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1.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(1): 101036, jan., 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249300

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Homeless people are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and syphilis. We investigated the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection and syphilis among homeless individuals in a large city in Central-Western Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, we interviewed and tested 355 individuals from September 2014 to August 2015. Rapid test samples positive for syphilis were retested using the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Blood samples from HIV-infected participants were collected for POL sequencing using HIV-1 RNA extracted from plasma, reverse transcription, and nested polymerase chain reaction. Anti-HIV-1-positive samples were subtyped by sequencing the nucleotides of HIV-1 protease and part of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase genes. Transmitted and acquired drug resistance mutations and susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs were also analyzed. Anti-HIV was positive in 14 patients (3.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3-6.4). HIV-1 RNA was detected in 8 of the 14 samples. Two of the eight (25%) isolates showed HIV-1 drug resistance mutations. Furthermore, 78 (22%; 95% CI: 17.9-26.5) and 29 (8.2%; 95% CI: 5.6-11.4) homeless individuals tested positive for syphilis using the rapid test and VDRL test, respectively. Two individuals were anti-HIV-1 and VDRL test positive. Daily alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4), sex with people living with HIV (PLWH) infection (AOR: 6.8, 95% CI: 1.9-25.0), and sex with people of the same sex (AOR: 5.4, 95% CI: 1.7-17.5) were predictors of HIV infection. Age ≤35 years (AOR: 3.8, 95% CI: 1.4-10.8), previous syphilis testing (AOR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.4-8.4), history of genital lesions (AOR: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.3-19.1), and crack use in the last six months (AOR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.3-7.6) were predictors of syphilis. Our findings highlight the importance of STI prevention and control strategies among the homeless.

2.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(4): 271-273, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039232

ABSTRACT

Abstract To assess the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Central Brazil, a cross-sectional study was conducted in the City of Goiânia, Central Brazil, using Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS). All serum samples were tested for anti-HCV and also for alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Anti-HCV positive samples and/or those with elevated ALT were tested for HCV RNA and genotyped. Of the 522 participants, four were found to be anti-HCV positive, and one was also HCV RNA positive (active HCV infection). Elevated ALT was found in 14 individuals. Of these, one showed evidence of acute HCV infection (HCV RNA positive and anti-HCV negative). Therefore, five MSM were positive for either anti-HCV and/or HCV RNA, giving a crude overall HCV prevalence of 1.0%; 1.3% (95% CI: 0.3-5.5) after being weighted by RDSAT. All five individuals reported high-risk sexual behaviors, including two who showed evidence of active HCV infection (genotype 1, subtypes 1a and 1b). Although the study population reported high-risk sexual practices, HCV infection was not more frequent in MSM than in the general Brazilian population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Sexual Behavior , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180448, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040617

ABSTRACT

Anthropogenic environmental changes arising from settlement and agriculture include deforestation and replacement of natural vegetation by crops providing opportunities for pathogen spillover from animals to humans. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of rodent-borne virus infections in seven rural settlements from Midwestern Brazil. Of the 466 individuals tested 12 (2.57%) were reactive for orthohantavirus and 3 (0.64%) for mammarenavirus. These rural settlers lived under unfavorable infrastructure, socioeconomic disadvantages, and unsanitary conditions, representing a risk for rodent-borne infections. Development of public policies towards the improvement of health, sanitation and awareness of rodent-borne diseases in improvised camps and settlements is imperative, in order to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by these diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Rodentia/virology , Arenaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Vectors/classification , Rodentia/classification , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Arenaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Arenaviridae Infections/transmission , Hantavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hantavirus Infections/transmission , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 675-679, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041425

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and associated factors were investigated in rural settlements in Central Brazil. METHODS: A total of 464 settlers were interviewed, and serum samples were tested for anti-HEV IgG/IgM. Positive samples were tested for HEV RNA. RESULTS: Sixteen participants (3.4%; 95% CI 2.0-5.7) were positive for anti-HEV IgG. None was positive for anti-HEV IgM. HEV RNA was not detected. Dwelling in a rural settlement for >5 years was associated with HEV seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed the absence of acute infection and a low prevalence of previous exposure to HEV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepatitis E/surgery , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Middle Aged
5.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(7): e00109216, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889724

ABSTRACT

Data are limited in Brazil on hepatitis B infection among homeless individuals, a marginalized population with high risk of sexually transmissible infections (STI), including hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatitis B epidemiology in homeless persons lodged in a public shelter in Goiânia, Central Brazil. From August 2014 to June 2015, 353 individuals were interviewed and tested for markers of HBV infection. Overall HBV prevalence was 21.8% (95%CI: 17,82-26,41), and 19,5% (95%CI: 15,75-24,0) showed a serological profile of previous HBV vaccination. Older individuals (> 50 years), blacks, and homosexuals or bisexuals showed increased exposure to HBV. The low frequency of individuals immunized against HBV, high social vulnerability, and risk behaviors emphasize the need for health services administrators to provide more opportunities for HBV vaccination in this target population.


No Brasil, existem poucos dados sobre a infecção por hepatite B entre pessoas em situação de rua, uma população marginalizada com alto risco para infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST), incluindo a hepatite B. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a epidemiologia da hepatite B em pessoas alojadas em um abrigo público da cidade de Goiânia, Brasil Central. De agosto de 2014 a junho de 2015, 353 indivíduos foram entrevistados e testados para os marcadores da infecção pelo HBV. Uma prevalência global de 21,8% (IC95%: 17,82-26,41) para HBV foi estimado, e 19,5% (IC95%: 15,75-24,0) apresentaram perfil sorológico de vacinação prévia contra o HBV. Ser mais velho (acima de 50 anos de idade), preto e homossexual ou bissexual foram preditores de exposição ao HBV. A baixa frequência de indivíduos imunizados contra o HBV, bem como de alta vulnerabilidade social e ocorrência de comportamentos de risco reforçam a necessidade dos gestores de saúde proporcionar mais oportunidades de vacinação para esta população-alvo.


En Brasil, existen pocos datos sobre la infección por hepatitis B entre personas sin techo, una población marginalizada con un alto riesgo de infecciones sexualmente transmisibles (IST), incluyendo la hepatitis B. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la epidemiología de la hepatitis B en personas alojadas en un albergue público de la ciudad de Goiânia, Brasil Central. De agosto de 2014 a junio de 2015, se entrevistó a 353 individuos y se probaron los marcadores de la infección por HBV. Se estimó una prevalencia global de un 21,8% (IC95%: 17,82-26,41) para HBV, y 19,5% (IC95%: 15,75-24,0) presentaron un perfil serológico de vacunación previa contra el HBV. Ser más viejo (por encima de 50 años de edad), negro y homosexual o bisexual fueron predictores de exposición al HBV. La baja frecuencia de individuos inmunizados contra el HBV, así como la alta vulnerabilidad social y ocurrencia de comportamientos de riesgo refuerzan la necesidad de los gestores de salud de proporcionar más oportunidades de vacunación para esta población-objetivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Risk-Taking , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Hepatitis B virus/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B/etiology , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Middle Aged
6.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903235

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus and C virus infections and their genotypes and analyze the risk factors for the markers of exposure to hepatitis B virus in female sex workers in a region of intense sex trade. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study performed with four hundred and two female sex workers in Goiânia, Brazil. Data have been collected using the Respondent-Driven Sampling. The women have been interviewed and tested for markers of hepatitis B and C viruses. Positive samples have been genotyped. The data have been analyzed using the Respondent-Driven Sampling Analysis Tool, version 5.3, and Stata 11.0. RESULTS The adjusted prevalence for hepatitis B virus and C virus were 17.1% (95%CI 11.6-23.4) and 0.7% (95%CI 0.1-1.5), respectively. Only 28% (95%CI 21.1-36.4) of the participants had serological evidence of vaccination against hepatitis B virus. Being older (> 40 years), being single, having a history of blood transfusion and use of cocaine, and ignoring the symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were associated with positivity for hepatitis B virus (p < 0.05). We have detected the subgenotype A1 of hepatitis B virus (n = 3) and the subtypes of hepatitis C virus 1a (n = 3) and 1b (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS We can observe a low prevalence of infection of hepatitis B and C viruses in the studied population. However, the findings of the analysis of the risk factors show the need for more investment in prevention programs for sexual and drug-related behavior, as well as more efforts to vaccinate this population against hepatitis B. The genotypes of the hepatitis B virus and C virus identified are consistent with those circulating in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/genetics , Sex Workers/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Hepatitis C/blood , Genotype , Hepatitis B/blood
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(11): 692-696, Nov. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829249

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has a worldwide distribution and represents an important cause of acute hepatitis. This study aims to investigate the occurrence of HEV infection and factors associated with this infection in patients with acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in Central Brazil. From April 2012 to October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 379 patients with acute non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in the City of Goiania, Central Brazil. Serum samples of all patients were tested for serological markers of HEV infection (anti-HEV IgM and IgG) by ELISA. Positive samples were confirmed using immunoblot test. Anti-HEV IgM and IgG positive samples were tested for HEV RNA. Of the 379 serum samples, one (0.3%) and 20 (5.3%) were positive for anti-HEV IgM and IgG, respectively. HEV RNA was not found in any sample positive for IgM and/or IgG anti-HEV. After multivariate analysis, low education level was independently associated with HEV seropositivity (p = 0.005), as well as living in rural area, with a borderline p-value (p = 0.056). In conclusion, HEV may be responsible for sporadic self-limited cases of acute hepatitis in Central Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis E virus/immunology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hepatitis Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis E/immunology , Immunoblotting , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies
8.
Rev. patol. trop ; 45(2): 152-160, jun. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-913207

ABSTRACT

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) upstream of the IL28B gene have been associated with the spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and with a sustained virological response (SVR) to HCV infection treatment. This study aimed to investigate the association between IL28B SNP rs12979860 and SVR in patients with hepatitis C in Central Brazil. A total of 101 HCV genotype 1 mono-infected chronic patients treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) were studied in the City of Goiânia, Central Brazil. Analysis of rs12979860 showed that the most prevalent genotype was CT (57.4%), followed by CC (23.8%) and TT (18.8%). An overall SVR rate of 28.7% (95% CI: 20.4-38.7) was found in the study population. In a multivariate analysis, only IL28B rs12979860 CC genotype (OR: 3.77; 95% CI: 1.13-12.60; p = 0.031) was associated with SVR. These findings show that IL28B SNP rs12979860 is a strong predictor of SVR in the PEG-IFN/RBV treatment in patients infected with genotype 1 of HCV in Central Brazil


Subject(s)
Hepatitis C , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sustained Virologic Response
9.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(6): 517-524, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-725801

ABSTRACT

A cross-sectional study on prevalence, associated factors and genotype distribution of HCV infection was conducted among 848 HIV-infected patients recruited at reference centers in the Midwest Region of Brazil. The prevalence rate of HIV-HCV coinfection was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.2 to 8.6). In multivariable analysis, increasing age, use of illicit drugs (injection and non-injection), a history of blood transfusion before 1994, and the absence of a steady partnership were significant independent associated factors for HIV-HCV coinfection. The phylogenetic analysis based on the NS5B region revealed the presence of two major circulating genotypes of HCV: genotypes 1 (58.3%) and 3 (41.7%). The prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection was lower than those reported in studies conducted with HIV-infected patients in different regions of Brazil, due to the fact that illicit drug use is not a frequent mode of HIV transmission in this region of Brazil. Serologic screening of HIV-patients for HCV before initiating antiretroviral treatment, a comprehensive identification of associated factors, and the implementation of effective harm reduction programs are highly recommended to provide useful information for treatment and to prevent HCV coinfection in these patients.


Estudo transversal sobre a prevalência, fatores associados e distribuição dos genótipos do HCV foi realizado em 848 pacientes infectados pelo HIV, recrutados em centros de referência na Região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. A taxa de prevalência de coinfecção HIV-HCV foi de 6,9% (IC 95%: 5,2-8,6). Na análise multivariada, o aumento da idade, o uso de drogas ilícitas (injetáveis e não injetáveis), história de transfusão de sangue antes de 1994, e ausência de companheiro constante foram fatores associados independentes e significativos para a coinfecção HIV-HCV. A análise filogenética baseada na região NS5B revelou a presença de dois principais genótipos do HCV em circulação: genótipos 1 (58,3%) e 3 (41,7%). A prevalência da coinfecção HIV-HCV foi menor do que as relatadas em estudos realizados com pacientes infectados pelo HIV em diferentes regiões do Brasil, devido ao fato de que o uso de drogas ilícitas não é modo frequente de transmissão do HIV neste Estado do Brasil. Triagem sorológica de pacientes HIV-positivos para HCV antes de iniciar o tratamento antirretroviral, identificação completa dos fatores associados e a implementação de programas eficazes de redução de danos são altamente recomendados para fornecer informações úteis, para o tratamento e para evitar a coinfecção com HCV nestes pacientes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Genotype , Hepatitis C/virology , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Risk Factors
10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(1): 18-23, Jan-Feb/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703157

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The collection of recyclable waste materials is a widespread activity among the urban poor. Today, this occupation attracts an increasingly large number of individuals. Despite its economic and environmental importance, this activity is associated with unsafe and unhealthy working conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroepidemiological profile of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a population of recyclable waste collectors in central Brazil. Methods: Recyclable waste collectors from all 15 recycling cooperatives in Goiânia City were invited to participate in the study. The participants (n = 431) were interviewed and screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs) and hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HBsAg- and anti-HBc-positive samples were tested for HBV DNA and genotyped. Results: The overall prevalence of HBV infection (HBsAg- and/or anti-HBc-positive) was 12.8%. An age over 40 years and illicit drug use were associated with HBV infection. HBV DNA was detected in 2/3 HBsAg-positive samples and in 1/52 anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative samples (an occult HBV infection rate of 1.9%), in which the genotypes/subgenotypes A/A1, D/D3 and F/F2 were identified. Only 12.3% of the recyclable waste collectors had serological evidence of previous HBV vaccination. Conclusions: These findings highlight the vulnerability of recyclable waste collectors to HBV infection and reinforce the importance of public health policies that address the health and safety of this socially vulnerable population. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Recycling , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epidemiologic Methods , Genotype , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Waste Products
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(4): 519-522, jun. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-678296

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a population of recyclable waste collectors (n = 431) was assessed using a cross-sectional survey in all 15 cooperatives in the city of Goiânia, Central-West Brazil. The HCV prevalence was 1.6% (95% confidence interval: 0.6-3.6) and a history of sexually transmitted infections was independently associated with this infection. HCV RNA (corresponding to genotype 1; subtypes 1a and 1b) was detected in five/seven anti-HCV-positive samples. Although the study population reported a high rate (47.3%) of sharps and needle accidents, HCV infection was not more frequent in recyclable waste collectors than in the general Brazilian population. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Recycling , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Prevalence , Risk Factors , RNA, Viral/genetics , Socioeconomic Factors
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(3): 386-389, maio 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676965

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was investigated in 149 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Central-West Region of Brazil. Of these individuals, 19 were positive for HBV DNA, resulting in an occult HBV infection prevalence of 12.7% (19/149); six of these 19 individuals had anti-HBV core and/or anti-HBV surface antibodies and 13 were negative for HBV markers. All IDUs with occult hepatitis B reported sexual and/or parenteral risk behaviours. All HBV DNA-positive samples were successfully genotyped. Genotype D was the most common (17/19), followed by genotype A (2/19). These findings reveal a high prevalence of occult HBV infection and the predominance of genotype D among IDUs in Brazil's Central-West Region.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Drug Users/statistics & numerical data , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/genetics , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(1): 24-29, Jan.-Feb. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666789

