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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 810-822, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881170

ABSTRACT

Of all known small molecules targeting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) capsid protein (CA), PF74 represents by far the best characterized chemotype, due to its ability to confer antiviral phenotypes in both early and late phases of viral replication. However, the prohibitively low metabolic stability renders PF74 a poor antiviral lead. We report herein our medicinal chemistry efforts toward identifying novel and metabolically stable small molecules targeting the PF74 binding site. Specifically, we replaced the inter-domain-interacting, electron-rich indole ring of PF74 with less electron-rich isosteres, including imidazolidine-2,4-dione, pyrimidine-2,4-dione, and benzamide, and identified four potent antiviral compounds (

2.
Clinics ; 74: e698, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011925

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Hyperinfection or disseminated strongyloidiasis has been frequently reported after transplants and is related to high mortality. This study aimed to screen for strongyloidiasis using serological diagnoses in transplant candidates. METHODS: An ELISA test was performed with filariform larvae of Strongyloides venezuelensis as a source of antigen. RESULTS: In the serum from transplant candidates, anti-Strongyloides IgG antibodies were detected in 35/150 (23.3%) samples by soluble fractions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), 31/150 (20.7%) samples by soluble fractions in Tris-HCl, 27/150 (18.0%) samples by membrane fractions in PBS and 22/150 (14.7%) samples by membrane fractions in Tris-HCl. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest the ELISA test, ideally using soluble fractions of filariform larvae S. venezuelensis in PBS, as an additional strategy for the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in transplant candidates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Strongyloidiasis/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Organ Transplantation , Strongyloides stercoralis/immunology , Antigens, Helminth/immunology , Strongyloidiasis/parasitology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Antibodies, Helminth/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Mass Screening , Sensitivity and Specificity , Immunocompromised Host , Antigens, Helminth/isolation & purification
3.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(4): 403-409, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959261

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate satisfaction and burden of mental health personnel providing mental health services for substance users and their families. Method: Five hundred twenty-seven mental health workers who provide treatment for substance users in five Brazilian states were interviewed. Data on sociodemographic characteristics and measures of satisfaction (SATIS-BR) and burden of mental health personnel (IMPACTO-BR) were collected. Results: Type of mental health service and educational attainment were associated with degree of satisfaction and burden. Therapeutic community workers and those with a primary education level reported being more satisfied with the treatment offered to patients, their engagement in service activities, and working conditions. Workers from psychosocial care centers, psychosocial care centers focused on alcohol and other drugs, and social care referral centers (both general and specialized), as well as workers with a higher education, reported feeling overburdened. Conclusion: This study offers important information regarding the relationship of mental health personnel with their work. Care providers within this sample reported an overall high level of job satisfaction, while perceived burden differed by type of service and educational attainment. To our knowledge, this is the first study with a sample of mental health professionals working with substance users across five Brazilian states.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Personnel/psychology , Workplace/psychology , Substance Abuse Treatment Centers , Job Satisfaction , Mental Health Services , Therapeutic Community , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Educational Status
4.
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 21(3)jul.-set. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-845109

ABSTRACT

Introducción: los hongos del género Ganoderma han sido utilizados para el cuidado de la salud en la medicina tradicional asiática por más de 2000 años. Desde 1980 los estudios químicos han reportado un sin número de metabolitos secundarios con propiedades bioactivas. Objetivo: identificar compuestos lipídicos en el extracto etanólico del hongo Ganoderma sp., además de evaluar sus actividades antioxidante y leishmanicida. Métodos: la extracción de las fracciones lipídicas presentes en el cuerpo fructífero de Ganoderma sp. Se realizó por Cromatografía en Columna. La elucidación estructural se determinó por Espectrometría de Masas y Resonancia Magnética Nuclear. La actividad antioxidante del extracto etanólico fue evaluada con las metodologías del radical 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) y el radical catiónico 2,2'-azinobis (3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfónico) (ABTS); la actividad leishmanicida por citometría de flujo y la actividad citotóxica usando el ensayo colorimétrico de bromuro de 3-(4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il)-2,5-difenil tetrazolio (MTT) sobre la línea celular U937. Resultados: diecinueve esteres metílicos y ergosterol fueron identificados por espectrometría de masas en el extracto etanólico. Un compuesto triterpenoidal se elucidó usando Espectroscopia de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear. Los valores de concentración media inhibitoria (IC 50) de la actividad antioxidante del extracto etanólico para las metodologías de los radicales DPPH y ABTS fueron de 85,63 µg/mL y 62,82 µg/mL, respectivamente. Los valores de las actividades citotóxica y leishmanicida fueron > 200,0 µg/mL y 21,5 µg/mL ± 4,4 respectivamente. Conclusiones: las estructuras de los derivados de ácidos grasos elucidados corresponden a compuestos con diferentes grados de insaturación. En este estudio se realizó el reporte de la Ganoderona A, como compuesto triterpenoidal. La elevada actividad antioxidante en relación a otros trabajos sugiere que este organismo es una fuente importante de metabolitos secundarios con propiedades captadoras de radicales libres, aunque los valores de actividad leishmanicida no fueron significativos se recomienda continuar con el estudio de otras particiones del extracto etanólico(AU)


Introduction: Fungi from the genus Ganoderma have been used in Asian traditional medicine for more than 2 000 years. Since the year 1980 chemical studies have reported a large number of secondary metabolites with bioactive properties. Objective: Identify lipid compounds in ethanolic extract from the fungus Ganoderma sp. and evaluate their antioxidant and leishmanicidal activities. Methods: Extraction of lipid fractions from the fruiting body of Ganoderma sp. was conducted by column chromatography. Structural features were determined by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract was evaluated with the methodologies for radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and cationic radical 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS); leishmanicidal activity by flow cytometry, and cytotoxic activity with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay (MTT) on cell line U937. Results: Nineteen methyl esters and ergosterol were identified by mass spectrometry in the ethanolic extract. A triterpenoid compound was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Mean inhibitory concentration values (IC50) for antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract using the methodologies for radicals DPPH and ABTS were 85.63 µg/ml and 62.82 µg/ml, respectively. Values for cytotoxic and leishmanicidal activities were > 200.0 µg/ml and 21.5 µg/ml ± 4.4, respectively. Conclusions: The structure of the fatty acid derivatives identified corresponds to compounds with varying degrees of unsaturation. The study included the report of Ganoderma A as a triterpenoid compound. Antioxidant activity was found to be higher than in previous studies, suggesting that this organism is an important source of secondary metabolites with free radical scavenging properties. Although leishmanicidal activity values were not found to be significant, it is recommended to study other partitions of the ethanolic extract(AU)


Subject(s)
Mass Spectrometry/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Ganoderma , Fatty Acids , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Colombia
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to: (1) examine rates of obesity and physical health complaints among 911 telecommunicators; and (2) document the role of emotion dysregulation, psychological inflexibility, duty-related distress and dissociation, and psychopathology in predicting obesity and physical health complaints in this population. METHODS: The sample consisted of 911 telecommunicators from across the country (N = 758). Participants completed an online survey assessing their mental and physical health functioning. RESULTS: A total of 82.5% of the sample reported a body mass index that fell within the overweight or obese category and an average of 17 physical health complaints within the past month. Peritraumatic reactions (distress and dissociation), emotion dysregulation, and psychological inflexibility had effects on physical health largely through psychopathology (alcohol abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, and depression). CONCLUSION: Development of adapted prevention and intervention efforts with this population is needed.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Obesity , Overweight , Psychopathology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic
6.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-164487

