homem, o crescimento urbano desordenado e o número cada vez maior de viagens internacionais têm sido apontados como os fatores responsáveis pela reemergência de epidemias em grande escala. Caracterizada clinicamente por febre e dor articular na fase aguda, em cerca de metade dos casos existe evolução para a fase crônica (além de três meses), com dor persistente e incapacitante. O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar recomendações para diagnóstico e tratamento da febre chikungunya no Brasil. Para isso, foi feita revisão da literatura nas bases de dados Medline, SciELO e PubMed, para dar apoio às decisões tomadas para definir as recomendações. Para a definição do grau de concordância foi feita uma metodologia Delphi, em duas reuniões presenciais e várias rodadas de votação on line. Foram geradas 25 recomendações, divididas em três grupos temáticos: (1) diagnóstico clínico, laboratorial e por imagem; (2) situações especiais e (3) tratamento. Na primeira parte estão os dois primeiros temas e o tratamento na segunda.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Rheumatology , Societies, Medical , Brazil , Delphi Technique , Consensus , Chikungunya Fever/physiopathology , Chikungunya Fever/therapy
11.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 57(supl.2): s438-s451, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899488

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chikungunya fever has become an important public health problem in countries where epidemics occur because half of the cases progress to chronic, persistent and debilitating arthritis. Literature data on specific therapies at the various phases of arthropathy caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection are limited, lacking quality randomized trials assessing the efficacies of different therapies. There are a few studies on the treatment of musculoskeletal manifestations of chikungunya fever, but these studies have important methodological limitations. The data currently available preclude conclusions favorable or contrary to specific therapies, or an adequate comparison between the different drugs used. The objective of this study was to develop recommendations for the treatment of chikungunya fever in Brazil. A literature review was performed via evidence-based selection of articles in the databases Medline, SciELO, PubMed and Embase and conference proceedings abstracts, in addition to expert opinions to support decision-making in defining recommendations. The Delphi method was used to define the degrees of agreement in 2 face-to-face meetings and several online voting rounds. This study is part 2 of the Recommendations of the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology (Sociedade Brasileira de Reumatologia - SBR) for the Diagnosis and Treatment of chikungunya fever and specifically addresses treatment.


Resumo A febre chikungunya tem se tornado um importante problema de saúde pública nos países onde ocorrem as epidemias, visto que metade dos casos evolui com artrite crônica, persistente e incapacitante. Os dados na literatura sobre terapêuticas específicas nas diversas fases da artropatia ocasionada pela infecção pelo vírus chikungunya (CHIKV) são limitados, não existem estudos randomizados de qualidade que avaliem a eficácia das diferentes terapias. Há algumas poucas publicações sobre o tratamento das manifestações musculoesqueléticas da febre chikungunya, porém com importantes limitações metodológicas. Os dados atualmente disponíveis não permitem conclusões favoráveis ou contrárias a terapêuticas específicas, bem como uma adequada avaliação quanto à superioridade entre as diferentes medicações empregadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar recomendações para o tratamento da febre chikungunya no Brasil. Foi feita uma revisão da literatura com seleção de artigos baseados em evidência, nas bases de dados Medline, SciELO, PubMed e Embase e de resumos de anais de congressos, além da opinião dos especialistas para dar apoio às decisões tomadas para definir as recomendações. Para a definição do grau de concordância foi feita uma metodologia Delphi, em duas reuniões presenciais e várias rodadas de votação on line. Este artigo refere-se à parte 2 das Recomendações da Sociedade Brasileira de Reumatologia para Diagnóstico e Tratamento da Febre Chikungunya, que trata especificamente do tratamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chikungunya Fever/drug therapy , Rheumatology , Societies, Medical , Brazil , Delphi Technique , Physical Therapy Modalities , Disease Progression , Consensus , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/rehabilitation
12.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 56(5): 391-397, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-798100

