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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 102(3): 405-410, June 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-452520

ABSTRACT

Antibody responses directed against the Plasmodium falciparum antigens, total extract, anti-merozoite surface protein-3 (MSP3b) and glutamate-rich protein (Glurp-R0) were studied in 42 children exposed to both Schistosoma haematobium and P. falciparum infections. The association between levels of the anti-malaria IgG subclasses and IgM with host age, sex, schistosome infection intensity and schistosome specific antibodies was studied before chemotherapeutic treatment of schistosome infections. This showed a significant negative association between schistosome infection intensity and levels of IgG1, IgG3, and IgG4 directed against malaria total extract antigen, and a positive association between levels of anti-schistosome soluble egg antigen IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 and levels of the same subclasses directed against malaria total extract antigens. The effect of treating schistosome infections with praziquantel on malaria specific responses was also studied. This treatment resulted in increases in significant IgG4 levels against MSP3b and IgM against Glurp R0. Treatment also resulted in a significant decrease in IgG4 levels against Glurp R0. Host age, sex or pre-treatment infection intensity was not associated with the magnitude of change in the two IgG4 responses while males showed a significantly higher increase in levels of IgM. The results suggest cross reactivity between schistosome and malaria antigens in this population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Malaria, Falciparum/immunology , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Schistosomiasis haematobia/immunology , Antibody Specificity , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/classification , Malaria, Falciparum/complications , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Schistosoma haematobium/immunology , Schistosomiasis haematobia/complications , Schistosomiasis haematobia/drug therapy
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 96(suppl): 157-164, Sept. 2001. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-295894

ABSTRACT

Praziquantel was given every eight weeks for two years to children aged under six years of age, living in a Schistosoma haematobium endemic area. Infection with S. haematobium and haematuria were examined in urine and antibody profiles (IgA, IgE, IgM, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) against S. haematobium adult worm and egg antigens were determined from sera collected before each treatment. Chemotherapy reduced infection prevalence and mean intensity from 51.8 percent and 110 eggs per 10 ml urine, respectively, before starting re-treatment programme to very low levels thereafter. Praziquantel is not accumulated after periodic administration in children. Immunoglobulin levels change during the course of treatment with a shift towards 'protective' mechanisms. The significant changes noted in some individuals were the drop in 'blocking' IgG2 and IgG4 whereas the 'protecting' IgA and IgG1 levels increased. The antibody profiles in the rest of the children remained generally unchanged throughout the study and no haematuria was observed after the second treatment. The removal of worms before production of large number of eggs, prevented the children from developing morbidity


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Schistosomiasis haematobia/drug therapy , Antibodies, Helminth/isolation & purification , Antigens, Helminth/isolation & purification , Endemic Diseases , Follow-Up Studies , Hematuria/immunology , Recurrence , Retreatment , Schistosoma haematobium/immunology , Schistosomiasis haematobia/epidemiology , Schistosomiasis haematobia/immunology , Time Factors , Zimbabwe/epidemiology
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 96(suppl): 89-101, Sept. 2001. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-295895

ABSTRACT

T cell clones were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Schistosoma haematobium infected and uninfected individuals living in an endemic area. The clones were stimulated with S. haematobium worm and egg antigens and purified protein derivative. Attempts were made to classify the T cell clones according to production of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma. All the T cell clones derived were observed to produce cytokines used as markers for the classification of Th1/Th2 subsets. However, the 'signature' cytokines marking each subset were produced at different levels. The classification depended on the dominating cytokine type, which was having either Th0/1 or Th0/2 subsets. The results indicated that no distinct cytokine profiles for polarisation of Th1/Th2 subsets were detected in these S. haematobium infected humans. The balance in the profiles of cytokines marking each subset were related to infection and re-infection status after treatment with praziquantel. In the present study, as judged by the changes in infection status with time, the T cell responses appeared to be less stable and more dynamic, suggesting that small quantitative changes in the balance of the cytokines response could result in either susceptibility or resistant to S. haematobium infection


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Schistosoma haematobium/immunology , Schistosomiasis haematobia/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/classification , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Antigens, Helminth , Cell Line , Clone Cells/classification , Clone Cells/metabolism , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/isolation & purification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Follow-Up Studies , Parasite Egg Count , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Schistosomiasis haematobia/drug therapy , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/classification , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/metabolism , Th1 Cells/classification , Th1 Cells/metabolism , Th2 Cells/classification , Th2 Cells/metabolism , Titrimetry
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