ABSTRACT

Vitamin B12 is one of the essential vitamins affecting various systems of the body. Cases of neuropsychiatric disorders due to its deficiency are more common in elderly patients with a prevalence rate of 10-20%; however there have been few cases reported in children and adolescents as well. The most common psychiatric symptoms reported in the literature associated with vitamin B12 deficiency was depression, mania, psychotic symptoms, cognitive impairment, dementia,delirium, acute confusional states and obsessive compulsive disorder. Subacute combined degeneration (SCD) is a neurological complication of vitamin B12 deficiency, characterized by demyelination of the dorsal and lateral spinal cord. With an early diagnosis and treatment, further development of symptoms can be prevented, before psychosis; dementia and severe depression can develop. The treatment is simple and effective and often gives very good results in these symptoms. Here we have reported a case of vitamin B12 deficiency in 19 years old, male who presented with months history of paraparesis and 3 months history of psychosis. The patient was non vegetarian. Past medical history, was insignificant. Premorbid personality was unremarkable with no substance use/ exposure or infections. No stressors were present. He was diagnosed with sub acute combined degeneration with psychosis due to vitamin B12 deficiency. He was treated with antipsychotics and parenteral vitamin B12. Patient improved but some residual weakness persisted in lower limbs after 10 days of parental treatment with Vitamin B12.

8.
Arch. venez. pueric. pediatr ; 74(1): 16-22, mar. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-659165

ABSTRACT

Las parasitosis intestinales son aún un problema de salud pública que requiere atención de los organismos la salud. Determinar la frecuencia de parasitosis intestinales y características epidemiológicas en niños de 1 a 12 años que acudieron al Ambulatorio Urbano Tipo II “Laura Labellarte”. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, con muestra no probabilística por conveniencia, constituida por 139 niños. Previo consentimiento informado se realizó una entrevista, un examen de heces directo y concentrado y método de Graham. Los datos se procesaron en el Programa EPI-INFO 2007. Se calcularon porcentajes y proporciones, Chi cuadrado y test de Fisher con intervalo de confianza de 95%. Se encontró parasitado 49,6%, sin predilección por edad ni sexo. Se identificó Blastocystis hominis (43,5%), Enterobius vermicularis (39,1%), Giardia lamblia (33,3%), Entamoeba histolytica (10,1%) y Ascaris lumbricoides (1,4%). Se encontró comensales en 15%. El mayor número de parasitados se observó en quienes tenían inadecuadas disposición de excretas (71%), conservación de los alimentos (57,1%), calidad del agua de consumo (53,8%) y frecuencia de recolección de basura (50%), así como en los sintomáticos (51,3%), siendo más frecuente el dolor abdominal (66,7%). Se demostró asociación de vectores con Blastocystis hominis, moscas con Giardia lamblia y roedores con todos los agentes hallados. La elevada frecuencia de parasitos intestinales, especialmente Blastocystis hominis, con predominio entre quienes viven con fallas en la disposición de excretas, conservación de alimentos y la calidad del agua para consumo, demuestran la persistencia de las parasitosis intestinales como problema de salud pública


The intestinal parasitisms are still a problem of public health that requires attention of health organisms. To determine the frequency of intestinal parasitism and epidemiological characteristics in children 1 to 12 years old that attended the “Laura Labellarte” Urban Type II Ambulatory. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed, with a nonprobabilistic by convenience sample, constituted by 139 children. With a previous informed consent, parents were interviewed and a direct and concentrate fecal analysis and a Graham´s test were performed. The data was processed in EPI-INFO 2007 Program. Percentage, proportions, Chi square and Fisher`s test with confidence interval of 95% were calculated. 49,6% of patients were parasited, with no predilection by age or sex. Blastocystis hominis (43,5%), Enterobius vermicularis (39,1%), Giardia lamblia (33,3%), Entamoeba histolytica (10,1%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (1,4%) were identified. The greater number of parasited patients was observed in those who had inadequate disposition of feces (71%), food storage (57,1%), quality of drinking water (53,8%) and garbage collection (50%) as well as in symptomatic children (51,3%). The most frequent symptom was abdominal pain (66,7%). Association of vectors with Blastocystis hominis, flies with Giardia lamblia and rodents with all causal agents was demonstrated. The high intestinal parasitisms frequency, especially Blastocystis hominis, with predominance among those who live with faults in feces disposition, foods storage and quality of drinking water, demonstrates the persistence of intestinal parasitisms as a public health problem


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Blastocystis , Environment , Insect Vectors , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Hygiene , Public Health
9.
Rev. obstet. ginecol. Venezuela ; 70(1): 18-23, mar. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-631420