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Fibromyalgia (FM) and hyperparathyroidism may present similar symptoms (musculoskeletal pain, cognitive disorders, insomnia, depression and anxiety), causing diagnostic confusion. Objectives: To determine the frequency of asymptomatic hyperparathyroidism in a sample of patients with FM and to evaluate the association of laboratory abnormalities to clinical symptoms. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 100 women with FM and 57 healthy women (comparison group). Parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium and albumin levels were accessed, as well as symptoms in the FM group. Results: In FM group, mean serum calcium (9.6 ± 0.98 mg/dL) and PTH (57.06 ± 68.98 pg/mL) values were considered normal, although PTH levels had been significantly higher than in the comparison group (37.12 ± 19.02 pg/mL; p = 0.001). Hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed in 6% of patients with FM, and 17% of these women exhibited only high levels of PTH, featuring a normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism, with higher frequencies than those expected for their age. There was no significant association between hyperparathyroidism and FM symptoms, except for epigastric pain, which was more frequent in the group of patients concomitantly with both diseases (p = 0.012). Conclusions: A high frequency of hyperparathyroidism was noted in women with FM versus the general population. Normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism was also more frequent in patients with FM. Longitudinal studies with greater number of patients are needed to assess whether this is an association by chance only, if the increased serum levels of PTH are part of FM pathophysiology, or even if these would not be cases of FM, but of hyperparathyroidism.


RESUMO A fibromialgia (FM) e o hiperparatireoidismo podem apresentar sintomas semelhantes (dores osteomusculares, distúrbios cognitivos, insônia, depressão e ansiedade) e causar confusão diagnóstica. Objetivos: Determinar a frequência de hiperparatireoidismo assintomático em uma amostra de pacientes com FM e avaliar a associação das alterações laboratoriais com a sintomatologia. Metodologia: Estudo transversal com 100 mulheres portadoras de FM e 57 mulheres saudáveis (grupo de comparação). Foram pesquisados os níveis de paratormônio (PTH), cálcio e albumina, além da pesquisa de sintomas no grupo com FM. Resultados: No grupo com FM, os valores médios de cálcio sérico (9,6 ± 0,98 mg/dL) e de PTH (57,06 ± 68,98pg/mL) foram considerados normais, embora os níveis de PTH tivessem sido significativamente maiores do que no grupo de comparação (37,12 ± 19,02 pg/mL; p = 0,001). O hiperparatireoidismo hipercalcêmico foi diagnosticado em 6% das pacientes com FM e 17% delas apresentaram apenas PTH elevado, o que caracterizou o hiperparatireoidismo normocalcêmico, frequências maiores do que esperada para a faixa etária. Não houve associação significativa entre hiperparatireoidismo e sintomas da FM, com exceção da epigastralgia, que foi mais frequente no grupo de pacientes com as duas doenças concomitantes (p = 0,012). Conclusões: Houve frequência elevada de hiperparatireoidismo em portadoras de FM quanto à população geral. Hiperparatireoidismo normocalcêmico também foi mais frequente em pacientes com FM. Estudos longitudinais e com maior número de pacientes são necessários para avaliar se trata-se apenas de uma associação ao acaso, se as elevações séricas do PTH fazem parte da fisiopatologia da FM ou, ainda, se não seriam casos de FM, e sim de hiperparatireoidismo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Fibromyalgia/epidemiology , Hyperparathyroidism/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnostic Errors
13.
Sci. med. (Porto Alegre, Online) ; 26(3): ID23399, jul-set 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846902

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Osteoporosis is a common disease that affects mostly women and has been associated with the immune system. The aims of this study were to evaluate the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis and to investigate their relationship with clinical and laboratory parameters. METHODS: This study recruited patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis (osteoporosis group) and non-osteoporotic postmenopausal women (control group) matched for age. All patients and controls had their bone mineral density measured for the diagnosis of osteoporosis and answered a clinical questionnaire. Blood samples were collected for cytokine measurements. Cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-27, IL-29, IL-35, and TNF-α were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Twenty-nine out of the 52 (55.8%) postmenopausal osteoporosis patients showed high levels of IL-8, while no patients from the control group (n=21) showed IL-8 values above the detection limit (p<0.0001). Higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-35 were associated with the control group, with p values of 0.0053 and 0.0214, respectively. In the osteoporosis group, IFN-γ was correlated with longer duration of smoking (p=0.003), IFN-γ and IL-6 were correlated with higher age at menarche (p=0.0454 and p=0.0380), IL-22 was correlated with duration of menopause (p=0.0289) and IL-9 with calcium intake (p=0.019). The other cytokines showed no association or correlation with clinical parameters. CONCLUSIONS: IL-8 was elevated in the serum of patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, perhaps because it may trigger osteoclast activation and bone wear in osteoporosis. Higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-9, IL-22, IL-27, and IL-35 were also associated with the osteoporosis group patients and showed significant correlation with clinical parameters in postmenopausal osteoporosis.


