Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 7 de 7
Filter
1.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(12): 980-988, dez. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771960

ABSTRACT

Tritrichomonas foetus, a parasite well known for its significance as a venereally transmitted pathogen in cattle, has been identified as a cause of chronic large bowel diarrhea in domestic cats in many countries of the world. In Brazil, several studies on the diagnosis of bovine trichomoniasis have been performed, but until now, no study was made regarding feline trichomoniasis. Thus, this is the first study to report the occurrence of T. foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in cats using morphological and molecular analysis. Feces from 77 cats were examined, four of which (5.2%) were positive for the presence of parabasalids. Morphological analysis of stained smears revealed piriform trophozoites showing the three anterior flagella, elongated nucleus and axostyle ending abruptly in fillet, characteristic of T. foetus. In scanning and transmission electron microscopy, identification characters similar to those previously reported for T. foetus were observed. The cultures containing trophozoites were submitted for molecular analysis, which resulted positive for T. foetus DNA using specific primers (TFR3 and TFR4), and all samples were positive and subjected to sequencing in which they showed 99.7-100% similarity with another isolate sequencing of T. foetus (JX960422). Although no trophozoite with consistent morphology of P. hominis has been visualized in the samples, differential diagnosis was performed using specific primers for P. hominis (TH3 and TH5) amplicon. In three of the four samples (3.89%) sequencing revealed 100% similarity when compared with another sequence of P. hominis deposited in Genbank (KC623939). Therefore, the present study revealed through the diagnostic techniques employed the simultaneous infection by T. foetus and P. hominis in the feces of cats. However, it was necessary to use more than one technique for the diagnosis of the co-infection...


Tritrichomonas foetus, um parasito bem conhecido por seu significado como um agente patogênico transmitido venereamente em bovinos, também foi identificado como causa de diarreia crónica do intestino grosso em gatos domésticos em muitos países. No Brasil, vários estudos sobre o diagnóstico de tricomonose bovina foram realizados, mas até agora, não há informação disponível em relação à trichomonose felina. Assim, este é o primeiro estudo a relatar a ocorrência de T. foetus e Pentatrichomonas hominis em gatos por meio de análise morfológica e molecular. Fezes de 77 gatos foram examinadas, a partir da qual quatro (5,2%) foram positivas para a presença de parabasalídeos. A análise morfológica de esfregaços corados revelou trophozoitos piriformes com três flagelos anteriores, núcleo alongado e axóstilo cuja projeção termina abruptamente em formato de filete, características estas de identificação morfológica T. foetus. Além disso, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e transmissão, revelaram caracteres morfológicos semelhantes aos descritos na literatura para esta espécie. A análise molecular de culturas utilizando iniciadores específicos para trofozoítos de T. foetus (TFR3 e TFR4), mostrou que as quatro amostras foram positivas para este parasito e osequenciamento dos fragmentos amplificados demonstraram 99,7-100% de similaridade com seqüências depositadas no GeneBank de T. foetus. Nenhum trofozoíto com morfologia consistente com a descrição de P. hominis foi visualizado nas amostras. No entanto, a análise molecular, utilizando iniciadores específicos para esta espécie (TH3 e TH5) detectou que três das quatro amostras (75%) também foram positivas para P. hominis e o sequenciamento de nucleotideos revelou 100% de similaridade dos amplicons quando comparada com o mesmo fragmento de DNA de P. hominis depositado no GenBank. Como tal, o presente estudo relata a coinfecção de gatos com T. foetus e P. hominis e destacou a exigência de uma combinação de métodos...


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Coinfection/veterinary , Cats/parasitology , Carrier State/veterinary , Tritrichomonas foetus/isolation & purification , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 879-883, July-Sept. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755800

ABSTRACT

Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auriculariumcollected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia.

.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ixodidae/microbiology , Rickettsia Infections/microbiology , Rickettsia/genetics , Rickettsia/isolation & purification , Tick Infestations/microbiology , Animals, Wild , Armadillos , Base Sequence , Birds , Brazil , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Citrate (si)-Synthase/genetics , DNA, Bacterial , Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Mephitidae , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Typing , Porcupines , Periplasmic Proteins/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 313-321, Apr-Jun/2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749713

