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1.
Braz. dent. j ; 33(4): 1-11, July-Aug. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1394091

ABSTRACT

Abstract The development, establishment and repair of apical periodontitis (AP) is dependent of several factors, which include host susceptibility, microbial infection, immune response, quality of root canal treatment and organism's ability to repair. The understanding of genetic contributions to the risk of developing AP and presenting persistent AP has been extensively explored in modern Endodontics. Thus, this article aims to provide a review of the literature regarding the biochemical mediators involved in immune response signaling, osteoclastogenesis and bone neoformation, as the genetic components involved in the development and repair of AP. A narrative review of the literature was performed through a PUBMED/MEDLINE search and a hand search of the major AP textbooks. The knowledge regarding the cells, receptors and molecules involved in the host's immune-inflammatory response during the progression of AP added to the knowledge of bone biology allows the identification of factors inherent to the host that can interfere both in the progression and in the repair of these lesions. The main outcomes of studies evaluated in the review that investigated the correlation between genetic polymorphisms and AP in the last five years, demonstrate that genetic factors of the individual are involved in the success of root canal treatment. The discussion of this review gives subsides that may help to glimpse the development of new therapies based on the identification of therapeutic targets and the development of materials and techniques aimed at acting at the molecular level for clinical, radiographic and histological success of root canal treatment.


Resumo O desenvolvimento, estabelecimento e reparo da periodontite apical (PA) depende de vários fatores, que incluem a susceptibilidade do hospedeiro, infecção microbiana, resposta imune, bem como a qualidade do tratamento do canal radicular e a capacidade de reparo do organismo. A compreensão das contribuições genéticas para o risco de desenvolver a PA e apresentar PA persistente tem sido extensivamente explorada na Endodontia moderna. Assim, este manuscrito pretende fornecer uma revisão da literatura em relação aos mediadores bioquímicos envolvidos na sinalização da resposta imune, osteoclastogênese e neoformação óssea, bem como os componentes genéticos envolvidos no desenvolvimento e reparo da PA. Uma revisão narrativa da literatura foi realizada através de uma pesquisa nas bases PUBMED/MEDLINE e uma pesquisa manual nos principais livros sobre a PA. O conhecimento sobre as células, receptores e moléculas envolvidas na resposta imuno-inflamatória do hospedeiro durante a progressão da PA somado ao conhecimento da biologia óssea, especialmente o papel dos osteoblastos, osteócitos e osteoclastos no turnover ósseo, permite a identificação de fatores inerentes ao hospedeiro que podem interferir tanto na progressão como no reparo destas lesões. Os principais resultados dos estudos avaliados na revisão que investigaram a correlação entre polimorfismos genéticos e PA, nos últimos cinco anos, demonstram que os fatores genéticos do indivíduo estão envolvidos no sucesso do tratamento do canal radicular. A discussão desta revisão fornece subsídios que podem ajudar a vislumbrar o desenvolvimento de novas terapias baseadas na identificação de alvos terapêuticos e no desenvolvimento de materiais e técnicas destinadas a atuar a nível molecular para o sucesso clínico, radiográfico e histológico do tratamento endodôntico.

2.
Braz. dent. j ; 33(1): 112-118, jan.-fev. 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1364478

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este relato de caso descreve o tratamento e acompanhamento de um molar inferior em uma jovem de 18 anos com cisto periapical. Assim, torna-se importante saber quais opções devemos tomar diante de uma situação clínica que não podemos resolver pelos métodos convencionais, e quais técnicas e abordagens temos para alcançar o sucesso do tratamento. Este caso mostrou o plano de tratamento e acompanhamento, por meio de imagens de tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC), de um molar inferior previamente tratado com grande abscesso periapical e lesão cística, no qual, a primeira abordagem do plano de tratamento foi fazer o retratamento endodôntico. Durante o preparo químico-mecânico a presença de exsudato purulento intracanal permanente impossibilitou a secagem dos canais, impedindo a obturação do sistema de canais radiculares. Devido a essa situação clínica, foi realizada abordagem cirúrgica com a intenção de reduzir esse exsudato permanente e executar uma técnica de descompressão. Após um ano de acompanhamento, os achados clínicos e radiográficos indicaram processo de reparo.