ABSTRACT

Conocer la frecuencia de diabetes y otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular en mujeres con diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG) previa. Se evaluaron 92 mujeres con DMG previa, a quienes no se les había diagnosticado diabetes, que asistieron a la pesquisa posparto inicial o anual durante 2008. Se determinó presión arterial, circunferencia abdominal (CA) e índice de masa corporal (IMC). Se practicó prueba de tolerancia oral a la glucosa, medición de niveles de insulina y lípidos séricos. Se estableció la presencia de síndrome metabólico (SM), aplicando los criterios ATP III e índice de resistencia a la insulina mediante el modelo Homa-R. Se usó t Student para la asociación de variables. La media de edad fue 34,7 ± 6,6 años y del período posparto, 3,5 ± 2,6 años. En 8,7 por ciento se hizo el diagnóstico de diabetes, 32,6 por ciento intolerancia a la glucosa y 12,0 por ciento, glucemia alterada en ayunas. 62,1 por ciento presentaba obesidad abdominal, 62,5 por ciento, algún tipo de dislipidemia y 23,80 por ciento, elevación de la presión arterial. 46,4 por ciento reunía los criterios de SM y 29,6 por ciento mostró un índice HOMA-R > 2,5. Las cifras de CA, IMC, triglicéridos, glucemia basal, glucemia 2 horas post-carga, e insulina 2 horas poscarga fueron más altas (P< 0,05) en mujeres con anormalidades de la tolerancia a la glucosa que en aquellas con tolerancia normal. Las mujeres con DMG previa muestran una elevada frecuencia de alteraciones clínicas y metabólicas que representan un potencial incremento del riesgo cardiovascular en un grupo poblacional relativamente joven


To know the frequency of diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). 92 women with previous GDM, without diagnosis of diabetes, who underwent initial or annual postpartum diabetes screening during 2008, were assessed. Blood pressure, abdominal circumference and body mass index were measured. They were tested for an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and determination of plasma insulin and lipid levels. Metabolic syndrome (MS) was diagnosed according ATP III criteria and the HOMA-R model was used for the insulin resistance index calculation. Student’s t test was used for variables association. The average age was 34.7 ± 6.6 years and postpartum period, 3.5 ± 2.6 years. 8.7 percent was diagnosed with diabetes, 32.6 percent with impaired glucose tolerance and 12.0 percent with impaired fasting glucose. 62.1 percent showed abdominal obesity, 62.5 percent presented some type of dyslipidemia and 23.8 percent, high blood pressure. 46.4 percent met the criteria for MS, and 29.6 percent showed a HOMA-R Index > 2.5. Abdominal circumference, body mass index, blood pressure, triglycerides, basal glucose, 2-h post-load glucose and 2-h post-load insulin values were higher (P< 0.05) in women with abnormal glucose tolerance than those with normal glucose tolerance. Women with previous GDM show a high frequency of clinical and metabolic abnormalities that point towards a potential increase of cardiovascular risk in a relatively young population


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/pathology , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Pregnancy in Diabetics/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/pathology , Prediabetic State , Prenatal Diagnosis , Risk Factors
10.
P. R. health sci. j ; 27(2): 163-170, Jun. 2008.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-500958

ABSTRACT

Mite allergen exposure can lead to sensitization in genetically predisposed individuals, and the development of asthma in previously sensitized individuals. The major allergens of mites belong to Dermatophagoides spp. and Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Various allergens of Bt have been cloned and sequenced. Some of them show homology sequence with purified allergens from Dermatophagoides pteronissynus (Dp). Recently, the allergen group 1 from Bt, Blo t 1, was cloned and sequenced at our laboratory. Recombinant Blo t 1 showed 35 % of identity and 50% of similarity with group 1 allergens as Der p 1 (from Dp), Der f 1 (from D. farinae) and Eur m 1 (from Euroglyphus maynei) at amino acid level. This would suggest that cross-reactivity between allergens of different mite species could exist. Here, we analyzed the crossreactivity between group 1 allergens from mites using recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies against them. ELISA inhibition assay showed that crossreactivity between homologous allergens from Dermatophagoides spp. is high, but it is low to moderate between mites from different species. IgE-reactivity analysis using serum samples from allergic individuals revealed a strong reactivity of rBlo t 1 for serum samples from subjects with highly positive reaction to Bt extract in skin test, but lack of reactivity of this protein with serum samples from individuals with highly positive reaction to house dust mite extract in the skin test. These results suggest that it is important to include Bt allergens in routine skin test in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy and precision of allergies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Allergens/immunology , Mites , Pyroglyphidae/classification , Pyroglyphidae/immunology , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Immunoglobulin E/blood
11.
Invest. clín ; 48(1): 69-79, mar. 2007. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-486698

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la frecuencia del anticoagulante lúpico (AL) en una población de pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC) estadio V y su posible asociación con fenómenos trombóticos. Se estudiaron 63 pacientes que se clasificaron en dos (2) grupos: el Grupo A integrado por 32 pacientes con IRC estadio V sometidos a tratamiento de hemodiálisis y el Grupo B constituido por 31 pacientes con IRC en diferentes estadios bajo tratamiento conservador. Se determinó la presencia del AL por medio del método del veneno de v¡bora de Russell diluido. Se encontró AL positivo en cuatro pacientes (12,5 por ciento) del Grupo A y ninguno del Grupo B. Se presentaron siete eventos trombóticos (21,87 por ciento) en el grupo A y ninguno en el grupo B, tres de los eventos corresponden a 2 pacientes con AL positivo. Se estableció una diferencia estadísticamente significante (p < 0,001) entre los pacientes con AL positivo y con AL negativo que mostraron eventos trombóticos sometidos a hemodiálisis. 3 de los 4 pacientes con AL positivo, eran diabéticos y tenían menos de seis meses en hemodiálisis. El acceso vascular de todos los pacientes con AL positivo fue el catéter, representando el 57,1 por ciento de todos los pacientes con ésta forma de acceso vascular. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren la existencia de una relación entre la positividad del AL y la producción de eventos trombóticos en los pacientes con IRC estadio V sometidos a hemodiálisis a través de catéter, por lo que es conveniente determinar el AL en la exploración diagnóstica de los pacientes sometidos a hemodiálisis, cuyo resultado posibilite la intervención preventiva o terapéutica adecuada a cada caso así como promover la confección precoz del acceso vascular permanente para hemodiálisis y evitar el uso prolongado de los accesos vasculares transitorios (catéter).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor , Lupus Nephritis , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Thrombosis , Medicine , Venezuela
12.
Cienc. odontol ; 3(2): 67-77, jul.-dic. 2006.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-499968

ABSTRACT

Evidenciar, la pertinencia social y académica de la Facultad de Odontología. Se utilizó el análisis prospectivo para caracterizar el modelo educativo y perfilar su tendencia en el contexto actual y futuro de la Universidad. La institución ha transitado cambios en su estructura académico-administrativo en el proceso de formación del talento humano comprometido socialmente. Los cambios están ligados con propuestas innovadoras gestados en períodos históricamente determinados. En estos procesos se ha buscado superar los modelos hegemónicos que sustentan la praxis en salud en los países latinoamericanos, intentando contribuir a resolver los problemas de salud de la población.


Subject(s)
Education, Dental , Educational Measurement , Schools , Dentistry , Venezuela
13.
Acta odontol. venez ; 44(1): 31-37, ene. 2006. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-629957

ABSTRACT

Se determina la cronología y secuencia de erupción de dientes permanentes, mediante estudio transversal sobre una muestra aleatoria de 512 niños de la etnia indígena wayúu, en edades entre 6 y 17 años, seleccionados entre los estudiantes de las escuelas de la parroquia Idelfonso Vásquez del Municipio Maracaibo (Estado Zulia - Venezuela). Para precisar la cronología, se utilizó el procedimiento empleado por Méndez en el estudio nacional de crecimiento y desarrollo humano de la República de Venezuela. La secuencia fue establecida de acuerdo con la sucesión cronológica de la edad mediana del grado de emergencia clínica inicial. Los resultados demuestran que la edad de erupción dentaria es más temprana en los niños wayúu que en los criollos, e igualmente que los dientes de la arcada inferior erupcionan más temprano que los de la arcada superior. La secuencia de erupción en los niños wayúu en la arcada superior es 26-16-, 11-21, 12-22, 14-24, 13-23, 15-25, 17-27 y en la arcada inferior [46-36, 31-41], 42-32, 34-44, 33-43,[ 45-35, 47-37]. Finalmente, se identificaron en el wayúu, “condiciones de beneficio” (bajo índice de extracciones prematuras, índice de exfoliación fisiológica, amamantamiento prolongado y consumo de alimentos sólidos a temprana edad), relacionados con sus prácticas culturales.


This study determines the chronology and sequence of permanent teeth eruption, using a cross-sectional in a random sample of 512 children of the wayúu ethnic group, ranging in age from 6 to 17 years old, selected between the students of the schools of the Idelfonso Vasquez parish in Maracaibo County (Zulia State, Venezuela). In order to establish chronological dental eruption, the Mendez procedure was used, this procedure was initially used in the national growth and development study of the Venezuelan Republic. The sequence was established in accordance with the chronological succession of the average age degree of initial clinical emergency. The results show that the age of dental eruption is earlier in wayúu children then in the “criollo”, being this process even more accelerated in the female gender then in the male, also it was found that just as in the criollo group teeth in the lower maxilla erupt earlier then in the upper maxilla. The eruption sequence in the wayúu children in the upper maxilla was 26-16, 11-21, 12-22, 14-24, 13-23, 15-25, 17-27 and in the lower maxilla 46-36, 31-41, 42-32, 34-44, 33-43, 45-35, 47-37. Finally, this study allows the identification of “beneficial conditions” in the wayúu children such as: low index of premature extractions, low index of prolonged retention of primary teeth and high index of physiological exfoliation.

14.
Cienc. odontol ; 2(2): 87-92, jul.-dic. 2005.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-499922

ABSTRACT

Construir un modelo educativo integral que de respuesta a los retos de la odontología como ciencia comprometida socialmente, tanto en el contexto nacional como latinoamericano. Parte de algunas consideraciones que develan los principios y las políticas del Estado que rigen la educación superior en el mundo contemporáneo. Para la construcción de la propuesta, la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad del Zulia, FACO/LUZ, dio apertura a escenarios de discusión con la participación de los actores involucrados en el proceso, con la finalidad de evaluar la experiencia institucional en materia curricular. Igualmente, realizó un análisis crítico de las tendencias mundiales en educación y salud, a objeto de incorporarlas a la propuesta. En sus alcances el modelo posibilita la formación de talento humano cuya praxis apunte a la transformación cuali-cuantitativa, de la situación de salud bucal de la población. En su marco filosófico reafirma el modelo educativo docencia-servicio-investigación e inserta conceptos actuales relacionados con la bioética, transculturalidad, la epidiscipilinariedad y el uso de las lenguas autóctonas de la región y el país. Finalmente, el modelo permite integrar la teoría y la práctica (estudio-trabajo) en el marco de la estratégia de la atención primaria en salud.


Subject(s)
Curriculum , Education, Dental , Models, Educational , Dentistry , Education , Venezuela
15.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 24(3): 262-272, sept. 2004. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-422502

ABSTRACT

El sistema NADPH oxidasa de las células fagocíticas cumple una función importante durante la respuesta antimicrobiana del organismo. La activación de este sistema está precedida por la translocación de las proteínas citosólicas p67 phox , p47 phox y p40 phox hacia la membrana para ponerse en contacto con el flavocitocromo b 558 , lo que induce la generación del anión superóxido, un precursor de agentes microbicidas oxidantes. El presente trabajo presenta un análisis funcional del sistema NADPH oxidasa basado en los hallazgos de polimorfismos encontrados en el gen de p67 phox de individuos sanos. Para esto se generaron mutaciones en el cADN que codifica la p67 phox y se expresaron en el sistema de células COS phox . Los datos obtenidos en el presente trabajo indican que los cambios Val 166 .Ile, Pro 329 .Ser y His 389 .Gln no generan alteraciones en el funcionamiento de la p67 phox cuando su función se analizó en el sistema transgénico basado en células COS-7. Por lo tanto, estos polimorfismos no generan ningún riesgo genético de producir deficiencias en la activación del sistema NADPH oxidasa. Además, se demuestra que el modelo de células COS phox representa un nuevo sistema celular, fácilmente transfectable que permite estudiar la función del sistema NADPH oxidasa de las células fagocíticas y sus particularidades genéticas. Finalmente, los hallazgos con estos polimorfismos nos permiten avanzar en el conocimiento sobre los mecanismos moleculares involucrados en la activación del sistema NADPH oxidasa células fagocíticas


