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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0212, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288097


Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the immediate region of Ji-Paraná, Rondônia State. METHODS: Samples and epidemiological data were collected from 105 patients. RESULTS: Leishmania infection was observed in 58 (55.2%) patients, and Leishmania braziliensis was present in 82.9% of the 41 sequenced samples. Infected patients were predominantly male (93.1%). Leishmania infection was twice as prevalent among rural inhabitants versus urban inhabitants. Lesions were more frequent in the upper limbs (arms/hands, 41.82%). CONCLUSIONS: The present data corroborate the zoonotic profile of cutaneous leishmaniasis; this information could help to improve surveillance and control strategies.

Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e011021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351874


Abstract Leishmaniases are zoonotic diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The disease has two clinical manifestations described in humans: visceral (VL) and cutaneous (CL) leishmaniasis. In Brazil, there has been an expansion of human VL. The participation of the dog as a reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the agent of VL, is important for the epidemiology of the disease since canine cases generally precede human cases. The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. infection in dogs in the municipality of Ji-Paraná by PCR assays using blood samples. Leishmania DNA was detected in two of the 105 studied dogs. The PCR products were sequenced and confirmed that the two samples (1.90%) correspond to L. infantum. The dogs had allochthonous history. Therefore, the positive results found here should serve as a warning to public health agencies. This is because Ji-Paraná is the third municipality to register cases of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Rondônia state. Thus, reinforcing the importance of expanding studies on the epidemiology and surveillance of VL in the region.

Resumo As leishmanioses são doenças causadas por protozoários do gênero Leishmania. A doença apresenta duas manifestações clínicas: leishmaniose visceral (LV) e cutânea (LC). No Brasil, a LV está em expansão. A participação do cão como reservatório é importante para a epidemiologia da doença, pois os casos caninos geralmente precedem os humanos. O presente estudo avaliou a ocorrência de LV em cães (LVC) do município de Ji-Paraná por meio de ensaios de PCR, utilizando-se amostras de sangue. O DNA de Leishmania foi detectado em dois dos 105 cães estudados. Os produtos da PCR foram sequenciados e confirmaram que duas amostras (1,90%) eram Leishmania infantum. Os cães tinham histórico alóctone. Os resultados positivos encontrados servem de alerta aos órgãos públicos de saúde. Isso porque Ji-Paraná é o terceiro município a registrar casos de LVC no estado de Rondônia. Dessa forma, reforça-se a importância da ampliação dos estudos sobre a epidemiologia e vigilância da LV na região.

Animals , Dogs , Leishmaniasis/veterinary , Leishmania infantum , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200070, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135278


BACKGROUND Nyssorhynchus deaneorum is a potential malaria vector because it has been shown to be competent to transmit Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, and because it exhibits antropophilic and endophilic behaviors in some regions of the Amazon. This profile makes Ny. deaneorum a useful mosquito for experiments that model Plasmodium-vector interactions in the Amazon. OBJECTIVE Herein we describe how a free-mating colony of Ny. deaneorum has been established using an automated light stimulation system. METHODS Mosquitoes were captured in São Francisco do Guaporé, Rondônia. The F1 generation was reared until adult emergence at which point copulation was induced using an automatic copulation induction system (ACIS). FINDINGS After four generations, natural mating and oviposition began to occur without light stimulation. The number of pupae and adult mosquitoes increased from the F5 to F10 generations. The new Ny. deaneorum colony exhibited susceptibility to P. vivax. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Automated light stimulation is an effective method for establishing an Ny. deaneorum colony under laboratory conditions as it produces enough adults to create a stenogamic colony. The establishment of a stable, P. vivax-susceptible colony of Ny. deaneorum makes it possible to model parasite-vector interactions and to test novel drug therapies that target parasite development in mosquitoes.