Abstract This case describes the treatment and follow-up of a mandibular molar in an 18-year-old female with a periapical cyst. Thus, it becomes important to know which options should we take when faced with a clinical situation that we cannot resolve through conventional methods, and which techniques and approaches we have to achieve treatment success. This case showed the treatment plan and follow-up, by the use of CBCT images, from a previously treated mandibular molar with a large periapical abscess and cystic lesion, in which, the first treatment plan approach was to make the endodontic retreatment. During the chemo-mechanical preparation the presence of permanent intracanal purulent exudate made it impossible to dry the canals, impeding obturation of the root canal system. Due to this clinical situation, a surgical approach was performed with the intention of reduce this permanent exudate and to execute a decompression technique. Clinical findings, periapical radiographs and cone beam computed tomographic, indicated almost complete resolution of the radiolucency, after a one-year follow-up.

3.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 36: e005, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1355927

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluate the maxillary anterior teeth anatomy by micro-computed tomography (μCT), about relevant characteristic for endodontic treatment planning. Fifty maxillary central incisors (MCI), lateral incisors (MLI) and maxillary canines (MC) were scanned using a μCT device. Two and three-dimensional parameters at 1 to 5mm distance to the apical foramen, external anatomic characteristics of the teeth and qualitative analysis of the internal anatomy was performed. The roundness and form factor values revealed a circular canal in the apical third in the MCI and MC, whereas MLI showed flattening in the apical third. The linear regression test indicated a progressive increase in the major/minor diameters in the five mm assessed (p < 0.001). The 3D analysis revealed the greatest volume and surface area in MC. The SMI showed a cylindrical geometry of root canals. All teeth presented Vertucci's type I root canal configuration. A mild curvature was prevalent in the MCI (45%) and a moderate one in the MLI (50%) and MC (50%). Palatal shoulder volume was smaller in the MLI (11.46 ± 3.09) than in the MCI (14.15 ± 3.85) and MC (13.95 ± 2.55). The most common exit of main apical foramen was in a central (22%), distolingual (30%) and mesiobuccal position (28%) for MCI, MLI and MC, respectively. Radicular grooves were observed in 2% of MCI and 4% of MLI. Two and three-dimensional data obtained by μCT allowed to observe morphological characteristics of internal/external anatomy of the maxillary anterior teeth. These characteristics may affect the endodontic treatment planning.

4.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e039, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1100935

ABSTRACT

Abstract To compare the shaping ability of different single-file systems in the preparation of mesial curved canals of mandibular molars using micro-CT technology. Fifteen mesial roots of mandibular molars with two independent and curved canals (n = 30) were selected, scanned at a resolution of 26.7 μm anatomically matched, and distributed into three groups (n = 10), according to the preparation system: WaveOne 25.08, Reciproc 25.08, and OneShape 25.06. A final micro-CT scanning was performed, data sets were registered with their respective counterparts, and compared regarding the three-dimensional (volume, surface area, and structure model index - SMI) and two-dimensional (perimeter, area, roundness, major and minor diameters) parameters, as well as, canal transportation, using ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (α = 5%). Overall, no difference was observed between groups regarding area, perimeter, volume, surface area, and canal transportation (p > 0.05). Within group, no canal transportation was significantly higherobserved in the apical third (0.10 ± 0.05 mm) compared to coronal (0.08±0.040 mm) and middle (0.07 ± 0.03 mm) thirds (p < 0.05). Structure model index (SMI) was statistically higher after preparation with OneShape instrument (0.36 ± 0.26) compared to other systems (p < 0.05). Within the parameters of this study, similar shaping ability was observed in the preparation of mesial curved root canals of mandibular molars with Reciproc, OneShape and WaveOne systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Reference Values , Materials Testing , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Instruments , Equipment Design , X-Ray Microtomography/methods , Molar/anatomy & histology
5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190393, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056585