Subject(s)
COS Cells , NADPH Oxidases , Polymorphism, Genetic , Proteins/genetics , Transfection , Transformation, Genetic
16.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 20(2): 62-67, abr.-jun. 2004. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-503831

ABSTRACT

Se determinaron las características parasitológicas, patogénicas e inmunogénicas de cepas salvajes de T. cruzi, aislados en los estados Lara y Yaracuy en Venezuela, comparadas con la cepa patrón YBM. la muestra consistió de cuarenta ratas (40) Sprague Dawley de 03 semanas de edad, divididas en 04 grupos de 10 ratas c/u. Cada rata fue inoculada con 100 tripomastigotes metacíclicos/gr. peso del animal, vía intradérmica. Cada grupo fue tratado con una cepa diferente, cuya identificación y procedencia era desconocida para los investigadores (método doble ciego). La parasitemia fue evaluada cada semana por 8 semanas mediante un Hemocitómetro. La integridad del Sistema Nervioso Autónomo (SNA) y de la funcionalidad cardíaca fue evaluada mediante estudios electrocardiográficos realizados antes y después de administrar Felinefrina 1mg/kg. Se realizaron tres estudios electrocardiográficos: animal sano (pre-inoculación), etapa aguda) 4 semanas post-inoculación) y etapa subaguda (9 semanas post-inoculación). La inmunogenicidad fue medida a los dos meses post inoculación, mediante la titulación de anticuerpos tipo IgG anti-T. cruzi y mediante Hipersensibilidad retardada. Nuestros estudios revelaron que la cepa Cauderales mostró la mayor (p<0.05) parasitemia comparadas con las cepas Nirgua y YBM, las cuales mostraron niveles menores de parasitemia; Guariquito no indujo parasitemia. La cepa de Nirgua fue la que evidenció una mayor inmunogenicidad del tipo humoral (p<0.05) y una mayor alteración del SNA reflejado por un aumento significativo de la respuestas bradicardizante en el período agudo y una respuesta taquicardizante significativa en el período subagudo ante la administración de FE. Cauderales mostró una inmunogenicidad humoral similar a YBM y no presentaron alteraciones en el SNA. Gúariquito no mostró respuesta inmune humoral, sin embargo; presentaron alteraciones en el SNA.


Subject(s)
Trypanosomiasis , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Parasitology , Venezuela
17.
Rev. biol. trop ; 51(3/4): 647-673, sept.-dic. 2003. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-365904

ABSTRACT

A pharmacological survey of plants from Monteverde, Costa Rica, including 165 species representing 61 families has been carried out. Crude plant extracts have been tested for in-vitro bactericidal and fungicidal activity as well as cytotoxic and anti-herpes activity. Of these, 123 extracts exhibited notable cytotoxicity, 62 showed antibacterial activity, 4 showed antifungal activity, and 8 showed promising antiviral activity. Thus, 101 of the plant species examined in this work, or 62, showed marked bioactivity in one or more bioassays. These results underscore the phytomedicinal potential of Neotropical cloud forests.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Humans , Anti-Infective Agents , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Plant Extracts , Plants, Medicinal , Costa Rica , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plants, Medicinal , Trees
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 96(suppl): 89-101, Sept. 2001. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-295895