OBJETIVOS: A osteoporose é uma doença comum, que afeta principalmente as mulheres e tem sido associada com o sistema imune. Este estudo objetivou avaliar níveis séricos de citocinas inflamatórias em mulheres pós-menopáusicas com osteoporose, assim como investigar as suas relações com parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais. MÉTODOS: Este estudo recrutou pacientes com osteoporose pós-menopausa e voluntárias sem a doença, pareadas por idade. Todas as pacientes do grupo com osteoporose e as integrantes do grupo controle passaram pelo exame de mensuração de densidade óssea para diagnosticar a doença e todas responderam a um questionário clínico. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas para as dosagens séricas. As citocinas IFN-γ, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-27, IL-29, IL-35 e TNF-α foram dosadas por ensaio imunoenzimático. RESULTADOS: Vinte e nove entre as 52 (55,8%) pacientes com osteoporose pós-menopausa mostraram altos níveis de IL-8, enquanto nenhuma integrante do grupo controle teve valores de IL-8 acima do nível de detecção do kit (p<0,0001). Altos níveis de IFN-γ and IL-35 foram associados ao grupo controle, com valores de p de 0,0053 and 0,0214 respectivamente. No grupo osteoporose, IFN-γ mostrou correlação com o tempo de duração do tabagismo (p=0,003). IFN-γ e IL-6 foram correlacionadas com a idade de ocorrência da menarca (p=0,0454 e p=0,0380). A citocina IL-22 correlacionou-se com a duração da menopausa (p=0,0289), e a IL-9 com a ingestão de mais cálcio na dieta (p=0,019). As outras citocinas dosadas não mostraram associações ou correlações com os parâmetros clínicos. CONCLUSÕES: A IL-8 mostrou-se elevada no soro das pacientes com osteoporose pós-menopausa, talvez por atuar como um gatilho para a ativação dos osteoclastos e desgaste ósseo que ocorre na osteoporose. Níveis mais altos de IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-9, IL-22, IL-27 e IL-35 também estiveram presentes no soro das pacientes do grupo osteoporose e mostraram associações significativas com os parâmetros clínicos na osteoporose pós-menopausa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin D , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal , Osteoporosis , Bone Density
14.
An. bras. dermatol ; 88(6): 1029-1035, Nov-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-698995

ABSTRACT

Psoriasis is a polygenic, inflammatory and progressive disease, characterized by an abnormal differentiation and hyperproliferation of keratinocytes, associated with impaired immunologic activation and systemic disorders, while psoriatic arthritis is a chronic inflammatory articular disease. Pathophysiology of psoriasis comprises a dysfunction of the immune system cells with an interactive network between cells and cytokines supporting the initiation and perpetuation of disease and leading to inflammation of skin, enthesis and joints. Recent studies have shown an important role of systemic inflammation in the development of atherosclerosis. Corroborating these findings, patients with severe Psoriasis have marked incidence of psoriatic arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes mellitus, showing an increased risk for acute myocardial infarction, which suggests that the condition is not restricted to the skin. Nuclear receptors are ligand-dependent transcription factors, whose activation affects genes that control vital processes. Among them the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor is responsible for establishing the relationship between lipids, metabolic diseases and innate immunity. In the skin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors have an important effect in keratinocyte homeostasis, suggesting a role in diseases such as psoriasis. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors agonists represent a relevant source of research in the treatment of skin conditions, however more clinical studies are needed to define the potential response of these drugs in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.


A psoríase é uma doença poligênica, inflamatória, progressiva e recorrente, caracterizada por um ciclo evolutivo acelerado dos queratinócitos, associado à ativação imune desordenada e a alterações sistêmicas correlacionadas, sendo a artrite psoriásica o comprometimento articular inflamatório crônico que pode ocorrer em pacientes com a doença cutânea. Na inflamação autoimune, uma rede interativa entre células e citocinas suporta o início e a perpetuação da doença. A fisiopatologia da psoríase e da artrite psoriásica compreende uma disfunção das células do sistema imune e da rede de citocinas, levando à inflamação de pele, enteses e articulações. Estudos recentes têm demonstrado um papel importante da inflamação sistêmica no desenvolvimento da aterosclerose. Corroborando esses achados, pacientes portadores de psoríase grave apresentam marcada incidência de artrite psoriásica, doença cardiovascular, hipertensão arterial sistêmica, dislipidemia, obesidade e diabetes mellitus, evidenciando um risco aumentado para infarto agudo do miocárdio e sugerindo que a doença não se restringe à pele. Os receptores nucleares são fatores de transcrição ligante-dependente cuja ativação afeta genes controladores de processos vitais. Entre eles, destacam-se os receptores ativados pelo proliferador de peroxissoma, responsáveis por estabelecer a relação entre os lipídios, doenças metabólicas e imunidade inata. Na pele, os receptores ativados pelo proliferador de peroxissoma têm ação importante na homeostase dos ceratinócitos, exibindo uma função pró-diferenciação, antiproliferativa e imunomoduladora, sugerindo um papel relevante ...


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Psoriatic/drug therapy , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors/agonists , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Psoriatic/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Metabolic Syndrome/drug therapy , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors/metabolism , Psoriasis/metabolism
15.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 52(1): 60-65, jan.-fev. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-611471

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: O papel imunorregulatório da vitamina D tem sido alvo de um crescente número de estudos em pacientes com lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES). Objetivos: Determinar os níveis séricos de 25-hidroxivitamina D3 [25(OH)D] em pacientes com LES e verificar a associação da insuficiência/deficiência de 25(OH)D com parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais. MÉTODOS:Estudo de corte transversal, prospectivo, realizado no ambulatório de LES do Serviço de Reumatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Foram incluídos 78 pacientes portadores de LES e 64 voluntários (grupo de comparação) pareados por gênero e idade. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se insuficiência/deficiência de 25(OH)D em 45 (57,7 por cento) pacientes com LES e em 25 (39 por cento) indivíduos do grupo de comparação. Os níveis séricos médios de 25(OH)D foram 29,3 ng/mL (6,1-55,2 ng/mL) nos pacientes com LES e 33,12 ng/mL (15,9-63,8 ng/mL) no grupo de comparação; essa diferença é considerada estatisticamente significante (P = 0,041). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre as médias de idade dos dois grupos. Não houve associação estatisticamente significante entre insuficiência/deficiência de 25(OH)D e tempo de diagnóstico, atividade de doença (SLEDAI > 6), fadiga, uso de corticosteroides e de antimaláricos e anti-DNA. CONCLUSÕES:Foi constatada alta prevalência de insuficiência/deficiência de 25(OH)D nos pacientes com LES (57,7 por cento), com diferença estatisticamente significante em relação ao grupo de comparação. Não evidenciamos associação de insuficiência/deficiência de vitamina D com as variáveis clínicas e laboratoriais estudadas. Os autores enfatizam a importância da determinação dos níveis séricos de 25(OH)D em todos os pacientes com LES, independente de onde residam e do tempo de diagnóstico da doença.