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives This study assessed the incidence and variability features of root canals system (RCS) and their ramifications according to Pucci & Reig (PR) (1944) and the American Association of Endodontists (AAE) (2017) by micro-computed tomography (μCT). Methodology 500 representative extracted human teeth of each tooth group (n=50) (maxillary/mandibular central and lateral incisors, canines, first and second premolars and molars) were scanned by μCT with a resolution of 26.70 μm. The reconstructed cross-sections images and the visualization of the continuous slices in the transversal axis were performed using DataViewer software. RCS were classified according to Pucci & Reig (main canal, collateral canal, lateral canal, secondary canal, accessory canal, intercanal, recurrent canal) and AAE (main canal, accessory canal, lateral canal). The apical deltas were assessed for both classifications. The prevalence of apical deltas was evaluated using the Chi-squared test (p<0.05). Results According to PR, a higher incidence of lateral canals was observed in maxillary canines (10%), central incisors (8%) and first premolars (6%). Using AAE, the highest incidence of lateral canals was observed in the mandibular first premolars (85%), first and second molars (84%), lateral incisors (67%), canines (59%), and in maxillary first premolars (52%). Regarding accessory canals, the PR showed a frequency in 2% of the maxillary lateral incisors and maxillary and mandibular first premolars and 3% of mandibular first and second molars. On the other hand, the AAE showed the highest incidence of accessory canals in 86% of the maxillary first premolars, 71% in mandibular lateral incisors, 69% in mandibular first premolars, 65% in mandibular canines, and 56% in maxillary canines. The PR showed the lowest incidence of apical deltas for all dental groups when compared with AAE (p=0.004). Interestingly, distal canals in maxillary molars showed a significant discrepancy between classifications (p=0.027). Conclusions μCT enabled accurately describing the RC system and related ramifications, adding to the PR and AAE classifications, with some discrepancies reported for maxillary molars. Clinical Relevance This μCT study enabled a thorough description of the variability among root canals and their ramifications, including clinically relevant details on the presence and location of lateral canals and accessories in all human tooth groups, beyond the currently existing classification systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , X-Ray Microtomography/methods , Reference Values , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tooth Apex/anatomy & histology , Tooth Apex/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Maxilla/anatomy & histology , Maxilla/diagnostic imaging
6.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180556, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1019971

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effect of ultrasonic and sonic activation on physicochemical properties of AH Plus, MTA Fillapex, ADSeal, GuttaFlow Bioseal, and GuttaFlow 2 sealers. Methodology: Three experimental groups were formed: no activation (NA), ultrasonic activation (UA), and sonic activation (SA). The sealers were manipulated according to the manufacturers' instructions. A 3-mL syringe was adapted to receive 1 mL of sealer. Activation was performed with a 20/.01 ultrasonic insert (20 s/1W) in the UA group. A size 35.04 sonic tip was used (20 s/10,000 cycles/min-1) in the SA group. The molds for physicochemical analysis were filled and evaluated according to ANSI/ADA specification no. 57: setting time (ST), flow (FL), dimensional change (DC), solubility (SB), and radiopacity (RD). Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey's tests (P<0.05). Results: Regarding ST, only AH Plus and GuttaFlow 2 in the NA group met the ANSI/ADA standards. All FL values were greater than 20 mm in diameter, as determined by ANSI/ADA. The tested sealers and protocols did not comply with the ANSI/ADA standards for DC. As for SB, only MTA Fillapex, regardless of the activation protocol, did not follow the ANSI/ADA standards. All of the investigated sealers, regardless of the activation protocol, presented radiographic density higher than 3 mm Al, as proposed by ANSI/ADA. Conclusions: UA and SA promoted changes in the physicochemical properties of the evaluated root canal sealers, mainly in ST and F. Thus, it is important to evaluate the physicochemical properties of endodontic sealers associated with activation techniques prior to clinical application in order to determine whether the properties follow the parameters set by ANSI/ADA, ensuring safety and quality of root canal filling.