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Little information regarding hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among Brazilian female prisoners exists. This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors associated with HBV and HCV infections and identified viral genotypes among female prisoners in Goiás, Central Brazil. METHODS: Women incarcerated in the largest prison in the State of Goiás were invited to participate in the study. All female prisoners were interviewed and tested for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs), against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and antibody against HCV (anti-HCV) by ELISA. HBsAg and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for HBV DNA and HCV RNA and genotyped, respectively. RESULTS: Participants (n=148; 98.6%) completed the study with an overall HBV prevalence of 18.9%. Age >30 years, a low education level, sex with a sexually transmitted diseases carrier, and a male sexual partner serving in the same penitentiary were associated with HBV infections. Only 24% of the women were anti-HBs positive suggesting previous HBV vaccination. Nine female prisoners (6.1%) were anti-HCV positive. Age >40 years, injecting drug use and length of incarceration were statistically associated with anti-HCV antibodies. Five samples were HCV RNA positive and classified as genotypes 1 (subtypes 1a; n=3 and 1b; n=1) and 3 (subtype 3a; n=1). The HBsAg-reactive sample was HBV DNA positive and genotype A. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the necessity of public policies to control hepatitis B and C infections and emphasize the importance of hepatitis B vaccination in prison environments.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genotype , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Prevalence , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(8): 1060-1063, Dec. 2012. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660656

ABSTRACT

The protective anti-HBs titres were examined six-year post-immunisation with the Brazilian recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. After the primary vaccination, all adolescents (n = 89) responded with protective anti-HBs titres and had a geometric mean titre (GMT) of 4031.8 mIU/mL. In 2010, 94.5% maintained protective anti-HBs (> 10 mIU/mL) antibodies, with a GMT of 236.0 mIU/mL. A positive correlation was observed between the anti-HBs titres after the primary vaccination and the titres at the six-year follow-up (p < 0.01). Eleven subjects showed anti-HBs titres suggestive of a natural booster. Prostitution and tattoos/piercings were marginally associated with natural boosters in the multivariate analysis. This study showed the first data on anti-HBs persistence following the Brazilian hepatitis B vaccine in sexually active individuals and highlights its effectiveness in the medium term.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Humans , Young Adult , Hepatitis B Antibodies/immunology , Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Brazil , Follow-Up Studies , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B/immunology
16.
Rev. saúde pública ; 45(5): 974-976, out. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-601129

ABSTRACT

O estudo teve por objetivo estimar a prevalência da infecção e genótipo do vírus da hepatite C (HCV), bem como determinar a subnotificação de casos. O total de 115.386 gestantes atendidas pelo Programa Estadual de Proteção à Gestante de Mato Grosso do Sul foi submetido à coleta de sangue para a detecção de anti-HCV, de 2005 a 2007. A prevalência da infecção pelo HCV foi de 1,07 casos/1.000. As amostras positivas foram submetidas à detecção do HCV-RNA e genotipadas. O genótipo 1 foi encontrado em 73 por cento das amostras, 24,3 por cento pertenciam ao genótipo 3 e 2,7 por cento ao genótipo 2. A subnotificação de casos de hepatite C foi de 35,5 por cento.


The study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of infection with and the genotype of hepatitis C virus (HCV), and to determine the extent of underreporting of HCV cases. A total of 115,386 pregnant women seen by the Program for Protection of Pregnancy [Programa Estadual de Proteção à Gestante] of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central-Western Brazil, were tested for anti-HCV antibodies between 2005 and 2007. Prevalence of HCV infection was 1.07 cases per thousand. Positive samples were tested for HCV RNA and genotyped. Genotype 1 was detected in 73 percent of samples, genotype 3 in 24.3 percent, and genotype 2 in 2.7 percent. Underreporting of hepatitis C cases was 35.5 percent.