INTRODUCTION: The immunoregulatory role of vitamin D has been the object of a growing number of studies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). OBJECTIVES: To determine the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH) D] in patients with SLE, and to assess the association of 25(OH)D insufficiency/deficiency with clinical parameters and laboratory tests. METHODS: Cross-sectional, prospective study performed at the SLE Clinic, Department of Rheumatology, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco with convenience sampling, including 78 patients with SLE and 64 volunteers (comparison group), matched by gender and age. RESULTS: Insufficiency/deficiency of 25(OH)D was found in 45 (57.7 percent) patients with SLE and 25 (39 percent) individuals in the comparison group. The mean serum levels of 25(OH)D were 29.3 ng/mL (6.1-55.2 ng/mL) in patients with SLE and 33.12 ng/mL (15.9-63.8 ng/mL) in the comparison group, and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.041). No statistically significant difference was observed between the mean ages of both groups. No statistically significant association was observed between 25(OH)D insufficiency/deficiency and the following: time to diagnosis; disease activity (SLEDAI > 6); fatigue; use of corticosteroids and antimalarials; and anti-DNA. CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of 25(OH)D insufficiency/deficiency was found in patients with SLE (57.7 percent), with statistically significant difference as compared with the comparison group. No association of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was observed with the clinical variables and laboratory tests studied. The authors emphasize the importance of determining 25(OH)D serum levels in all patients with SLE, regardless of where they live and time to disease diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Calcifediol/blood , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/blood , Prospective Studies
16.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 51(2): 118-123, mar.-abr. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-586717

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Uma vez que a prevalência da osteoartrite (OA) aumenta com o envelhecimento, é comum a coexistência de outras doenças crônicas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a frequência de comorbidades em pacientes com OA e mensurar o impacto destas na dor e a função física nesses pacientes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal em pacientes portadores de OA do ambulatório de reumatologia do IMIP. A dor foi mensurada pela Escala Visual Analógica (EVA) e a função física pelos índices de Lequesne e SACRAH. Foi realizado um screening para depressão, além de aferição de medidas antropométricas, pressão arterial, dosagem da glicemia de jejum e perfil lipídico. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 91 pacientes, com média de idade de 59,3 anos, sendo 91,4 por cento do sexo feminino. A frequência de síndrome metabólica foi de 54,9 por cento. Hipertensão arterial sistêmica ocorreu em 75,8 por cento dos casos, dislipidemia em 52,6 por cento e obesidade em 57,1 por cento. O screening para depressão foi positivo em 61,3 por cento dos pacientes. Quando comparamos individualmente os componentes da síndrome metabólica, observamos que pacientes com hipertensão apresentavam maiores escores no SACRAH com diferença estatisticamente significante (P = 0,035). Para as outras variáveis, não foram demonstradas diferenças entre os escores Lequesne, SACRAH e EVA. CONCLUSÃO: Foi observada uma alta frequência de depressão, síndrome metabólica e de seus componentes isoladamente nesse grupo de pacientes com OA, podendo haver impacto da presença destes na dor e na função física desses pacientes. Tais resultados demonstraram a necessidade de investigação e tratamento dessas comorbidades em pacientes com OA.


INTRODUCTION: As the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) increases with age, the coexistence of other chronic diseases is common. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the frequency of comorbidities in OA patients and to measure their impact on pain and physical function of those patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in OA patients of a public rheumatology clinic. Pain was measured by use of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and physical function by use of the Lequesne's and SACRAH indices. A screening for depression was performed, as were the following measurements: anthropometric data; blood pressure; fasting glycemia; and lipid profile. RESULTS: The study assessed 91 patients (mean age 59.3 years; 91.4 percent female). The metabolic syndrome frequency was 54.9 percent. Hypertension occurred in 75.8 percent of the patients, dyslipidemia in 52.6 percent, and obesity in 57.1 percent. The screening for depression was positive in 61.3 percent of patients. When comparing the metabolic syndrome components individually, patients with hypertension had higher SACRAH scores, with statistically significant differences (P = 0.035). For the other variables, no differences among the Lequesne's, SACRAH and VAS scores were observed. CONCLUSION: This group of OA patients showed a high frequency of depression, metabolic syndrome and its components in isolation, which can impact the pain and physical function of those patients. Such results showed the need for investigating and treating those comorbidities in OA patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Osteoarthritis/complications , Osteoarthritis/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pain/etiology , Pain/physiopathology
17.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 50(1): 67-80, jan.-fev. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-543758

ABSTRACT

Além do seu papel na homeostase do cálcio, acredita-se que a forma ativa da vitamina D apresenta efeitos imunomoduladores sobre as células do sistema imunológico, sobretudo linfócitos T, bem como na produção e na ação de diversas citocinas. A interação da vitamina D com o sistema imunológico vem sendo alvo de um número crescente de publicações nos últimos anos. Estudos atuais têm relacionado a deficiência de vitamina D com várias doenças autoimunes, como diabetes mellitus insulino-dependente (DMID), esclerose múltipla (EM), doença inflamatória intestinal (DII), lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES) e artrite reumatoide (AR). O artigo faz uma revisão da fisiologia e do papel imunomodulador da vitamina D, enfatizando sua participação nas doenças reumatológicas, como o lúpus e a artrite reumatoide.