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk is studied worldwide due to the difficulties associated with controlling their growth during cold storage and the consequent negative effects upon fluid milk or dairy products. Among the psychrotrophic bacteria, the genus Pseudomonas (represented primarily by P. fluorescens) has been highlighted as the cause of numerous defects in dairy products. In light of its perceived predominance, this species has frequently been chosen as a model organism to assess the effects of psychrotrophic bacteria on milk or to evaluate the efficacy of control measures. However, recent findings derived from the application of molecular biological techniques have exposed a number of deficiencies in our knowledge of the biology of milk-associated psychrotrophs. Furthermore, it has been revealed that microbe to microbe communication plays a significant role in determining both the identities and the extent to which different groups of microbes develop during cold storage. The application of molecular identification methods has exposed errors in the classification of members of the genus Pseudomonas isolated from cold stored milk and has stimulated a reevaluation of the presumed status of P. fluorescens as the predominant milk-associated psychrotrophic species. This article presents a succinct review of data from studies on psychrotrophic bacteria in milk, some of which contest established theories in relation to the microbiology of cold stored raw milk, and poses the question: how much do we really know?.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biodiversity , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/radiation effects , Milk/microbiology , Cold Temperature
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(1): 1-15, Jan-Mar/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-707194

ABSTRACT

The oocysts of the coccidia are robust structures, frequently isolated from the feces or urine of their hosts, which provide resistance to mechanical damage and allow the parasites to survive and remain infective for prolonged periods. The diagnosis of coccidiosis, species description and systematics, are all dependent upon characterization of the oocyst. Therefore, this review aimed to the provide a critical overview of the methodologies, advantages and limitations of the currently available morphological, morphometrical and molecular biology based approaches that may be utilized for characterization of these important structures. It has become apparent that no single methodology is sufficient to fully characterize these structures and the majority of researchers favor the use of combinational or polyphasic approaches.


Os oocistos de coccídios são estruturas robustas, frequentemente isoladas das fezes ou urina de seus hospedeiros, os quais oferecem resistência a danos mecânicos e permitem que os parasitas sobrevivam e permaneçam infecciosos por períodos prolongados. O diagnóstico da coccidiose, descrição das espécies e sistemática são dependentes da caracterização do oocisto. Portanto, esta revisão teve como objetivo fornecer uma visão crítica das metodologias, vantagens e limitações dos métodos morfológicos, morfométricos e moleculares que podem ser utilizados para a caracterização destas estruturas importantes. Tornou-se evidente que nenhuma metodologia única é suficiente para caracterizar completamente essas estruturas e que a maioria das pesquisas favorecem o uso de metodologias combinadas ou polifásicas.


Subject(s)
Apicomplexa/cytology , Oocysts/cytology
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(12): 1427-1432, dez. 2013. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-702014

ABSTRACT

O diagnóstico precoce e específico da paratuberculose ainda é um desafio. Isto pode estar associado à baixa sensibilidade dos testes laboratoriais e ou à variação da resposta imunológica frente à infecção por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Mundialmente, é uma enfermidade que causa importantes prejuízos econômicos, em especial, à bovinocultura leiteira, devido ao caráter crônico da infecção. No Brasil, a paratuberculose já foi descrita em diversas espécies de ruminantes domésticos e em vários estados, o que demonstra que a enfermidade está presente em território nacional e há a necessidade de elaboração de técnicas de diagnóstico para a confirmação da infecção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar os achados anátomo-histopatológicos e imuno-histoquímicos em intestino e linfonodos mesentéricos de bovinos assintomáticos, provenientes de rebanhos positivos para paratuberculose localizados no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O estudo macroscópico revelou alterações inespecíficas tais como áreas avermelhadas na mucosa do intestino, aumento do volume das placas de Peyer e dos linfonodos mesentéricos, além disso, observou-se que vasos linfáticos mesentéricos estavam dilatados e esbranquiçados. Do total de 52 vacas leiteiras avaliadas, a histopatologia revelou infiltração granulomatosa, por vezes com formação de células gigantes multinucleadas, em mucosa e ou submucosa de jejuno, íleo e em linfonodos mesentéricos, principalmente na região cortical, em 32 animais. Estes bovinos foram submetidos à coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen cujo teste não demonstrou reação positiva, no entanto, quando analisados pelo teste imunohistoquímico para Mycobacterium spp. observou-se imunorreação em 6 animais. Desta forma, a histopatologia e imunohistoquímica pode ser uma importante ferramenta para diagnóstico da paratuberculose subclínica.


The early and specific diagnosis of paratuberculosis remains a challenge due to the low sensitivity of the currently available laboratory tests and also because of variations in the immune response towards infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Globally this disease causes significant economic losses, primarily in dairy cattle, owing to the chronic nature of the infection. Paratuberculosis has been described in a number of Brazilian states and from a diversity of domestic ruminant species clearly demonstrating that the disease is present in the country and highlighting the requirement for the development of diagnostic techniques for confirmation of infection and for epidemiological analyses. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomo-histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in the bowel and mesenteric lymph nodes of assymptomatic cattle, derived from paratuberculosis positive herds located in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Macroscopic examination during necropsy revealed nonspecific changes including reddening of the gut mucosa, increased volumes for the Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes and in some case dilation and whitening of the mesenteric lymphatic vessel. Histopathology revealed granulomatous infiltration, occasionally with the formation of giant cells in the jejunal and ileal mucosa or sub-mucosa, and/or in the cortical region of the mesenteric lymph nodes, in 32 of the 52 cattle examined. Tissue sections from these animals were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen staining, but the presence of acid-fast bacilli was not observed. Subsequent analysis, employing genus specific immunohistochemisty for Mycobacterium, revealed areas of immunoreactivity in sections prepared from a total of six animals. The results of this investigation highlighted the value of histopathology and particularly immunohistochemistry as tools for the diagnosis of subclinical paratuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle/microbiology , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/isolation & purification , Paratuberculosis/diagnosis , Intestines , Immunohistochemistry , Lymph Nodes
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(2): 127-140, fev. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-670945