Subject(s)
Oxides/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Silicates/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Aluminum Compounds/chemistry , Dimethylpolysiloxanes/chemistry , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Ultrasonic Waves , Gutta-Percha/chemistry , Reference Values , Solubility , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Drug Combinations
7.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e18, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889488

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of different triccalcium silicate cements to retrograde cavity using a push out test. Thirty maxillary central incisors were shaped using #80 hand files and sectioned transversally. Root slices were obtained from the apical 4 mm after eliminating the apical extremity. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin and positioned at 45° to the horizontal plane for preparation of root-end cavities with a diamond ultrasonic retrotip. The samples were divided into three groups according to the root-end filling material (n = 10): MTA Angelus, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. A gutta-percha cone (#80) was tugged-back at the limit between the canal and the root-end cavity. The root-end cavity was filled and the gutta-percha cone was removed after complete setting of the materials. The specimens were placed in an Instron machine with the root-end filling turned downwards. The push-out shaft was inserted in the space previously occupied by the gutta-percha cone and push out testing was performed at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. There was no statistically significant difference in resistance to push out by the materials tested (p > 0.01). MTA Angelus and ProRoot MTA showed predominantly mixed failure while Biodentine exhibited mixed and cohesive failures. The tricalcium silicate-based root-end filling materials showed similar bond strength retrograde cavity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bismuth/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Oxides/chemistry , Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Silicates/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Dental Restoration Failure , Gutta-Percha/chemistry , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Surface Properties/drug effects , Tooth Root/drug effects
8.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32(supl.1): e66, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974468

ABSTRACT

Abstract: This literature review has critically analyzed the published research related to the biomechanical preparation of root canals with three-dimensional analysis using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). In December 2017, six databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, and Science Direct) were accessed using keywords to find articles including the use of the micro-CT analysis in biomechanical root canal preparation. There were 60 full articles that were selected, which were screened and read by two authors. The research that was reviewed and analyzed included root canal anatomy and sample selection, changes in canal shape and untouched canal areas, canal transportation and centering ability, and kinematics (motion). Of the studies selected, 49.18% discussed anatomical characteristics, with 54.1% of these studies describing mesial roots of mandibular molars with moderate curvature. Only 35% used a stratified distribution based on root canal system morphology and quantitative data obtained by micro-CT. The analysis of canal transportation and centering ability showed that transport values in the apical third exceeded the critical limit of 0.3 mm in mesial roots of mandibular molars with moderate curvature, especially in the groups in which a reciprocating system was used. In relation to kinematics, 91.70% of the reviewed studies evaluated continuous rotating instruments, followed by reciprocating rotation (38.33%), vibratory (15%), and the adaptive kinematics, which was in only 8.33%. The reciprocating kinematics was associated with higher canal decentralization and transportation indexes, as well as a greater capacity for dentin removal and debris accumulation. This literature review showed that the anatomy, the type of design and kinematics of instruments, and the experimental design are factors that directly influence the quality of biomechanical preparation of root canals analyzed in a qualitative and quantitative manner by micro-CT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Dental Pulp Cavity/diagnostic imaging , X-Ray Microtomography/methods , Root Canal Preparation/instrumentation , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Dental Instruments , Equipment Design , Alloys , Mandible , Molar
9.
Braz. dent. j ; 28(5): 597-603, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888687