In addition to its role in calcium homeostasis, it is believed that the active form of vitamin D has immunomodulatory effects on cells of the immune system, particularly T lymphocytes, as well as on the production and action of several cytokines. The interaction of vitamin D with the immune system has been the target of a growing number of publications in recent years. Current studies have linked the deficiency of vitamin D with different autoimmune diseases, including insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), multiple sclerosis (MS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This article reviews the physiology and immunomodulatory role of vitamin D, emphasizing its involvement in rheumatic diseases such as SLE and RA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Autoimmune Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Immune System , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Multiple Sclerosis , Vitamin D
18.
Fisioter. Bras ; 10(6): 395-401, nov.-dez. 2009.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-546631

ABSTRACT

A fraqueza do músculo quadríceps é um fator ofensivo na osteoartrite (AO), contribuindo para o desenvolvimento e agravamento do dano articular. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar diferenças no recrutamento dos músculos que compõem o quadríceps (vasto medial obliquo - VMO, reto femoral - RF e vasto lateral - VL) durante a atividade concêntrica (subida) e excêntrica (descida), em mulheres portadoras de OA nos joelhos, comparado com um grupo saudável. Foram estudadas 60 mulheres, idade acima de 40 anos, divididas em dois grupos: um grupo com OA (GOA), com 32 voluntárias e o grupo de comparação (GC), composto de 28 pessoas. Não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes no recrutamento muscular nos dois grupos, com exceção da subida e descida do segundo degrau. Apesar de não encontrar diferenças no recrutamento dos dois grupos, estudos futuros utilizando uma metodologia que permita comparar recrutamento e força muscular, são necessários para comprovar esta relação.


The quadriceps weakness is a risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA), which contributes to the development and joint impairment aggravation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences of recruitment of the quadriceps muscles (vastus medialis oblique – VMO, rectus femoris – RF, vastus lateralis – VL) during the concentric activation (ascending) and eccentric (descending), in women with OA on the knees, comparing with a healthy group. Sixty women over forty years were evaluated and divided into two groups: a group of osteoarthritis (GOA), with 32 subjects and the control group (GC), with 28 people. It was not observed statistical differences on muscle recruitment of both groups, except on ascending and descending the second step stairs. Although it was not observed differences on the recruitment of both groups, future studies using a methodology that enable to compare the relationship between recruitment and muscle strength are needed.


Subject(s)
Arthritis , Articulation Disorders , Joints , Osteoarthritis , Quadriceps Muscle , Range of Motion, Articular , Wounds and Injuries
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 7(5)set.-out. 2009.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-530821