ABSTRACT

A paratuberculose ou doença de Johne é uma enterite granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) e comumente afeta ruminantes domésticos, no entanto, pode infectar várias espécies de mamíferos. Está presente nos cinco continentes e é considerada endêmica em algumas regiões pela Organização Internacional de Epizootias (OIE). Pertence à lista de enfermidades notificáveis, que compreende as doenças transmissíveis de importância sócio-econômica e/ou em saúde-pública, cujo controle é necessário para o comércio internacional de animais e alimentos de origem animal. A importância da doença de Johne não se restringe somente aos prejuízos econômicos causados à indústria animal, mas também na possível participação do Map na íleocolite granulomatosa que afeta seres humanos, conhecida como doença de Crohn. No Brasil, a paratuberculose já foi descrita em diversas espécies de ruminantes e em vários estados. Embora os relatos naturais da enfermidade sejam pontuais, acredita-se na possibilidade da transmissão interespecífica e na disseminação do agente através da compra e venda de animais infectados. O objetivo deste artigo foi reunir as informações disponíveis referentes aos aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais da paratuberculose em bovinos, bubalinos, caprinos e ovinos no Brasil, e salientar a necessidade de implementação de medidas de controle sanitário da enfermidade no país, o que possibilitaria a melhoria da qualidade e valorização dos produtos de origem animal no mercado internacional.


Paratuberculosis also known as Johne's disease, is a granulomatous enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), an acid-fast bacillus that preferentially resides within host intestinal macrophages. The condition is most commonly seen in domestic ruminants, however MAP can also infect other mammalian species. Paratuberculosis shows a global distribution and is considered endemic in some regions. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE, Office International des Epizooties), have classified paratuberculosis as a notificable disease; considered to be of socio-economic and/or public-health importance, the control of which is necessary for the international trade of animal and animal products. The importance of paratuberculosis is related primarily to economic losses in the animal industry and also because of a potential role for this bacterium in the pathogenesis of Crohn´s disease, a debilitating condition affecting the digestive tract of humans. In Brazil, paratuberculosis has been reported in a variety of ruminant species and shows a broad geographic distribution. The reported incidence of natural cases in Brazil has been limited, but it is believed that interespecific transmission of MAP and dissemination of the agent is driven by the commercialization of infected animals. The main objective of this paper was to collate the published epidemiological, clinic-pathological and diagnostic information in relation to paratuberculosis in cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep in Brazil. Moreover, it served as a platform to emphasize the requirement to implement sanitary policies for control of MAP in the county, which may serve to improve the quality and value of animal products on international markets.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/isolation & purification , Paratuberculosis/diagnosis , Paratuberculosis/epidemiology , Paratuberculosis/prevention & control , Ruminants , Integration Host Factors/immunology , Paratuberculosis/transmission
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(1): 65-72, Feb. 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666046

ABSTRACT

Multiple locus sequence typing (MLST) was undertaken to extend the genetic characterization of 29 isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis previously characterized in terms of presence/absence of sequences encoding virulence factors and via variable number tandem repeat (VNTR). Additional analysis involved polymerase chain reaction for the presence of sequences (be, cytK, inA, pag, lef, cya and cap), encoding putative virulence factors, not investigated in the earlier study. MLST analysis ascribed novel and unique sequence types to each of the isolates. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from a single sequence of 2,838 bp of concatenated loci sequences. The strains were not monophyletic by analysis of any specific housekeeping gene or virulence characteristic. No clear association in relation to source of isolation or to genotypic profile based on the presence or absence of putative virulence genes could be identified. Comparison of VNTR profiling with MLST data suggested a correlation between these two methods of genetic analysis. In common with the majority of previous studies, MLST was unable to provide clarification of the basis for pathogenicity among members of the B. cereus complex. Nevertheless, our application of MLST served to reinforce the notion that B. cereus and B. thuringiensis should be considered as the same species.


Subject(s)
Bacillus cereus/genetics , Bacillus thuringiensis/genetics , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Minisatellite Repeats/genetics , Brazil , Bacillus cereus/pathogenicity , Bacillus thuringiensis/pathogenicity , Genotype , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Virulence Factors/genetics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL