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Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-140328


Background & objectives: The patterns of abused psychoactive substances change over time, and it is important to document such changes. The present retrospective study was carried out to document these changes in patients registered in a de-addiction centre in north India over three decades. Methods: Case notes of all patients registered in the centre from September 1978 till December 31, 2008 were reviewed. Comparisons were made among three decades (1978-1988, 1989-1998, and 1999-2008). Results: The number of registered subjects increased eight-fold over the decades, and age of the subjects presenting for the treatment decreased. The percentages of subjects presenting for the treatment with opioid dependence were 36.8 per cent (n=204), 42.9 per cent (n=809) and 53.2 per cent (n=2219), respectively for the three decades (P<0.001). The proportion of subjects using natural opioids decreased over the three decades (47.4, 26.5 and 18.3%; P<0.001), with a concomitant emergence and/or increase of newer and prescription opioids such as buprenorphine, codeine and dextropropoxyphene. Dependence on tobacco and sedative-hypnotics also increased, and inhalant abuse was reported especially in the third decade. Polysubstance dependence increased significantly over the decades (P<0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed major shifts in the patterns of substance abuse in clinic-attending patients in north India over the three decades from 1978 till 2008. These have important implications for all the stakeholders concerned with combating the challenge of psychoactive substance abuse in our society.

Humans , India , Opioid-Related Disorders/therapy , Narcotics/therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/trends , Substance Abuse Treatment Centers/trends
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135766


Background & objectives: The research on the association of metabolic syndrome (MS) and substance abuse is scanty. The present research aimed to study the prevalence and correlates of MS among the inpatients at a Drug De-addiction Centre in north India. Methods: Consecutive male subjects (N=110) admitted to a drug de-addiction centre during July to December 2009 with a primary diagnosis of alcohol or opioid dependence were evaluated for the presence of MS as per the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Results: The prevalence of MS was 24.6 and 29.3 per cent in alcohol and opioid dependent groups, respectively. MS showed a significant association with the age and body mass index (BMI) in the opioid dependent group. Co-morbid tobacco use was not associated with MS in either group. Interpretation & conclusions: The prevalence of MS in our sample of alcohol and opioid dependent male inpatients was greater than the prevalence of MS in general population, however it was comparable to that reported in physical and other psychiatric disorder populations. Even though the absence of any comparative study limits the generalizability of our findings, results indicate towards a need for screening of the patients with substance dependence especially for those aged above 30 years and/or having a high BMI for MS.

Age Factors , Alcoholism/complications , Body Mass Index , Humans , India/epidemiology , Inpatients , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/etiology , Opioid-Related Disorders/complications , Prevalence , Regression Analysis
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135406


Background & objectives: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with major mental illnesses. It is a major predictor of mortality and morbidity. This research was undertaken to study the prevalence and correlates of MS in psychiatric inpatients in a tertiary care hospital in north India. Methods: Consecutive adult patients with a primary psychiatric disorder admitted to the psychiatric ward during the study period (July-December 2007) were evaluated for prevalence of MS as per the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Results: Among the 90 patients included in the study, the prevalence of MS as per IDF was 37.8 per cent and it was significantly associated with the body mass index (BMI). Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings showed a higher prevalence of MS in psychiatric inpatients than that in the general population. further studies on a larger sample need to be done before advising evaluation for the presence of MS in all psychiatric patients.

Body Mass Index , Humans , Mental Disorders/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/complications , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Prevalence
Indian J Med Sci ; 2004 Jun; 58(6): 245-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-67493


Inhalant abuse has been commonly reported especially in the young during the last decades globally. The reason for the relative paucity of literature from India may be attributed to a lack of knowledge about this growing problem among health professionals. A series of five cases of inhalant abuse is described in order to understand this growing public health concern. Most of the cases started inhalant abuse during adolescence. All patients except one abused typewriter erasing fluid and thinner which contains toluene. All the patients reported using inhalants as addictive substance because of their easy accessibility, cheap price, their faster onset of action and the regular 'high' that it provided. Whereas several features of inhalant dependence were fulfilled, no physical withdrawal signs were observed. The diagnosis of inhalant abuse can be difficult and relies almost entirely on clinical judgment. Treatment is generally supportive.

Administration, Inhalation , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , India , Male , Solvents , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis