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1.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901016

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To analyze the clinical manifestations of culture-proven infective keratitis patients over a recent 10-year period. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 956 cases of infective keratitis between January 2008 and December 2017 at eight tertiary hospitals. The study was performed to analyze the risk factors, causative microbial organisms, therapeutic outcomes, and prognosis. @*Results@#The most common risk factor of keratitis was trauma (33.2%). Initial visual acuity (V/A) was finger count or less in 449 eyes (47.0%). The common location of keratitis was central, and the size was 4 mm2 or less. Hypopyon was observed in 295 eyes (30.9%). Of the 1,039 cultured isolates, 443 (42.6%) grew Gram-negative bacteria with the most common being Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The most prevalent Gram-positive bacteria was Staphylococcus epidermidis, and fungi was Fusarium species. Surgical treatments were performed in 201 eyes (21.0%), followed by amniotic membrane transplantation (66 eyes) and evisceration (44 eyes). Final V/A was 20/100 or more in 422 eyes (44.1%). Gram-positive organisms were highly susceptible to moxifloxacin and vancomycin, and Gram-negative organisms were highly susceptible to levofloxacin and ceftazidime. An increase in resistance to these antibiotics was detected for Enterococcus and Pseudomonas. @*Conclusions@#In South Korea, infective keratitis occurs frequently in eyes with trauma. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Fusarium species are commonly identified etiologies of microbial keratitis. The appropriate administered medical and surgical treatments of suspected infectious keratitis can lead to visual improvement with particular care taken to minimize infection related to resistant bacteria and fungal microbes as needed. An initial V/A of 0.02 or less, the presence of hypopyon, age of 65 years or more, and a central lesion were associated with poor clinical outcome of bacterial keratitis. Age of 70 years or more was a significant risk factor for poor clinical outcome of fungal keratitis.

2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893312

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To analyze the clinical manifestations of culture-proven infective keratitis patients over a recent 10-year period. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 956 cases of infective keratitis between January 2008 and December 2017 at eight tertiary hospitals. The study was performed to analyze the risk factors, causative microbial organisms, therapeutic outcomes, and prognosis. @*Results@#The most common risk factor of keratitis was trauma (33.2%). Initial visual acuity (V/A) was finger count or less in 449 eyes (47.0%). The common location of keratitis was central, and the size was 4 mm2 or less. Hypopyon was observed in 295 eyes (30.9%). Of the 1,039 cultured isolates, 443 (42.6%) grew Gram-negative bacteria with the most common being Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The most prevalent Gram-positive bacteria was Staphylococcus epidermidis, and fungi was Fusarium species. Surgical treatments were performed in 201 eyes (21.0%), followed by amniotic membrane transplantation (66 eyes) and evisceration (44 eyes). Final V/A was 20/100 or more in 422 eyes (44.1%). Gram-positive organisms were highly susceptible to moxifloxacin and vancomycin, and Gram-negative organisms were highly susceptible to levofloxacin and ceftazidime. An increase in resistance to these antibiotics was detected for Enterococcus and Pseudomonas. @*Conclusions@#In South Korea, infective keratitis occurs frequently in eyes with trauma. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Fusarium species are commonly identified etiologies of microbial keratitis. The appropriate administered medical and surgical treatments of suspected infectious keratitis can lead to visual improvement with particular care taken to minimize infection related to resistant bacteria and fungal microbes as needed. An initial V/A of 0.02 or less, the presence of hypopyon, age of 65 years or more, and a central lesion were associated with poor clinical outcome of bacterial keratitis. Age of 70 years or more was a significant risk factor for poor clinical outcome of fungal keratitis.

3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875057

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the refractive outcomes of second-operated eyes whose diopters of intraocular lens (IOL) were selected based on the prediction error (PE) of the first-operated eye in 1-week-delayed sequential bilateral cataract surgery. @*Methods@#Medical records of 100 patients who had undergone delayed sequential bilateral cataract surgery with a 1-week interval were reviewed retrospectively. The postoperative subjective refraction was evaluated at 1 week and 1 month after surgery. The refractive error (RE) was determined by comparing postoperative refraction with the intended postoperative refractive target. The PE was determined by comparing postoperative refraction with the predicted postoperative refraction calculated by multiple different formulae (SRK-T, Hoffer Q, and Haigis). When the PE of the first eye was outside the range of ± 0.25 diopters (D) at postoperative 1 week, selection of IOL power was adjusted to reduce the PE of the second eye. Mean numerical and mean absolute errors of RE were calculated. The correlations between PE of the first eye measured at 1 week and PE of the second eye measured at 1 month were analyzed. @*Results@#The mean absolute value of RE was decreased on the second operated eye, but was not significant (p > 0.05). The subgroup whose RE of the first eye was > ± 0.5 D at 1 week showed a significantly decreased mean absolute value of RE in the second eye (p 0.5 D.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786337

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the clinical efficacy of sequential intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation and corneal crosslinking (CXL) in corneal ectasia.METHODS: To assess the clinical efficacy of sequential intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation and corneal crosslinking (CXL) in corneal ectasia.RESULTS: Greater improvement in uncorrected visual acuity was observed in the ICRS + CXL group than in the ICRS or CXL alone groups at both 6 (p = 0.008) and 12 months (p = 0.028). Refractive errors of sphere and spherical equivalent were significantly reduced in both the ICRS (p = 0.002 at 6 months, p = 0.004 at 12 months) and ICRS + CXL groups (p < 0.001 at both 6 and 12 months). Keratometric values including the maximum, minimum, and average were significantly reduced in all 3 groups at postoperative 6 and 12 months; however, the greatest reductions were observed in the ICRS + CXL group (all p < 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: ICRS implantation followed by CXL within 1 month seems to be effective, and may be superior to ICRS or CXL alone in improving visual acuity and reducing refractive errors and keratometric values.


Subject(s)
Collagen , Cornea , Dilatation, Pathologic , Keratoconus , Refractive Errors , Treatment Outcome , Visual Acuity
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760055

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe current cataract surgery practice patterns and changing trends among Korean ophthalmologists. METHODS: A survey of members of the Korean Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery was performed in July 2018. One hundred and two (12.7%) of 801 questionnaires were returned for analysis. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and compared with previous surveys. RESULTS: Most of the respondents (75%) had been in practice for 6 or more years and performed an average of 31 cataract surgeries per month. The preferred method for cataract surgery was phacoemulsification (95%); 5% used a femtosecond laser. The use of topical anesthesia markedly increased from 69% (2012) to 80% (2018). The use of optical biometry exceeded that of ultrasound A-scan biometry. A multifocal intraocular lens was used by 76% of the respondents compared with 44% of the respondents in 2012. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were used by 70% of the respondents postoperatively. Most (59%) of these anti-inflammatory drugs were prescribed for 4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: This survey provided a comprehensive update of the present cataract surgery practices in the Republic of Korea. The results emphasized the increasing use of premium intraocular lenses, optical biometry, and topical anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Biometry , Cataract , Lenses, Intraocular , Methods , Phacoemulsification , Refractive Surgical Procedures , Republic of Korea , Surveys and Questionnaires , Ultrasonography
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760044

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the effects of bifocal versus trifocal diffractive intraocular lens (IOL) implantation on visual quality after phacoemulsification in patients with cataracts. METHODS: Eighty-eight eyes from 63 patients were analyzed. Trifocal (AT LISA tri 839MP), bifocal (AcrySof IQ ReSTOR) and bifocal (Tecnis MF ZLB00) IOLs were implanted into 53, 18, and 17 eyes, respectively. Uncorrected distance, intermediate and near visual acuity, refractive errors, contrast sensitivity, and patient satisfaction were measured at 1 week and 1 month after surgery. Refractive error was converted to a spherical equivalent and compared to predicted refraction calculated by IOL calculation formulas. RESULTS: Uncorrected distance, intermediate, and near visual acuity did not differ significantly between groups. One month after surgery, the mean refractive errors were −0.07 diopters (D) in the AT LISA tri 839MP group, +0.18 D in the AcrySof IQ ReSTOR group, and +0.31 D in the Tecnis MF ZLB00 group (p < 0.001). The predictive accuracy of IOL calculation formulas did not differ between groups. Contrast sensitivity, satisfaction, and spectacle independence in the trifocal group were comparable with those of the two bifocal groups. CONCLUSIONS: Trifocal IOL and two different types of bifocal IOL implantation were all effective for improving visual quality, although refractive error in patients with trifocal IOL shows myopic tendencies.


Subject(s)
Cataract , Contrast Sensitivity , Humans , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Lenses, Intraocular , Patient Satisfaction , Phacoemulsification , Presbyopia , Refractive Errors , Visual Acuity
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760043

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of cyclosporine nanoemulsion 0.05% compared to cyclosporine emulsion 0.05% and diquafosol sodium 3%. METHODS: This was a multicenter, randomized, evaluator-masked, active control, parallel, phase IV study. A total of 227 patients were randomly allocated to instill cyclosporine nanoemulsion 0.05% (CN) twice daily, cyclosporine emulsion 0.05% (CE) twice daily, or diquafosol sodium 3% (DQ) six times daily. Non-inferiority of CN was analyzed by primary endpoint (cornea and conjunctival staining scores at week 12). The secondary endpoints were scores of corneal staining, conjunctival staining, tear break-up time, Schirmer test, and Ocular Surface Disease Index at weeks 4 and 12. RESULTS: Primary endpoints showed statistically significant improvements in all groups. Primary endpoints were −6.60 for the CN group, −5.28 for the CE group, and −6.63 for the DQ group (National Eye Institute scale from 0 to 33), verifying the non-inferiority of CN compared to CE (95% confidence interval, −0.15 to 2.80, Δ>−2.88). In intergroup comparison between CN and CE groups, the CN group had significantly more decreased conjunctival staining score at week 12. Intergroup comparison between CN and DQ groups showed consistent statistically significant improvements in TBUT and Schirmer test in the CN group. In the DQ group, TBUT showed late statistically significant improvement at week 12 and Schirmer test showed relatively short-term statistically significant improvement at week 4. CONCLUSIONS: Cyclosporine nanoemulsion 0.05% was equivalently efficient compared to cyclosporine emulsion 0.05% and diquafosol sodium 3%. In addition, CN showed significant improvements in several parameters for treatment of dry eyes.


Subject(s)
Cyclosporine , Dry Eye Syndromes , Humans , Nanotechnology , Sodium , Tears
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741303

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of transplantation of a circumferentially-trephined autologous oral mucosal graft using a vacuum trephine on ocular surface reconstruction in patients with limbal stem cell deficiency. METHODS: Patients with a limbal stem cell deficiency who underwent transplantation of autologous oral mucosal graft performed by a particular surgeon in Seoul National University Hospital were included. The medical records of these five patients were retrospectively reviewed. The lower labial mucosal graft inside the inferior lip was trephined to a depth of 250 µm using a donor vacuum trephine with a 9-mm diameter. Outside markings were made using a 14-mm intraoperative keratometer. The oral mucosal graft was dissected under a microscope using a Beaver mini-blade as either a ring or a crescent-shaped strip with a 5-mm width. The mucosal graft was transplanted onto the limbus in the limbal-deficient eye. Best-corrected visual acuity and corneal status were measured during the follow-up period. RESULTS: Four patients were diagnosed with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and one was diagnosed with atopy-associated immune keratitis. The mean follow-up period was 10.4 ± 2.9 months. After 4 months, visual acuity improved in all patients, and the mean improvement in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity was 0.526 ± 0.470 (range, 0.15 to 1.10). Corneal surface erosion and neovascularization decreased in four patients, and stromal opacity decreased in two patients. The engraftments maintained ocular surface stabilization in four of the five patients at the last follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Transplantation of circumferential autologous oral mucosal grafts may be effective for the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Keratitis , Lip , Medical Records , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Rodentia , Seoul , Stem Cells , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome , Tissue Donors , Transplants , Vacuum , Visual Acuity
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741301

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of 4-haptic bitoric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in Asian patients with cataract and astigmatism. METHODS: A total of 19 eyes with ≤25.0 mm axial length and ≥0.75 diopters (D) corneal astigmatism were included in this prospective non-comparative study. All subjects underwent phacoemulsification with implantation of an AT Torbi 709M IOL. Visual and refractive outcomes as well as toric IOL axis were evaluated during a 3-month follow-up. Errors in predicted residual spherical equivalent were calculated by subtracting predicted residual spherical equivalent from postoperative refraction. RESULTS: Uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity improved significantly 3 months after surgery, from 0.43 to 0.05 and from 0.24 to −0.05, respectively. Mean refractive cylinders also decreased significantly, from −1.91 preoperatively to −0.54 D 3 months after surgery. Mean J0 and J45 decreased 3 months postoperatively, from 0.26 to 0.03 D and from 0.24 to −0.06 D, respectively. After 3 months, mean absolute IOL rotation was 1.81°. Errors in predicted residual spherical equivalent showed a hyperopic shift of 0.35 D. CONCLUSIONS: Implantation of 4-haptic bitoric IOL proved to be effective for correcting astigmatism in Asian eyes during cataract surgery.


Subject(s)
Asians , Astigmatism , Cataract , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Lenses, Intraocular , Phacoemulsification , Prospective Studies , Visual Acuity
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716263

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of surgically induced corneal astigmatism (SICA) and total corneal astigmatism (TCA) estimation on the anterior corneal astigmatism (ACA)-based toric intraocular lens (IOL) calculation. METHODS: Data from preoperative and postoperative corneal astigmatism, postoperative visual acuities, and refractive outcomes were collected. The incision was superior in with the rule anterior corneal astigmatism (WTRA) eyes and temporal in against the rule anterior corneal astigmatism eyes. The following five methods of calculating the toric IOL were compared: (1) ACA only and estimated SICA; (2) ACA with a fixed posterior corneal astigmatism (PCA) and estimated SICA; (3) ACA with a fixed PCA value and actual SICA; (4) and (5) TCA derived from the regression equations of ACA and actual SICA. The residual astigmatism was simulated. The Alpins method was used to analyze the astigmatism. RESULTS: Sixty eyes from 46 patients were enrolled. Thirty eyes had WTRA and the other thirty had against the rule anterior corneal astigmatism. The vector and arithmetic means of the difference vector decreased when the information regarding the actual SICA and PCA was added to the calculation (from 0.59 diopters [D] @ 87.5° to 0.15 D @ 48.5°, and from 0.95 ± 0.53 to 0.71 ± 0.63 D, respectively; p < 0.001). The mean difference vector across the whole sample was lowest using model 5. The correction index was significantly closest to 1.0 in the WTRA group. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers may improve the accuracy of post-implantation predictions by calculating toric IOL using exact SICA and TCA, with consideration of the PCA derived from the regression equation of ACA.


Subject(s)
Astigmatism , Humans , Lenses, Intraocular , Methods , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Visual Acuity
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717593

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We compared the efficacy between trifocal and bifocal diffractive intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. METHODS: Through PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL, we searched potentially relevant articles published from 1990 to 2018. Defocus curves, visual acuities (VAs) were measured as primary outcomes. Spectacle dependence, postoperative refraction, contrast sensitivity (CS), glare, and higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were measured as secondary outcomes. Effects were pooled using random-effects method. RESULTS: We included 11 clinical trials, with a total of 787 eyes (395 subjects). The trifocal IOL group showed better binocular distance VA corrected with defocus levels of −0.5, −1.0, −1.5, and −2.5 diopter than the bifocal IOL group (All P ≤ 0.004). The trifocal IOL group showed better monocular uncorrected distance and intermediate VAs (mean difference [MD], −0.04 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.07, −0.01; P = 0.006 and MD, −0.07 logMAR; 95% CI, −0.13, −0.01; P = 0.03, respectively). Postoperative refraction, glare, CS, and HOAs were not significantly different from each other. CONCLUSION: The overall findings indicate that trifocal diffractive IOL implantation is better than the bifocal diffractive IOL in intermediate VA, and provides similar or better in distance and near VAs without any major deterioration in the visual quality.


Subject(s)
Cataract , Contrast Sensitivity , Glare , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Lenses, Intraocular , Methods , Telescopes , Visual Acuity
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714955

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the agreement in axial length (AL), keratometry, and anterior chamber depth measurements between AL-Scan and IOLMaster biometers and to compare the efficacy of the AL-Scan on intraocular lens (IOL) power calculations and refractive outcomes with those obtained by the IOLMaster. METHODS: Medical records of 48 eyes from 48 patients who underwent uneventful phacoemulsification and IOL insertion were retrospectively reviewed. One of the two types of monofocal aspheric IOLs were implanted (Tecnis ZCB00 [n = 34] or CT Asphina 509M [n = 14]). Two different partial coherence interferometers measured and compared AL, keratometry (2.4 mm), anterior chamber depth, and IOL power calculations with SRK/T, Hoffer Q, Holladay2, and Haigis formulas. The difference between expected and actual final refractive error was compared as refractive mean error (ME), refractive mean absolute error (MAE), and median absolute error (MedAE). RESULTS: AL measured by the AL-Scan was shorter than that measured by the IOLMaster (p = 0.029). The IOL power of Tecnis did not differ between the four formulas; however, the Asphina measurement calculated using Hoffer Q for the AL-Scan was lower (0.28 diopters, p = 0.015) than that calculated by the IOLMaster. There were no statistically significant differences between the calculations by MAE and MedAE for the four formulas in either IOL. In SRK/T, ME in Tecnis-inserted eyes measured by AL-Scan showed a tendency toward myopia (p = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: Measurement by AL-Scan provides reliable biometry data and power calculations compared to the IOLMaster; however, refractive outcomes of Tecnis-inserted eyes by AL-Scan calculated using SRK/T can show a slight myopic tendency.


Subject(s)
Anterior Chamber , Biometry , Cimetidine , Humans , Lenses, Intraocular , Medical Records , Myopia , Phacoemulsification , Refractive Errors , Retrospective Studies
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713841

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Interleukin (IL)-22 is a cytokine involved in epithelial cell regeneration. Currently, no research studies have analyzed the distribution of the three distinct IL-22–secreting cell populations in human or mouse conjunctiva. This study investigated the distribution of the three main populations of IL-22–secreting immune cells, αβ Th cells, γδ T cells, or innate cells (innate lymphoid cells [ILCs] or natural killer cells), in conjunctival associated lymphoid tissues (CALTs) in human and mouse models. METHODS: We collected discarded cadaveric bulbar conjunctival tissue specimens after preservation of the corneo-limbal tissue for keratoplasty from four enucleated eyes of the domestic donor. The bulbar conjunctiva tissue, including the cornea from normal (n = 27) or abraded (n = 4) B6 mice, were excised and pooled in RPMI 1640 media. After the lymphoid cells were gated in forward and side scattering, the αβ Th cells, γδ T cells, or innate lymphoid cells were positively or negatively gated using anti-CD3, anti-γδ TCR, and anti–IL-22 antibodies, with a FACSCanto flow cytometer. RESULTS: In normal human conjunctiva, the percentage and number of cells were highest in αβ Th cells, followed by γδ T cells and CD3–γδ TCR – IL-22+ innate cells (presumed ILCs, pILCs) (Kruskal-Wallis test, p = 0.012). In normal mice keratoconjunctiva, the percentage and total number were highest in γδ T cells, followed by αβ Th cells and pILCs (Kruskal-Wallis test, p = 0.0004); in corneal abraded mice, the population of αβ Th cells and pILCs tended to increase. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that three distinctive populations of IL-22–secreting immune cells are present in CALTs of both humans and mice, and the proportions of IL-22+αβ Th cells, γδ T cells, and pILCs in CALTs in humans might be differently distributed from those in normal mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Cadaver , Conjunctiva , Cornea , Corneal Transplantation , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Interleukins , Lymphocytes , Lymphoid Tissue , Mice , Regeneration , T-Lymphocytes , Tissue Donors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-80658

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the additive effect of oral steroid with topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) on cystoid macular edema (CME) in patients with epiretinal membrane (ERM) after cataract surgery. METHODS: Medical records of subjects who underwent uneventful cataract surgery (n = 1,349) were retrospectively reviewed; among these patients, those with pre-existing ERM (n = 81) were included. Patients were divided into two groups: one group had postoperative administration of oral steroid for 1 week (n = 45) and the other group did not have oral steroid administration (n = 36). Changes in macular thickness and incidence of CME were compared in both groups. Topical NSAIDs were administered in both groups for 1 month postoperatively. Definite CME and probable CME were defined by changes in retinal contour with or without cystoid changes. Change in central macular thickness of more than three standard deviations (≥90.17 µm) was defined as possible CME. Macular thickness was measured at 1 month after the operation by optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: The incidence of definite, probable, and possible CME were 2.22%, 4.44%, and 8.89% with the use of steroid and 2.78%, 5.56%, and 8.33% without steroid, respectively (p = 0.694, p = 0.603, and p = 0.625), and regardless of treatment group, the incidences in these patients were higher compared to incidences in whole subjects (1.26%, 2.30%, and 4.32%; p = 0.048, p = 0.032, and p = 0.038, respectively). The differences in macular thickness were not statistically different between the two groups. Average changes of central foveal thickness in 3 mm and 6 mm zone were 29.29 µm, 35.93 µm, and 38.02 µm with the use of steroid and 32.25 µm, 44.08 µm, and 45.39 µm without steroid (p = 0.747, p = 0.148, and p = 0.077, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that administration of oral steroid may not have a synergistic effect in reduction of CME and retinal thickness in patients with pre-existing ERM after cataract surgery, when topical NSAIDs are applied.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Cataract , Epiretinal Membrane , Humans , Incidence , Macular Edema , Medical Records , Retinaldehyde , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58753

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation using conventional regression formulae or the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ASCRS) IOL power calculator for previous corneal refractive surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 96 eyes from 68 patients that had undergone cataract surgery after keratorefractive surgeries. We calculated the formula with two approaches: IOL powers using the ASCRS IOL power calculator and IOL powers using conventional formulae with previous refractive data (Camellin, Jarade, Savini, and clinical history method) or without prior data (0, 2 and, 4 mm total mean power in topography, Wang-Koch-Maloney, Shammas, Seitz, and Maloney). Two conventional IOL formulae (the SRK/T and the Hoffer Q) were calculated with the single K and double K methods. Mean arithmetic refractive error and mean absolute error were calculated at the first postoperative month. RESULTS: In conventional formulae, the Jarade method or the Seitz method, applied in the Hoffer Q formula with the single K or double K method, have the lowest prediction errors. The least prediction error was found in the Shammas-PL method in the ASCRS group. There was no statistically significant difference between the 10 lowest mean absolute error conventional methods, the Shammas-PL method and the Barrett True-K method calculated with using the ASCRS calculator, without using preoperative data. CONCLUSIONS: The Shammas-PL formula and the Barrett True-K formula, calculated with the ASCRS calculator, without using history, were methods comparable to the 10 most accurate conventional formulae. Other methods using the ASCRS calculator show a myopic tendency.


Subject(s)
Cataract , Humans , Lenses, Intraocular , Methods , Refractive Errors , Refractive Surgical Procedures , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104368

ABSTRACT

We investigated relationships between outdoor air pollution and pterygium in Korean adults. This study includes 23,276 adults in population-based cross-sectional data using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011. Pterygium was assessed using slit lamp biomicroscopy. Air pollution data (humidity, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm [PM₁₀], ozone [O₃], nitrogen dioxide [NO₂], and sulfur dioxide levels [SO₂]) for 2 years preceding the ocular examinations were acquired. Associations of multiple air pollutants with pterygium or pterygium recurrence after surgery were examined using multivariate logistic models, after adjusting for several covariates. Distributed lag models were additionally used for estimating cumulative effects of air pollution on pterygium. None of air pollution factors was significantly associated with pterygium or pterygium recurrence (each P > 0.05). Distributed lag models also showed that air pollution factors were not associated with pterygium or pterygium recurrence in 0-to-2 year lags (each P > 0.05). However, primary pterygium showed a weak association with PM₁₀ after adjusting for covariates (odds ratio [OR] 1.23; [per 5 μg/m³ PM₁₀ increase]; P = 0.023). Aging, male sex, and greater sun exposure were associated with pterygium, while higher education level and myopia were negatively associated with pterygium (each P ≤ 0.001). Male sex and myopia were negatively associated with pterygium recurrence (each P < 0.05). In conclusion, exposure to higher PM10 levels was associated with primary pterygium, although this study observed no significant association between air pollution and overall pterygium or pterygium recurrence in Korean adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aging , Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Education , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Male , Myopia , Nitrogen Dioxide , Nutrition Surveys , Ozone , Particulate Matter , Pterygium , Recurrence , Slit Lamp , Solar System , Sulfur Dioxide
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13347

ABSTRACT

The effect of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on dry eye has not been fully determined. This study aimed to compare the 12-week efficacy of HCQ medication with that of a placebo in the management of dry eye in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). A double-blind, randomized control study was conducted in 39 pSS subjects from May 2011 through August 2013. pSS was diagnosed based on the classification criteria of the American-European Consensus Group. Subjects received 300 mg of HCQ or placebo once daily for 12 weeks and were evaluated at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks, with a re-visit at 16 weeks after drug discontinuance. The fluorescein staining score, Schirmer test score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and ocular surface disease index (OSDI) were measured, and tears and blood were collected for ESR, IL-6, IL-17, B-cell activating factor (BAFF), and Th17 cell analysis. Color testing was performed and the fundus was examined to monitor HCQ complications. Twenty-six subjects completed the follow-up. The fluorescein staining score and Schirmer test score did not differ significantly. The OSDI improved with medication in the HCQ group but was not significantly different between the groups. TBUT, serum IL-6, ESR, serum and tear BAFF, and the proportion of Th17 cells did not change in either group. HCQ at 300 mg daily for 12 weeks has no apparent clinical benefit for dry eye and systemic inflammation in pSS (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT01601028).


Subject(s)
Aged , B-Cell Activating Factor/analysis , Blood Sedimentation , Double-Blind Method , Drug Administration Schedule , Dry Eye Syndromes/complications , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Interleukin-16/analysis , Interleukin-17/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Placebo Effect , Prospective Studies , Sjogren's Syndrome/complications , Th17 Cells/cytology , Treatment Outcome
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203444

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report the clinical results after the implantation of intrastromal corneal ring segments (Intacs(R)) for the correction of keratoconus or keratectasia. METHODS: This retrospective study was comprised of 16 eyes treated by insertion of intrastromal corneal ring and 30 eyes treated by penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) who were diagnosed with keratoconus or keratectasia. Visual acuity, refractive outcome, keratometric values were evaluated before and at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively. In addition, the implanted ring segment depth was measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography and the results were compared based on the depth of the ring. RESULTS: Twelve months after treatment, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was log MAR 0.32 at the ring group and log MAR 0.20 at the PKP group. BCVA change was larger at the PKP group than the ring group. Postoperative keratometric value was smaller at the ring group than at the PKP group. 3 mm irregular astigmatism was larger at the ring group than at the PKP group. The shallowly implanted ring group had a larger effect than the deeply implanted ring group. CONCLUSIONS: Intrastromal corneal ring segment implantation appears to be effective in improving the visual acuity and refractive outcome, although it cannot substitute for PKP.


Subject(s)
Astigmatism , Keratoconus , Keratoplasty, Penetrating , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity
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