Animals , Female , Oviposition , Copulation/physiology , Mosquito Vectors/parasitology , Insect Vectors/growth & development , Malaria , Anopheles/parasitology , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax , Brazil , Insect Vectors/physiology , Anopheles/physiology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 473-478, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042521


Abstract Amblyomma scalpturatum is a tick species that is unique to South America. It is commonly associated with the Amazon biome and has been reported in some Brazilian states. This tick species exhibits host specificity: it parasitizes tapirs and suidae. Its role in transmitting pathogens to humans is still unknown. Amblyomma scalpturatum is known to be a human-biting tick; however, there is only one report showing that humans make suitable hosts for this species. The knowledge of tick fauna is lacking in the Acre State. This study collected free-living ticks with the aim of finding new records in Acre State. Collections were carried out in Amazon forest fragments in Rio Branco municipality. An A. scalpturatum specimen was identified and submitted sequencing of the ITS-2 gene. This study presents the first molecular confirmation of A. scalpturatum collected in situ in Acre State, North Region, Brazil. This study also presents the first record of a successfully completed feeding by an A. scalpturatum nymph on a human host in the North region of Brazil. Further investigation is needed to ascertain the complete life cycle of this tick species, its seasonality in the environment, and its relationship to pathogens and competence to transmit them.

Resumo Amblyomma scalpturatum é uma espécie de carrapato que ocorre apenas na América do Sul. Está comumente associada ao bioma da Amazônia e tem sido relatada em alguns estados brasileiros. Esta espécie de carrapato apresenta especificidade a hospedeiros: parasita antas e suídeos. Sua competência em transmitir agentes patogênicos a seres humanos é ainda desconhecida. Amblyomma scalpturatum é também conhecido por picar seres humanos; entretanto, há apenas um relato que evidencie que seres humanos sejam capazes de serem hospedeiros adequados. Ainda existem lacunas no conhecimento sobre a ixodofauna no estado do Acre. Neste estudo foram coletados carrapatos de vida livre com o objetivo de encontrar novos registros para o estado do Acre. Coletas de carrapatos foram realizadas em fragmentos de floresta Amazônica no município de Rio Branco. Um exemplar de A. scalpturatum foi identificado e submetido a sequenciamento do gene ITS-2. Este estudo apresenta a primeira confirmação molecular de A. scalpturatum coletado in situ no estado do Acre, região Norte, Brasil. Este estudo também apresenta o primeiro relato de parasitismo completo de uma ninfa de A. scalpturatum em um hospedeiro humano na região Norte do Brasil. Mais investigações são necessárias para elucidar o ciclo de vida completo dessa espécie de carrapato, a sazonalidade de seus estádios no meio ambiente, sua relação a agentes patogênicos e competência em transmiti-los.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Tick Infestations/parasitology , Ixodidae/classification , Larva/growth & development , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ixodidae/anatomy & histology , Ixodidae/genetics
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190170, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012672


BACKGROUND The state of Rondônia (RO) is a hot spot for human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Many sandfly species in RO are putative vectors of leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVES This study examines the diversity patterns and the presence of Leishmania DNA and blood meal sources of sandflies in RO. METHODS A sandfly survey was performed between 2016 and 2018 in 10 municipalities categorised into three different environment types: (i) Conservation Unit (CUN) - comprised of preserved ombrophilous forests; (ii) Forest Edge (FE) - small forest fragments; and (iii) Peridomicile (PE) - areas around dwellings. FINDINGS A total of 73 species were identified from 9,535 sandflies. The most abundant species were Psychodopygus davisi (1,741 individuals), Nyssomyia antunesi (1,397), Trichophoromyia auraensis (1,295) and Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (1,043). Diversity was the highest in CUN, followed by the FE and PE environments. One pool of Ps. davisi tested positive for Leishmania braziliensis, reinforcing the possibility that Ps. davisi acts as a vector. The cytochrome b (cytb) sequences were used to identify three blood meal sources: Bos taurus, Homo sapiens and Tamandua tetradactyla. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our results demonstrated that sandflies can switch between blood meal sources in differing environments. This study enhances the knowledge of the vector life cycle in RO and provides information relevant to leishmaniasis surveillance.