El estudio tuvo por objetivo estimar la prevalencia de la infección y genotipo del virus de la hepatitis C (HCV), así como determinar la subnotificación de casos. El total de 115.386 gestantes atendidas por el Programa Estatal de Protección a la Gestante de Mato Grosso do Sul (Centro-Oeste de Brasil) fueron sometidas a la colecta de sangre para la detección de anti-HCV, de 2005 a 2007. La prevalencia de la infección por el HCV fue de 1,07 casos/1000. Las muestras positivas fueron sometidas a la detección del HCV-RNA y genotipadas. El genotipo 1 fue encontrado en 73 por ciento de las muestras, 24,3 por ciento pertenecían al genotipo 3 y 2,7 por ciento al genotipo 2. La subnotificación de casos de hepatitis C fue de 35,5 por ciento.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Hepatitis C , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C , Prevalence , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Retrospective Studies
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(5): 632-634, Aug. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597727

ABSTRACT

Leprosy and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are highly endemic in some regions of the state of Mato Grosso, in central Brazil. The association of leprosy with HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) was assessed using a seroprevalence study and 191 leprosy outpatients were included. Demographic data and the clinical classification of leprosy were recorded. Evidence of previous HBV infection was present in 53 patients (27.7 percent, 95 percent confidence interval: 21.9-34.5) and two (1 percent) were HBsAg positive. Five (2.6 percent) had antibodies to HCV. The prevalence of previous exposure to HBV was higher than expected for an adult population in central Brazil. In contrast, the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was not much higher regarding the age range of participants. HBV markers were associated with a higher number of sex partners and the use of injections without proper sterilisation of the syringes. The number of HBV carriers was small, suggesting that there was no increased likelihood of chronification among these patients.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Coinfection , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Leprosy , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coinfection/immunology , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis C/immunology , Leprosy , Leprosy/immunology , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies
18.
Rev. bras. hematol. hemoter ; 33(1): 38-42, Feb. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-582746

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in populations from inner cities, especially in Central Brazil. Thus the objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HBV infection, and to analyze the factors associated with HBV infection, in a population of first-time blood donors in the southwestern region of Goiás, Central Brazil. METHODS: A total of 984 individuals were interviewed and gave blood samples to detect serological markers of HBV (HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: An overall prevalence of 6.9 percent was found for HBV, with constituent prevalence rates of 3.6 percent and 11.6 percent, in subjects classified as fit and unfit to donate blood according the epidemiological screening, respectively. Only three individuals were positive for anti-HBs alone, suggesting previous vaccination against HBV. The variables of prior blood transfusion (OR = 2.3), tattoo/piercing (OR = 2.1), illicit drug use (OR = 2.3), sex with a partner with hepatitis (OR = 14.7), and history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR = 2.9) were independently associated with HBV-positivity. These data suggested a low endemicity of hepatitis B in the studied population. CONCLUSION: The findings of low hepatitis B immunization coverage and the association of hepatitis B with risky behavior highlight that there is a need to intensify hepatitis B prevention programs in the southwest region of Goiás.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Brazil , Hepatitis B virus , Prevalence , Hepatitis B/epidemiology
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 43(5): 512-515, set.-out. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-564285

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HBV infection and associated factors among prison inmates in Campo Grande, MS. METHODS: A total of 408 individuals were interviewed regarding sociodemographic characteristics, associated factors and HBV vaccination using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from all participants and serological markers for HBV were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and/or antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) positive samples were tested for HBV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of HBV infection was 17.9 percent (95 percentCI: 14.4-22.0). The HBsAg carrier rate was 0.5 percent; 56 (13.7 percent) individuals had been infected and developed natural immunity and 15 (3.7 percent) were positive for anti-HBc only. Ninety eight (24 percent) prisoners had only anti-HBs, suggesting that they had low vaccine coverage. An occult HBV infection rate of 0 percent was verified among anti-HBc-positive individuals. Multivariate analysis of associated factors showed that age > 35 years-old, low schooling level and illicit drug use are significantly associated with HBV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the data showed HBV infection prevalence similar or slightly lower than that reported in other of Brazilian prisons. Independent predictors of HBV infection in this population include older age, low schooling level and illicit drug use.


INTRODUÇÃO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência da infecção pelo HBV e os fatores associados a esta infecção em população encarcerada de Campo Grande, MS. MÉTODOS: Quatrocentos e oito encarcerados, provenientes das populações encarceradas do Instituto Penal de Campo Grande, Presídio de Segurança Máxima e Presídio Feminino Irmã Irma Zorzi, foram entrevistados sobre dados sociodemográficos e fatores associados à infecção pelo HBV. A seguir foram coletadas amostras sanguíneas para detecção dos marcadores HBsAg, anti-HBs e anti-HBc total por ensaio imunoenzimático. O HBV-DNA foi detectado pela reação em cadeia da polimerase nas amostras HBsAg e anti-HBc reagentes. RESULTADOS: A prevalência global para infecção pelo HBV foi de 17,9 por cento (IC 95 por cento: 14,4-22,0), 13,7 por cento (56/408) para o anti-HBc total associado ao anti-HBs e em 15 (3,7 por cento) indivíduos foi detectada a presença do anti-HBc isolado. HBsAg foi encontrado em 0,5 por cento (2/408) dos indivíduos estudados, evidenciando uma baixa prevalência de casos crônicos. Em 24 por cento (98/408) dos indivíduos, verificou-se positividade isolada ao marcador anti-HBs, sugerindo baixa cobertura vacinal ao HBV. Após análise multivariada, ter idade maior que 35 anos, baixo nível de escolaridade e uso de droga ilícita permaneceram associados significativamente à infecção pelo HBV. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência da infecção pelo HBV encontrada foi similar às reportadas em outros estudos conduzidos em populações encarceradas do Brasil. Os fatores de risco associados a esta infecção foram aumento da idade, baixo nível de escolaridade e uso de droga ilícita.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Prisons/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Viral/blood , Educational Status , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epidemiologic Methods , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Young Adult
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 42(6): 657-660, Dec. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-539513

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo teve como objetivo estimar a prevalência da infecção pelo HTLV-1 em remanescentes de comunidades de população negra, os quilombos no Brasil Central. 1.837 indivíduos foram avaliados, sendo nove soropositivos para HTLV-1/2 por ELISA. Todos esses foram positivos para HTLV-1 por Western blot e/ou PCR, resultando em uma prevalência de 0,5 por cento (IC 95 por cento: 0,2-1,0). A idade dos indivíduos infectados variou de 11 a 82 anos, sendo a maioria do sexo feminino. Quanto às características de risco, história de aleitamento materno, transfusão de sangue, múltiplos parceiros sexuais e doenças sexualmente transmissíveis foram relatadas por esses indivíduos. Os achados deste estudo evidenciam a importância da identificação dos indivíduos infectados pelo HTLV-1 na estratégia de controle e prevenção dessa infecção em remanescentes de quilombos.


This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HTLV-1 infection among remnant black quilombo communities in Central Brazil. A total of 1,837 individuals were evaluated, among whom nine were HTLV-1/2 seropositive according to ELISA. All of them were positive for HTLV-1 by means of Western blot and/or PCR, thus resulting in a prevalence of 0.5 percent (95 percent CI: 0.2-1.0). The HTLV-1 infected individuals ranged in age from 11 to 82 years. The majority of them were females. Regarding risk characteristics, histories of breastfeeding, blood transfusion, multiple sexual partners and sexually transmitted diseases were reported by these individuals. The findings from this study indicate the importance of identifying HTLV-1 infected individuals, as a strategy for infection control and prevention in these remnant quilombos.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , African Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data , HTLV-I Infections/epidemiology , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blotting, Western , Brazil/epidemiology , Brazil/ethnology , Cross-Sectional Studies , DNA, Viral/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , HTLV-I Infections/diagnosis , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/genetics , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/immunology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
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