ABSTRACT

T cell clones were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Schistosoma haematobium infected and uninfected individuals living in an endemic area. The clones were stimulated with S. haematobium worm and egg antigens and purified protein derivative. Attempts were made to classify the T cell clones according to production of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma. All the T cell clones derived were observed to produce cytokines used as markers for the classification of Th1/Th2 subsets. However, the 'signature' cytokines marking each subset were produced at different levels. The classification depended on the dominating cytokine type, which was having either Th0/1 or Th0/2 subsets. The results indicated that no distinct cytokine profiles for polarisation of Th1/Th2 subsets were detected in these S. haematobium infected humans. The balance in the profiles of cytokines marking each subset were related to infection and re-infection status after treatment with praziquantel. In the present study, as judged by the changes in infection status with time, the T cell responses appeared to be less stable and more dynamic, suggesting that small quantitative changes in the balance of the cytokines response could result in either susceptibility or resistant to S. haematobium infection


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Schistosoma haematobium/immunology , Schistosomiasis haematobia/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/classification , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Antigens, Helminth , Cell Line , Clone Cells/classification , Clone Cells/metabolism , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/isolation & purification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Follow-Up Studies , Parasite Egg Count , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Schistosomiasis haematobia/drug therapy , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/classification , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/metabolism , Th1 Cells/classification , Th1 Cells/metabolism , Th2 Cells/classification , Th2 Cells/metabolism , Titrimetry
19.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 76(3): 200-6, maio-jun. 2000. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-268347

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Estabelecer o perfil dos neonatos de Caxias do Sul e estudar a mortalidade neonatal precoce, suas causas e as variáveis a esta relacionadas. Métodos: Estudo de coorte envolvendo 5.545 recém-nascidos acompanhados por até 7 dias de vida. Calculou-se a probalidade de morte neonatal precoce (PMNP), utilizando-se a regressão logística múltipla para relacionar as vaiáveis com a mortalidade neonatal precoce. Resultados: A PMNP observada foi de 7,44 por mil nascidos vivos. A incidência de partos prematuros e de baixo peso ao nascer foi de 9,4 por cento e 8,1 por cento, respectivamente. O índice de cesariana foi de 55 por cento, apresentando relação com o nível socioeconômico e educacional. As variáveis realcionadas ao óbito foram a história de natimortalidade, a idade materna >35 anos, idade gestacional, Apgar <7, sexo masculino e baixo peso. A principal causa do óbito foi a doença da membrana hialina, seguida pelas cardiopatias congênitas, prematuridade extrema e descolamento prematuro de placenta. Conclusão: Apesar da PMNP ter sido baixa, ocorreram mortes que poderiam ter sido evitadas com um melhor atendimento no pré-natal, no parto e na assistência ao RN


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant Mortality , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Premature
20.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 7(4): 255-63, abr. 2000. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-264874

ABSTRACT

O atendimento a pacientes em servicos primarios de saude deveria compreender uma avaliacao tanto fisica como psicologica; em muitos casos, o sucesso do tratamento depende da compreensao do individuo e de suas interacoes, em especial de sua interacao na familia. Portanto, e importante instrumentalizar os profissionais de saude para que sejam capazes de trabalhar com os individuos nesse contexto social. Estudamos tres escalas diagnosticas do funcionamento familiar consagradas na literatura internacional (FACES III, Beavers-Timberlawn e GARF), procurando valida-las para uso em nosso meio (Porto Alegre, Brasil). Comparamos os resultados do preenchimento das escalas com a avaliacao clinica, feita atraves de entrevista familiar semi-estruturada, em 31 familias clinicas. A escala auto-respondida FACES III tambem foi testada em 102 familias na comunidade. A escala FACES III mostrou uma correlacao linear positiva, porem fraca, entre coesao familiar e risco para doenca mental, mas nao em relacao a adaptabilidade. As escalas BT e GARF demonstraram forte correlacao positiva com a avaliacao clinica. A escala FACES III nao demonstrou ser adequada para uso em triagem de cuidados primarios; entretanto, as escalas BT e GARF mostratam-se muito uteis na formulacao e classificacao do diagnostico familiar


Subject(s)
Family Relations , Nuclear Family , Primary Health Care , Treatment Outcome , Brazil
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