Animals , Psychodidae , Phlebotomy , Diptera , Amazonian Ecosystem , Biodiversity
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190159, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041542


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The lack of highly-productive Nyssorhynchus darlingi laboratory colonies limits some studies. We report the first well-established laboratory colony of Ny. darlingi in Brazil. METHODS: Mosquitoes were collected from Porto Velho and were reared at the Laboratory of Fiocruz/RO. After induced mating by light stimulation in the F1 to F6, the subsequent generations were free mating. Larvae were reared in distilled water and fed daily until pupation. RESULTS: In 11 generations, the colony produced a high number of pupae after the F5 generation. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the potential for permanently establishing Ny. darlingi colonies for research purposes in Brazil.

Animals , Mosquito Vectors/growth & development , Anopheles/growth & development , Oviposition , Reproduction , Brazil , Mosquito Vectors/physiology , Malaria , Anopheles/physiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 712-715, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957461


Abstract This report describes the first autochthonous case of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Rondônia, northern Brazil. A canine resident of the municipality of Cacoal, with clinical signs and symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis, was treated by a veterinarian. Samples were analyzed by a reference laboratory. Dual-path platform (DPP) assay, indirect immunofluorescence technique (IIT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), isolation in a culture medium, and direct parasitological analysis were performed. DPP assay, IIT, and ELISA revealed positive results for Leishmania; PCR identified the species as Leishmania infantum. Based on the clinical presentation and test results, canine visceral leishmaniasis was diagnosed.

Animals , Male , Dogs , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(2): 177-182, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959177


Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate the diversity of ticks associated with free-living animals and to investigate new host records for ticks. Ticks were collected from animals rescued during the flood of the Jamari River in the municipality of Ariquemes, state of Rondônia, North Region of Brazil. A total of 39 animals were captured, out of which 10 were amphibians, 19 were reptiles and 10 were mammals. A total of 127 ticks of the Amblyomma genus were collected from these animals, distributed among seven species: Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma geayi, Amblyomma humerale , Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma nodosum , Amblyomma rotundatum and Amblyomma varium. In addition, one specimen of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus was collected. Among these specimens, 85 were adults and 42 were nymphs, with A. rotundatum being the most prevalent species. An Amblyomma spp. larvae was also collected from a lizard (Uranoscodon superciliosus), and one Amblyomma calcaratum and one Amblyomma dubitatum were recovered from the environment, thus totaling 130 ticks. Among the Ixodidae collected from different hosts, we provide the first report for the species A. rotundatum parasitizing Rhinella major, U. superciliosus, Leptophis ahaetulla, Chironius multiventris, and Mastigodryas boddaerti, as well as of A. humerale parasitizing U. superciliosus, A. geayi parasitizing Choloepus didactylus, and Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus parasitizing Alouatta puruensis.

Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a diversidade de carrapatos associados à animais de vida livre e investigar novos registros de hospedeiros. Coletas foram feitas em animais resgatados durante a cheia do Rio Jamari, localizado no município de Ariquemes, estado de Rondônia, Região Norte do Brasil. Um total de 39 animais foi capturado, dos quais dez eram anfíbios, 19 eram répteis e dez eram mamíferos. 127 carrapatos do gênero Amblyomma foram coletados destes animais, distribuídos em sete espécies: Amblyomma dissimile , Amblyomma geayi, Amblyomma humerale, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma nodosum, Amblyomma rotundatum e Amblyomma varium. Adicionalmente, um exemplar de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus foi coletado. Dentre estes espécimes, 85 eram adultos e 42 eram ninfas, com A. rotundatum sendo a espécie mais prevalente. Uma larva de Amblyomma spp. também foi coletada de um lagarto (Uranoscodon superciliosus), um Amblyomma calcaratum e um Amblyomma dubitatum foram recuperados do ambiente, assim totalizando 130 carrapatos. Dentre os ixodídeos coletados de diferentes hospedeiros, este trabalho fornece o primeiro registro da espécie A. rotundatum parasitando Rhinella major, U. superciliosus, Leptophis ahaetulla, Chironius multiventris e Mastigodryas boddaerti, assim como da espécie A. humerale parasitando U. superciliosus , a espécie A. geayi parasitando Choloepus didactylus e R. microplus parasitando Alouatta puruensis .

Animals , Male , Female , Ixodidae/physiology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Brazil , Forests
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(3): 173-177, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894902


BACKGROUND The human filarial worm Mansonella ozzardi is highly endemic in the large tributaries of the Amazon River. This infection is still highly neglected and can be falsely negative when microfilariae levels are low. OBJECTIVES This study investigated the frequency of individuals with M. ozzardi in riverine communities in Coari municipality, Brazilian Amazon. METHODS Different diagnostic methods including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), blood polycarbonate membrane filtration (PCMF), Knott's method (Knott), digital thick blood smears (DTBS) and venous thick blood smears (VTBS) were used to compare sensitivity and specificity among the methods. Data were analysed using PCMF and Bayesian latent class models (BLCM) as the gold standard. We used BLCM to calculate the prevalence of mansonelliasis based on the results of five diagnostic methods. FINDINGS The prevalence of mansonelliasis was 35.4% by PCMF and 30.1% by BLCM. PCR and Knott methods both possessed high sensitivity. Sensitivity relative to PCMF was 98.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 92.0 - 99.7] for PCR and 83.5% (95% CI: 72.9 - 90.5) for Knott. Sensitivity derived by BLCM was 100% (95% CI 93.7 - 100) for PCMF, 100% (95% CI: 93.7 - 100) for PCR and 98.3% (95% CI: 90.6 - 99.9) for Knott. The odds ratio of being diagnosed as microfilaremic increased with age but did not differ between genders. Microfilariae loads were higher in subjects aged 30 - 45 and 45 - 60 years. MAIN CONCLUSIONS PCMF and PCR were the best methods to assess the prevalence of mansonelliasis in our samples. As such, using these methods could lead to higher prevalence of mansonelliasis in this region than the most commonly used method (i.e., thick blood smears).

Humans , Polycarboxylate Cement , Mansonella/genetics , Mansonelliasis/diagnosis , Rural Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Bayes Theorem
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(1): 80-85, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899308


Abstract One generation of Amblyomma coelebs life cycle under experimental conditions was evaluated. Ten tick pairs were allowed to feed on rabbits under laboratory conditions (LC), resulting six engorged females with a mean weight of 1,403.9 mg. Two females were maintained in a forest reserve under natural conditions (NC), and four were maintained in incubators (LC). The engorgement period lasted 10.33 days. Pre-oviposition periods were 10.75 (NC) and 22 days (LC). The mean egg-mass weight was 514.76 mg, and the blood meal conversion index was 36.67% (LC). Incubation period under NC and LC were 91 and 56.33 days and hatching rates were 50% and 28.33%, respectively. Larval engorgement period ranged from 4 to 10 days, with average weight of 1.1 mg. Engorged larvae were incubated under NC and LC, with a premolt period of 27 to 36 days and molting rate of 7.1% and 28.7%, respectively. Nymphal engorgement period ranged from 5 to 7 days, with a mean weight of 18.8 mg and a recovery rate of 54.54%. In LC, the ecdysis mean period was 24.5 days, and molting rate was 44.44%, resulting in 24 adult A. coelebs. Our results show a life cycle of 187.45 (NC) and 149 (LC) days.

Resumo Uma geração do ciclo de vida de Amblyomma coelebs em condições laboratoriais foi avaliada. Dez casais de carrapatos foram alimentados em coelhos sob condições laboratoriais (CL), resultando em seis fêmeas ingurgitadas, com um peso médio de 1.403,9 miligramas (mg). Duas fêmeas foram mantidas em uma reserva florestal sob condições naturais (CN), e quatro foram mantidas em incubadoras (CL). O período de ingurgitamento durou 10,33 dias. Períodos de pré-postura foram de 10,75 (CN) e 22 dias (CL). O peso médio das massas de ovos foi de 514,76 mg e o índice de conversão alimentar foi de 36,67% (CL). O período de incubação em CN e CL foi de 91 e 56,33 dias e os percentuais de eclosão foram de 50% e 28,33%, respectivamente. O período de ingurgitamento larval variou de quatro a 10 dias, com peso médio de 1,1 mg. Larvas ingurgitadas foram incubadas em CN e CL, com período de pré-muda de 27 a 36 dias e percentual de ecdise de 7,1% e 28,7%, respectivamente. O período de ingurgitamento das ninfas oscilou de cinco a sete dias, com peso médio de 18,8 mg e uma taxa de recuperação de 54,54%. Em CL, o período médio de ecdise foi de 24,5 dias, e o percentual de muda foi 44,44%, resultando em 24 adultos de A. coelebs. Estes resultados demonstram um ciclo de vida de 187,45 (CN) e 149 (CL) dias.

Animals , Female , Ixodidae/physiology , Animal Experimentation
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(7): 517-519, July 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-841810


The sandfly Trichophoromyia auraensis has recently evolved as a proven vector of Leishmania (Viannia) endemic to state of Acre in the north of Brazil. This note is intended to propose a correction in the report of the first occurrence of natural infection of Leishmania (Viannia) in this species. We and the other scientific groups reinforced that Tr. auraensis is a possible vector involved in the transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Acre, Brazil.

Animals , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Psychodidae , Psychodidae/parasitology , Brazil
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(7): 423-432, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787560


In this study, we identified the phlebotomine sandfly vectors involved in the transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil, which is located on the Brazil-Peru-Bolivia frontier. The genotyping of Leishmania in phlebotomines was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. A total of 6,850 sandflies comprising 67 species were captured by using CDC light traps in rural areas of the municipality. Three sandfly species were found in the state of Acre for the first time: Lutzomyia georgii, Lu. complexa and Lu. evangelistai. The predominant species was Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi and Lu. davisi (total 59.27%). 32 of 368 pools were positive for the presence of Leishmania DNA (16 pools corresponding to Lu. davisi, and 16 corresponding to Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi), with a minimal infection prevalence of 1.85% in Lu. davisi and 2.05% in Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi. The Leishmania species found showed maximum identity with L. (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis in both phlebotomine species. Based on these results and similar scenarios previously described along the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia tri-border, the studied area must take into consideration the possibility of Lu. davisi and Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi as probable vectors of ACL in this municipality.

Humans , Animals , Female , DNA/analysis , Insect Vectors/genetics , Leishmania/genetics , Psychodidae/genetics , Biodiversity , Bolivia , Brazil , DNA, Kinetoplast , Genotype , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Peru , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Population Density , Psychodidae/classification , Psychodidae/parasitology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(1): 61-68, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777529


Abstract This study had the aim of ascertaining the sandfly fauna and possible presence ofLeishmania in these insects, collected in caves in the state of Rondônia, Brazil. Collections were conducted in eight caves located in two different areas of this state. Leishmania in the sandflies collected was detected using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This was the first study on sandflies from caves in Rondônia and, among the total of 1,236 individuals collected, 24 species and 10 genera were identified. The speciesEvandromyia georgii was collected for the first time in Rondônia and the most abundant species were Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis with 448 individuals (36.2%), followed by T. octavioi with 283 (22.9%) and E. georgii with 179 (14.5%). For the PCR, 17 pools were analyzed and five pools were positive (forT. auraensis in three pools and for Nyssomyia shawi and N. antunesi in one pool each). The kDNA region was amplified and the presence of Leishmania DNA was confirmed. The sandfly fauna in these caves can be considered diverse in comparison with similar studies in other regions. It may be that some species use caves as a temporary shelter and breeding site, while other species live exclusively in this environment. The detection of LeishmaniaDNA indicates that this pathogen is circulating in cave environments and that further studies are needed in order to ascertain the risks of infection by leishmaniasis in these locations with high touristic potential.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer a fauna de flebotomíneos, e possível presença de Leishmania nestes insetos, coletados em cavernas do Estado de Rondônia. As coletas foram realizadas em oito cavernas localizadas em duas áreas diferentes do Estado. A detecção de Leishmania nos flebotomíneos foi realizada por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Este foi o primeiro trabalho com flebotomíneos em cavernas de Rondônia e um total de 1,236 indivíduos foram coletados e identificados em 24 espécies e 10 gêneros.Evandromyia georgii foi coletada pela primeira vez em Rondônia, e as espécies mais abundantes foram Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis com 448 indivíduos (36.2%) seguida por T. octavioi com 283 (22.9%) e E. georgii com 179 (14.5%). No estudo de PCR, 17 pools foram analisados, sendo cinco positivos (T. auraensis - 3, Nyssomyia shawi eN. antunesi - 1 cada). A região do kDNA foi amplificada confirmando a presença de DNA de Leishmania. A fauna de flebotomíneos nestas cavernas foi considerada diversa quando comparada com estudos semelhantes de outras regiões. É possível que algumas espécies utilizem cavernas como abrigo temporário e local de procriação e outras sejam exclusivas deste ambiente. A detecção de DNA de Leishmania indica que este patógeno está circulando no ambiente cavernícola, sendo necessários mais estudos para conhecer o risco de transmissão de leishmanioses nestes locais com alto potencial turístico.

Animals , Psychodidae/parasitology , Caves/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae/classification , Brazil , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Insect Vectors , Leishmania/genetics
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(4): 343-347, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761162


SUMMARYIn this study, Leishmaniaspecies were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The epidemiology of patients suspected of having American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, located in the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia triborder was also investigated. By PCR, the DNA of Leishmaniawas detected in 100% of the cases (37 samples) and a PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of the hsp 70gene identified the species in 32 samples: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (65.6%) , L. (V.) shawi (28.1%) , L. (V.) guyanensis (3.1%) and mixed infection L. (V.) guyanensisand L. (Leishmania) amazonensis(3.1%)This is the first report of L. (V.) shawiand L. (L.) amazonensisin Acre. The two predominant species were found in patients living in urban and rural areas. Most cases were found in males living in rural areas for at least three years and involved in rural work. This suggests, in most cases, a possible transmission of the disease from a rural/forest source, although some patients had not engaged in activities associated with permanence in forestall areas, which indicate a possible sandflies adaptation to the periurban setting.

RESUMOO presente estudo caracterizou as espécies de Leishmaniapela Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR). Também descreveu os aspectos epidemiológicos de pacientes com suspeita de leishmaniose tegumentar americana do município de Assis Brasil, Estado do Acre, Brasil, localizado na tríplice fronteira Brasil/Peru/Bolívia. A PCR detectou DNA de Leishmaniaem 100% dos casos (37 amostras) e a PCR- Restriction Fragment Length Polymorfism(RFLP) do gene hsp 70identificou as espécies em 32 amostras: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (65,6%) , L. (V.) shawi (28,1%) , L. (V.) guyanensis (3,1%) e infecção mista L. (V.) guyanensise L. (Leishmania) amazonensis(3,1%)Esse é o primeiro registro de L. (V.) shawie L. (L.) amazonensisno Acre. As duas espécies predominantes foram encontradas em indivíduos residentes em áreas rurais e urbanas. O maior número de casos foi notificado entre indivíduos de áreas rurais, sexo masculino, de ocupação rural e tempo de residência maior que três anos. Esses dados sugerem possível transmissão da doença em ambiente rural/florestal na maioria dos casos, no entanto alguns pacientes não tinham envolvimento com atividades relacionadas com a permanência na floresta, indicando possível adaptação de flebotomíneos no ambiente periurbano.

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Leishmania/classification , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/parasitology , Brazil/epidemiology , Leishmania/genetics , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Urban Population
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(4): 480-483, 03/07/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716308


The prevalence of mansonelliasis was studied in the municipality of Tefé, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The prevalence (thick blood smear method) was 13.6% (147/1,078), higher in the Solimões River region (16.3%) than in the Tefé River region (6.3%). In the sampled communities in the Solimões River region, a higher density of cases was observed, as indicated by a kernel analysis (odds ratio 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.57). Males had a higher prevalence (χ2 = 31.292, p < 0.001) than women. Mansonella ozzardi prevalence was higher in retirees and farmers (28.9% and 27%, respectively). Prevalence also significantly increased with age (χ2 = -128.17, p < 0.001), with the highest numbers occurring in persons older than 67 years.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Insect Vectors , Mansonella , Mansonelliasis/epidemiology , Simuliidae , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Rural Population
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(1): 113-115, Jan-Feb/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703151


Introduction: This study assessed the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi in riverine communities of the Tefé River, Amazonas, Brazil. Methods: The prevalence of M. ozzardi was estimated by microscopic examination of thick blood smears. Results: The M. ozzardi prevalence rate was 6.3% (19/300). Filarial infection was found in 8 of the 11 communities surveyed, with prevalence rates varying from 2.5% to 22.2%. Conclusions: Tefé is a region of oil and natural gas exploration, in which there is a high turnover of workers. Migration patterns may facilitate the dissemination of mansonelliasis to other regions. .

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Mansonella/isolation & purification , Mansonelliasis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Mansonella/classification , Mansonelliasis/diagnosis , Prevalence , Rivers , Rural Population
Rev. patol. trop ; 43(1): 1-6, 2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-737506


Mansonelliasis is a filariasis whose etiological agents are Mansonella ozzardi, Mansonella perstansand Mansonella streptocerca. Only the first two cited species occur in Brazil. M. ozzardi is widely distributed in Amazonas state and it is found along the rivers Solimões, Purus, Negro and their tributaries while M. perstans is restricted to the Upper Rio Negro. In this update, we report the occurrence of M. ozzardi in Amazonas since the 1950s, and we show that over the years this filariasis has been sustained with high prevalence, while maintaining a constant cycle of transmission in endemic areas due to the lack of treatment and control policies. M. perstans has so far only been recorded in indigenous populations in the Upper Rio Negro. However, the continuous flow of migrants to other regions may cause an expansion of this infection.

A mansonelose é uma filariose cujos agentes etiológicos são Mansonella ozzardi, M. perstans e M. strepotcerca. Somente as duas primeiras ocorrem no Brasil. M. ozzardi apresenta ampla distribuição no estado do Amazonas sendo encontrada ao longo dos rios Solimões, Purus e Negro e afluentes, ao passo que M. perstans possui distribuição restrita à região do Alto Rio Negro. Nesta atualização, é relatada a ocorrência de M. ozzardi no Amazonas desde a década de 1950 e, ao longo dos anos, esta filariose tem sustentado elevadas prevalências, mantendo um ciclo constante de transmissão nas áreas endêmicas em virtude da falta de políticas de tratamento e controle. Até o momento, M. perstans só foi registrada nas populações indígenas da região do Alto Rio Negro, mas, em razão da existência de um fluxo migratório contínuo para outras regiões, existe a possibilidade de sua expansão.

Humans , Filariasis/epidemiology , Mansonella , Microfilariae , Brazil
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(1): 60-66, Jan.-Feb. 2013. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666796


Introduction: This work was carried out on the purpose of identifying the species of phlebotomine sandflies in the municipality of Monte Negro, state of Rondonia, Brazil, that may have been transmitting the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), and concisely describe epidemiological aspects of disease. METHODS: The epidemiologic and socioeconomical indicators were obtained from government institutions and the local Municipal Secretary of Health. Phlebotomine sandflies were captured using CDC light traps between July 2006 to July 2008. The total of 1,240 of female sandflies were examined by PCR method directed to k-DNA. RESULTS: There has been a significant decrease in the incidence of ACL of about 50% over the last ten years in the municipality. A total of 1,935 specimens of 53 sandfly species were captured, three of the genus Brumptomyia genus and 50 of the genus Lutzomyia. The predominant species was Lutzomyia acanthopharynx, Lutzomyia whitmani, Lutzomyia geniculata and Lutzomyia davisi. None were positive for Leishmania sp. CONCLUSIONS: Four sandflies species were found in the State of Rondonia for the first time: Brumptomyia brumpti, Lutzomyia tarapacaensis, Lutzomyia melloi and Lutzomyia lenti. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis, was also captured. Socioeconomical improvement of Brazilian economy and the increase of environmental surveillance in the last 15 years collaborated in the decrease of people exposed to vectors, reducing the incidence of ACL.

Adult , Animals , Female , Humans , Insect Vectors/classification , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Psychodidae/classification , Brazil/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Population Density , Seasons , Socioeconomic Factors
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(5): 600-603, Sept.-Oct. 2011. mapas, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-602925


INTRODUCTION: Mansonella ozzardi, a human filarial nematode transmitted by Diptera Simuliidae flies (black flies), is widely spread in the Amazon, while the occurrence of mansonelliasis in the State of Rondônia (Western Amazonia) has not been reported thus far. The existence of this parasitic disease in this state is investigated in this study. METHODS: A total of 4,452 people who lived alongside the Madeira, Mamore, Guapore, Machado and Preto Rivers, in the State of Rondônia, were examined using the thick blood smear method. Alongside the Machado and Guapore rivers, 2,112 adult simuliid specimens were captured. RESULTS: Infected people were not reported, although simuliids with vector potential such as Cerqueirellum pydanielli, C. argentiscutum and C. amazonicum were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study registered no infected people. This finding may be explained by the individuals' low level of microfilaremia that is below the limit of detection of the diagnostic method used in the study or insufficient migration of people infected with M. ozzardi from endemic areas, making it impossible to introduce the disease into Rondônia. Further studies using more sensitive diagnostic techniques could shed light on this question.

INTRODUÇÃO: Mansonella ozzardi é uma filária humana que tem como vetor dípteros simulídeos e é amplamente distribuída na Amazônia. Não há informações sobre a ocorrência de casos de mansonelose no Estado de Rondônia, e neste trabalho procurou-se investigar a situação epidemiológica desta parasitose em áreas urbanas e ribeirinhas na Amazônia Ocidental. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 4.452 moradores às margens dos rios Madeira, Mamoré, Guaporé, Machado e Preto em Rondônia, através da técnica da gota espessa de sangue. Capturou-se às margens do rio Machado e Guaporé 2.112 simulídeos adultos das espécies Cerqueirellum pydanieli e Chirostilbia pertinax. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas pessoas infectadas com M. ozzardi e foram encontradas diferentes espécies de simulídeos com potencial de transmissão da mansonelose. CONCLUSÕES: Não foram encontrados indivíduos infectados com M. ozzardi neste estudo. Este fato pode ser explicado pela existência de pacientes com baixas microfilaremias, associado à técnica diagnóstica de baixa sensibilidade utilizada no estudo. Pode-se ainda aventar a possibilidade de ter ocorrido migração insuficiente de pacientes infectados de áreas endêmicas, impossibilitando a implantação da endemia. Estudos posteriores com técnicas diagnósticas mais sensíveis podem ajudar a esclarecer esta questão.

Animals , Humans , Insect Vectors/classification , Mansonella/isolation & purification , Mansonelliasis/epidemiology , Simuliidae/classification , Brazil/epidemiology , Mansonelliasis/diagnosis , Rural Population , Urban Population