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological features of 70 single-rooted mandibular first premolars with radicular grooves (RG) using micro-CT technology. Teeth were scanned and evaluated regarding the morphology of the roots and root canals as well as length, depth and percentage frequency location of the RG. Volume, surface area and Structure Model Index (SMI) of the canals were measured for the full root length. Two-dimensional parameters and frequency of canal orifices were evaluated at 1, 2, and 3 mm levels from the apical foramen. The number of accessory canals, the dentinal thickness, and cross-sectional appearance of the canal at different root levels were also recorded. Expression of deep grooves was observed in 21.42% of the sample. Mean lengths of root and RG were 13.43 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively, while depth of the RG ranged from 0.75 to 1.13 mm. Mean canal volume, surface area and SMI were 10.78 mm3, 58.51 mm2, and 2.84, respectively. Apical delta was present in 4.35% of the sample and accessory canals were observed mostly at the middle and apical thirds. Two-dimensional parameters indicated an oval-shaped cross-sectional appearance of the root canal with a high percentage frequency of canal divisions (87.15%). Canal configuration type V (58.57%) was the most prevalent. C-shaped configuration was observed in 13 premolars (18.57%), whereas dentinal thickness ranged from 1.0 to 1.31 mm. Radicular grooves in mandibular first premolars was associated with the occurrence of several anatomical complexities, including C-shaped canals and divisions of the main root canal.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a morfologia de 70 pré-molares inferiores com depressões radiculares (DR) usando a microtomografia. Os dentes foram escaneados e avaliados quanto à morfologia das raízes e canais radiculares, bem como o comprimento, profundidade, frequência e localização das DR. O volume, a área de superfície e o Structure Model Index (SMI) dos canais foram mensurados no comprimento total da raiz. Parâmetros bidimensionais e orifícios do canal foram avaliados a 1, 2 e 3 mm do forame apical. O número de canais acessórios, a espessura dentinária e a aparência transversal do canal em diferentes níveis de raiz também foram registrados. A expressão de sulcos profundos foi observada em 21,42% da amostra. Os comprimentos médios de raiz e DR foram de 13,43 mm e 8,5 mm, respectivamente, enquanto a profundidade das DR variou de 0,75 a 1,13 mm. O volume médio do canal, a área superficial e o SMI foram de 10,78 mm3, 58,51 mm2 e 2,84, respectivamente. O delta apical estava presente em 4,35% da amostra e os canais acessórios foram observados principalmente nos terços médio e apical. Os parâmetros bidimensionais indicaram canais radiculares com secção oval e alta frequência de divisões canal principal (87,15%). A configuração Tipo V do canal radicular foi a mais prevalente (58,57%). A presença de canais em forma de C foi observada em 13 pré-molares (18,57%), enquanto a espessura dentinária variou de 1,0 a 1,31 mm. Os sulcos radiculares nos primeiros pré-molares inferiores foram associados à ocorrência de várias complexidades anatômicas, incluindo canais em forma de C e múltiplas divisões do canal principal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bicuspid/anatomy & histology , Dental Pulp Cavity/anatomy & histology , Tooth Root/anatomy & histology , X-Ray Microtomography/methods , Mandible
10.
Braz. dent. j ; 28(4): 453-460, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888666

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate canal preparation in primary molars with hand files, ProTaper Next and Self-Adjusting File (SAF) by 2D and 3D micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. Canals of 24 primary molars were prepared with hand files (HF), ProTaper Next (PTN) and SAF (n=8/group). The teeth were scanned before and after root canal preparation and the pre- and postoperative micro-CT images were reconstructed. Changes in 2D (area, perimeter, roundness, minor and major diameter) and 3D [volume, surface area, structure model index (SMI)] morphological parameters, as well as canal transportation and lateral perforations were evaluated (Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA; a=0.05). SAF presented smaller changes in minor diameter, volume and surface area compared with HF and PTN (p<0.05). PTN presented more circular canals after preparation. 3D analysis revealed greater transportation in HF. PTN and SAF presented more centered canal preparation, especially in curved areas. SAF and HF presented, respectively, the lowest (0.05±0.02 and 0.07±0.04) and highest (0.14±0.11 and 0.29±0.17) apical transportation. There were fewer lateral perforations in SAF (4.2%) and PTN (7.7%) than in HF (47.8%) (p<0.05). In primary molars, mechanical preparation showed better shaping ability than hand files, promoting more centered preparations and lower occurrence of lateral perforations and canal transportation. Clinical Relevance: Manual instrumentation is still reported as the main choice in the primary teeth preparation; however, studies have shown limitations in its use. The morphological characteristics of primary teeth and the limited knowledge of shaping procedures in these teeth using mechanical preparation become a challenge for clinical practice and might impair the predictability of endodontic treatment.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o preparo do canal radicular em molares decíduos com sistema manual e mecanizado [ProTaper Next e Self-Adjusting File (SAF)], por meio de parâmetros morfológicos bi (2D) e tridimensionais (3D) em microtomografia computadorizada (micro-CT). Canais radiculares de 24 molares decíduos foram preparados com limas manuais (M), ProTaper Next (PTN) e SAF (n=8/grupo). Os dentes foram escaneados antes e após o preparo do canal radicular e as imagens de micro-CT pré e pós-operatória foram reconstruídas. As mudanças nos parâmetros morfológicos 2D (área, perímetro, circularidade, menor e maior diâmetro) e 3D [volume, área de superfície, índice de estrutura do modelo (SMI)], bem como o transporte do canal radicular e a presença de perfurações laterais foram avaliadas (Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA; a=0.05). SAF apresentou menores mudanças no diâmetro menor, volume e área de superfície quando comparado com M e PTN (p<0.05). PTN mostrou canais mais circulares após o preparo. A análise 3D revelou maior transporte para o grupo M. PTN e SAF mostraram maior centralização do preparo do canal radicular, especialmente em áreas de curvatura. SAF e M apresentaram, respectivamente, o menor (0,05±0,02 e 0,07±0,04) e o maior (0,14±0,11 e 0,29±0,17) transporte apical. Foi possível observar menor porcentagem de perfurações laterais para os grupos SAF (4,2%) e PTN (7,7%) comparados ao grupo M (47,8%) (p<0.05). Conclui-se que o preparo mecanizado dos canais radiculares em molares decíduos, apresentou melhor capacidade de modelagem do que as limas manuais, promovendo preparos mais centralizados e menor ocorrência de perfurações laterais e transporte do canal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Molar , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Tooth, Deciduous , X-Ray Microtomography/methods
11.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e72, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952078