ABSTRACT

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As queixas musculoesqueléticas (QME) são causas comuns de procura ao serviço de saúde primário, sendo o médico generalista o primeiro a ter contato com essas queixas. Devido ao impacto desses sintomas na vida do paciente e os gastos que geram, são necessários mais estudos sobre a prevalência das QME nos serviços de saúde. Os objetivos foram avaliar as QME mais frequentes em ambulatório de ensino em Clinica Médica; determinar o tipo de conduta adotada diante destes pacientes e avaliar a frequência de encaminhamento ao especialista. MÉTODO: Estudo descritivo, transversal, retrospectivo, com análise de prontuários dos pacientes atendidos no ambulatório de ensino de Clínica Médica da FBV/IMIP no período de fevereiro a dezembro de 2008. Os dados foram coletados com questionário pré-codificado para entrada de dados no computador. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados os prontuários de 1116 pacientes, sendo a amostra composta por 73,2% de mulheres. A média de idade foi de 44,8 anos (10 a 102 anos). Foram identificadas QME em 34% da amostra, sendo mais frequentes em mulheres (80,2%). A localização de queixa mais frequente foi o joelho (35,9%); 47% dos pacientes apresentavam queixas na coluna, 35,4% em membros superiores e 49,3% nos membros inferiores. Em 18,5% dos pacientes as queixas foram mal definidas, tipo poliartralgia. Apenas 52,2% dos pacientes com QME receberam algum tipo de orientação, sendo a conduta mais frequente o encaminhamento ao especialista. CONCLUSÃO: A frequência de QME foi elevada. Estas queixas geralmente não são levadas em conta pelo médico generalista, o que é confirmado pelo baixo índice de condutas específicas encontradas no presente estudo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Musculoskeletal Diseases/diagnosis , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Internal Medicine , Outpatients
20.
Rev. bras. reumatol ; 49(2)mar.-abr. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-511608

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A utilização dos anti-TNF's na prática reumatológica tornou obrigatória a identificação de casos de infecção tuberculosa latente (ITBL) antes do início do tratamento, utilizando o PPD, RX de tórax e história de contato com tuberculose. Os pacientes com artrite reumatoide (AR) apresentam uma anormalidade da função celular imune, caracterizada por diminuição da responsividade de células mononucleares periféricas (linfócitos T Reg), o que acarreta prejuízo para a hipersensibilidade cutânea tardia, o que é fundamental para o reconhecimento de antígenos, como é o caso do PPD. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a resposta ao PPD em pacientes com AR, comparado com pessoas saudáveis em uma área endêmica de tuberculose, como é o estado de Pernambuco. METODOLOGIA: Foram estudados 96 pacientes, 48 com AR e 48 indivíduos saudáveis, sendo a maioria do sexo feminino; foi realizada a inoculação de 0,1 mL do PPD RT-23, por via intradérmica e leitura da induração 72 horas após. RESULTADOS: No grupo AR o tempo médio de diagnóstico foi de 10,2 anos, a dose média de metotrexate foi de 15,5 mg/semana, dose média de prednisona foi de 12,7 mg/dia e a atividade média da doença medida pelo CDAI foi 30,4. Houve maior positividade do PPD no grupo de comparação (33,3 por cento) quando comparado com o grupo AR (14,6 por cento), com diferença estatisticamente significante (p = 0,034). CONCLUSÕES: Os autores alertam para o fraco desempenho do PPD para diagnóstico de ITBL em pacientes com AR e da necessidade de se fazer uma triagem ainda mais cuidadosa antes do início do tratamento com anti-TNF.


INTRODUCTION: With the introduction of Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors (anti-TNFs) into rheumatological practice, it has become obligatory to identify cases of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) prior to the start of treatment, using PPD, chest radiography and clinical history of tuberculosis contact. Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) have an abnormality of the cellular immune function, characterized by decreasing responsiveness of peripheral mononuclear cells (T Reg lymphocytes), leading to a loss in delayed hypersensitivity, which is fundamental for the recognition of antigens, such as PPD. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the response to PPD in patients with RA, compared with healthy people, in an area where tuberculosis is endemic, as is the state of Pernambuco. METHODOLOGY: We studied 96 patients, 48 with RA and 48 healthy subjects, most of them females. All patients were given an interdermic injection of 0.1 mL PPD RT-23. The reading of the PPD result was carried out 72 hours after application, by way of palpation of maximum transverse diameter of induration, and the result was expressed in millimeters. RESULTS: In the RA group, the average time of diagnosis was 10.2 years, the average dosage of methotrexate was 15.5 mg / week, the average dosage of prednisone 12.7 mg / day and the average activity of the disease, measured using CDAI, was 30.4. In the healthy subjects group there was a greater number of positive PPD results (33.3 percent) when compared with the results for the RA group (14.6 percent), with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.034). CONCLUSION: The performance of PPB in LTBI diagnosis is poor in patients with RA. These results suggest that more careful screening needs to be undertaken before treatment with an anti-TNF drug.


Subject(s)
Adult , Middle Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Tuberculosis
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