ABSTRACT

Abstract To assess the physicochemical properties of AH Plus, GuttaFlow 2, GuttaFlow BioSeal, and MM Seal, five samples of each root canal sealer were evaluated to determine their setting time (ST), dimensional change (DC), solubility (SL), flow (FL), and radiopacity (RD) according to American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA) Specification 57. The distilled and deionized water obtained from the SL test were subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry to observe the presence of Ca2+, K+, and Na+ ions. Statistical analysis was performed by using one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests (p < 0.05). The following results were obtained: ST (min) (AH Plus 463.6 ± 13.22; GuttaFlow 2 24.35 ± 2.78; GuttaFlow Bioseal 17.4 ± 0.55; MM Seal 47.60 ± 4.39), DC (%) (AH Plus 0.06 ± 0.12; GuttaFlow 2 −26.06 ± 1.24; GuttaFlow Bioseal 2.10 ± 1.47; MM Seal 8.47 ± 2.41), SL (%) (AH Plus 0.41 ± 0.21; GuttaFlow 2 5.13 ± 4.11; GuttaFlow Bioseal 3.03 ± 1.05; MM Seal 0.94 ± 0.17), FL (mm) (AH Plus 36.42 ± 0.40; GuttaFlow 2 36.44 ± 0.05; GuttaFlow Bioseal 35.4 ± 0.03; MM Seal 52.75 ± 0.60), and RD (mmAl) (AH Plus 7.52 ± 1.59; GuttaFlow 2 6.85 ± 0.14; GuttaFlow Bioseal 7.02 ± 0.18; MM Seal 3.32 ± 0.90). ST, DC, SL, FL, and RD showed statistical differences among the root canal sealers (p < 0.05). As AH Plus showed the lowest DC and SL values (p < 0.05), the findings indicate that this sample is the only sealer conforming to ANSI/ADA standards.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Filling Materials/chemistry , Silicones/chemistry , Dimethylpolysiloxanes/chemistry , Epoxy Resins/chemistry , Gutta-Percha/chemistry , Reference Values , Solubility , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Drug Combinations
12.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e29, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839514

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluates the influence of root dentin treatment with NaOCl alone and combined with EDTA, with and without ultrasound activation, on the push-out bond strength (BS) of fiber-reinforced posts in weakened roots, cemented with RelyX or Panavia. The root canals of 42 maxillary canines were instrumented with Reciproc and 2.5% NaOCl. In the coronal 12mm of all canals, experimental weakening of the roots was produced by reducing dentin thickness with 2.44mm diameter diamond burs. The roots were assigned to 3 groups (n = 14) according to root dentin treatment: 2.5% NaOCl; 2.5% NaOCl + 17% EDTA; and 2.5% NaOCl + 17% EDTA, with solutions agitated using passive ultrasonic irrigation. After cementation of the fiber-reinforced posts the roots were divided in thirds. The first slice of each third was used for the push-out BS test, the second slice for confocal laser scanning microscopy and dentin microhardness (Knoop) analysis. Data were analysed by a two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (a = 0.05). NaOCl + EDTA provided highest BS values than NaOCl (p < 0.0001). Specimens cemented with Panavia presented significantly higher BS than those with RelyX in the three root thirds (p < 0.0001). The highest BS values occurred in the cervical third (p < 0.001). Ultrasound-activated NaOCl + EDTA promoted the greatest reduction in dentin microhardness, followed by NaOCl/EDTA and NaOCl. Ultrasonic activation of NaOCl and EDTA reduced root dentin microhardness, but did not improve the push-out BS of resin-based cements. Panavia presented higher BS than RelyX. RelyX was not influenced by the root dentin treatment protocols.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Bonding/methods , Dentin/drug effects , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Tooth Root/drug effects , Acid Etching, Dental/methods , Analysis of Variance , Dental Restoration Failure , Dentin/radiation effects , Hardness Tests , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Confocal , Post and Core Technique , Random Allocation , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surface Properties/drug effects , Tooth Root/radiation effects , Ultrasonic Therapy
13.
Braz. dent. j ; 26(3): 288-291, May-Jun/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751872

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the bond strength of root-end filling materials to root-end cavities using a new methodology. Twenty maxillary central incisors were subjected to biomechanical preparation (#80 hand file) and sectioned transversally 2 mm short of the apex and 4 mm coronally to this point. The root cylinders were embedded in acrylic resin and positioned at 45° to the horizontal plane for preparation of root-end cavities with a diamond ultrasonic retrotip. Two groups (n=10) were formed according to the root-end filling material: MTA and Super EBA. A gutta-percha cone (#80) was tug-backed at the limit between the canal and the root-end cavity. The cavity was filled and the gutta-percha cone was removed after complete setting of the sealer. The specimens were placed in an Instron machine with the root-end filling turned downwards. The push-out shaft was inserted in the space previously occupied by the gutta-percha cone and run at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min for pushing out the root-end filling material. Data were analyzed by ANOVA (α=5%). Super EBA (6.03±1.31) presented higher bond strength (MPa) than MTA (1.81±0.45) (p>0.05). There was a predominance of cohesive failures for Super EBA and mixed for MTA. The protocol of specimen preparation is effective and introduces a specific methodology for assessing bond strength of root-end filling materials to dentin. Among the materials, Super EBA presented the highest bond strength.


Este estudo avaliou a resistência de união de materiais retrobturadores a cavidades retrógradas, usando uma nova metodologia. Vinte incisivos centrais superiores foram submetidos ao preparo biomecânico (lima manual #80) e seccionadas transversalmente a 2 mm do ápice e a 4 mm do primeiro corte. Os cilindros de raízes foram incluídos em resina acrílica e posicionado a 45° em relação ao plano horizontal para confecção das retrocavidades com ponta ultrassônica diamantada. Dois grupos (n = 10) foram formados de acordo com os cimentos utilizados: MTA e Super EBA. Um cone de guta-percha (#80) foi travado no limite da retrocavidade com o canal radicular. A retrocavidade foi preenchida e, após o tempo de endurecimento do cimento utilizado, o cone de guta-percha foi removido. Os espécimes foram fixados na máquina universal de ensaios Instron com a retrobturação voltada para baixo. A haste empregada para pressionar o cimento retrobturador no teste de push-out foi inserida no espaço anteriormente ocupado pela guta-percha e acionada com velocidade de cruzeta de 1,0 mm/min, para extrusão do material retroburador. Os dados foram analisados por meio do teste ANOVA (α=5%). O cimento Super EBA (6,03 ± 1,31) apresentou maior resistência de união (MPa) comparado ao cimento MTA (1,81 ± 0,45) (p> 0,05). Houve predomínio de falhas coesivas para o cimento Super EBA e falhas mistas para o MTA. O protocolo de preparação das amostras é eficaz e apresenta uma metodologia específica para avaliação da resistência de união de materiais retrobturadores à dentina. Dentre os materiais testados, o cimento Super EBA apresentou a maior resistência de união.


Subject(s)
Humans , Materials Testing , Root Canal Filling Materials , In Vitro Techniques , Incisor
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