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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 992-1000, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999793

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are at risk for premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). The aim of this study is to evaluate ovarian function and associated health outcomes in female adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#Sixty-nine female CCSs were enrolled. Medical records of CCSs were retrospectively reviewed. The subjects were categorized into three groups according to follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels (cutoff, 12, 40 IU/L). Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) level less than 1 ng/mL was considered low AMH level. @*Results@#Of 69 subjects, 14 (20.3%) had POI and 14 (20.3%) had FSH levels between 12 and 40 IU/L. Forty-one of 69 (59.4%) had normal FSH levels. Pelvic irradiation and stem cell transplantation (SCT) were more frequently performed in subjects with POI (p=0.001 and p < 0.001). AMH levels were remarkably low when FSH levels were over 12 IU/L (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, cyclophosphamide equivalent dose and SCT were significant treatment factors for developing low AMH levels (p=0.005 and p=0.002, respectively). Total, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly different in three groups according to FSH levels (p=0.047, p=0.030, and p=0.045). Z-score of femur neck bone mineral density was significantly reduced when FSH levels were increased (p=0.011). @*Conclusion@#Gonadal dysfunction is common in CCSs. Gonadal function was associated with a few treatment factors known to increase the risk of POI. Regular monitoring of gonadal function is needed for better health outcomes.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 279-290, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966470

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Renal tumors account for approximately 7% of all childhood cancers. These include Wilms tumor (WT), clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK), malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (MRTK), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN) and other rare tumors. We investigated the epidemiology of pediatric renal tumors in Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#From January 2001 to December 2015, data of pediatric patients (0–18 years) newly-diagnosed with renal tumors at 26 hospitals were retrospectively analyzed. @*Results@#Among 439 patients (male, 240), the most common tumor was WT (n=342, 77.9%), followed by RCC (n=36, 8.2%), CCSK (n=24, 5.5%), MRTK (n=16, 3.6%), CMN (n=12, 2.7%), and others (n=9, 2.1%). Median age at diagnosis was 27.1 months (range 0-225.5) and median follow-up duration was 88.5 months (range 0-211.6). Overall, 32 patients died, of whom 17, 11, 1, and 3 died of relapse, progressive disease, second malignant neoplasm, and treatment-related mortality. Five-year overall survival and event free survival were 97.2% and 84.8% in WT, 90.6% and 82.1% in RCC, 81.1% and 63.6% in CCSK, 60.3% and 56.2% in MRTK, and 100% and 91.7% in CMN, respectively (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#The pediatric renal tumor types in Korea are similar to those previously reported in other countries. WT accounted for a large proportion and survival was excellent. Non-Wilms renal tumors included a variety of tumors and showed inferior outcome, especially MRTK. Further efforts are necessary to optimize the treatment and analyze the genetic characteristics of pediatric renal tumors in Korea.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 563-571, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925692

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#No standard salvage regimen is available for relapsed or refractory sarcoma. We investigated the efficacy and toxicity of the vincristine, irinotecan, and temozolomide combination (VIT) for relapsed or refractory sarcomas of variable histology in children and young adults. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed data from the relapsed or refractory sarcoma patients who were treated with VIT. The VIT protocol was given every 3 weeks as follows: vincristine, 1.5 mg/m2 intravenously on day 1, irinotecan, 50 mg/m2/day intravenously on days 1-5, and temozolomide, 100 mg/m2/day orally on days 1-5. @*Results@#A total of 26 patients (12 males) with various sarcoma histology were included in the study. Most common diagnosis was rhabdomyosarcoma (n=8) followed by osteosarcoma (n=7). Median age at the start of VIT was 18.5 years (range, 2.0 to 39.9). VIT was delivered as 2nd to 7th line of treatment, with 4th line most common (9/26, 34.6%). Median number of VIT courses given was 3 (range, 1 to 18). Of the 25 evaluable patients, there was two partial response (PR) and 11 stable disease (SD) with an overall control rate (complete remission+PR+SD) of 52%. PR was seen in one (50%) of the two evaluable patients with Ewing sarcoma and one (14.3%) of the seven patients with osteosarcoma. Overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 79.3% and 33.9% at 1 year, and 45.5% and 25.4% at 2 years, respectively. There was no treatment-related mortality. @*Conclusion@#The VIT regimen was effective and relatively safe in our cohort of sarcoma patients.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 590-596, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925680

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Due to low incidence, epidemiologic data of Ewing sarcoma in the Asian population are scarce. We aimed to examine the incidence pattern and outcome of patients with Ewing sarcoma in the Republic of Korea. @*Materials and Methods@#Data of patients with Ewing sarcoma diagnosed between 1999 and 2017 were obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR). Incidence, clinical characteristics, and survival rates were analyzed and compared between different age groups. @*Results@#There were 788 cases (459 males, 329 females), with a median age at diagnosis of 20 years. The age-standardized rate of Ewing sarcoma was 1.01. The number of cases and incidence rates in each age group were as follows: children, 1.6; adolescents and young adults (AYA), 0.93; adults, 0.44; and elderly, 0.53. There were more male cases in children and the AYA group (p < 0.001). Extraskeletal tumors (p < 0.001), primary sites other than extremity (p=0.007), and presence of metastasis at diagnosis (p=0.031) were more frequent in the adults and elderly group. With a median survival time of 78 months, the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of the entire cohort was 52%. Children fared best (5-year OS, 75%), and the 5-year OS of AYA patients (51%) approximated the OS of the entire cohort. A two-fold difference of 5-year OS was observed between adults and elderly patients (42% vs. 19%). On univariate and multivariate analyses, age ≥ 15 years and presence of metastasis were adverse prognostic factors. @*Conclusion@#This was the first epidemiologic study of Ewing sarcoma using the KCCR data. With a similar incidence to other Asian countries, the survival rate was slightly lower than that of Euro-American cases. Collaborative clinical studies are necessary to improve the outcome of Ewing sarcoma in low-incidence populations.

5.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 101-107, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925658

ABSTRACT

Optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) are insidious, debilitating low-grade tumors. They can affect the optic nerve, optic chiasm, and optic tracts and can be sporadic or associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The location of OPGs within the optic pathway typically precludes complete resection or optimal radiation dose. Treatment is unnecessary for sporadic and NF1-related OPGs that do not cause visual impairments. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for patients with progressive disease. However, outcomes following standard treatments have been mixed, and standardized outcome measurements are lacking. In recent years, newer molecularly targeted therapies such as anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monoclonal antibody, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, represent a promising treatment modality.

6.
Blood Research ; : S49-S54, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925629

ABSTRACT

Patients with inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS) can develop peripheral blood cytopenia, which can ultimately progress to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Although some cases of IBMFS are diagnosed based on their typical presentation, variable disease penetrance and expressivity may result in diagnostic dilemmas. With recent advances in genomic evaluation including next-generation sequencing, many suspected cases of IBMFS with atypical presentations can be identified. Identification of the genetic causes of IBMFS has led to important advances in understanding DNA repair, telomere biology, ribosome biogenesis, and hematopoietic stem cell regulation. An overview of this syndromes is summarized in this paper.

7.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 63-66, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890168

ABSTRACT

Synovial sarcoma occurring in the pleura and lung is extremely rare. We report a case of pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma as a second malignant neoplasm. The patient had been diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia at 5 years of age, and received matched sibling donor allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, with total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide conditioning. At 22 years of age, he complained of worsening chest discomfort and exertional dyspnea. Chest CT revealed a huge mass in the right middle lobe, pleura, and diaphragm. The patient was initially diagnosed as sarcomatoid malignant mesothelioma, without any environmental or occupational asbestos exposure. Five months later, the patient presented with soft tissue metastasis and underwent needle biopsy. Pathological examination including SYT-SSX RT-PCR revealed synovial sarcoma, which led to a review of the original tumor findings and confirmed the diagnosis of pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma.To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the first case of pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma developed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 378-388, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889726

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 323-329, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889712

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the cause of pneumonia outbreaks in Wuhan, China, was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In February 2020, the World Health Organization named the disease cause by SARS-CoV-2 as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In response to the pandemic, the Korean Cancer Association formed the COVID-19 task force to develop practice guidelines. This special article introduces the clinical practice guidelines for cancer patients which will help oncologists best manage cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

10.
Blood Research ; : S34-S38, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889649

ABSTRACT

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) refers to a heterogeneous group of clonal blood disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, cytopenia, dysplasia, and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A growing number of inherited genetic loci that contribute to MDS/AML development are rapidly being identified. As genetic sequencing has become increasingly integrated into clinical practice, clearly defined syndromes have emerged, known as the MDS/AML predisposition syndrome. With more patients and families being identified with predisposing conditions, knowledge of the approach of evaluating and managing MDS with genetic predisposition is increasingly essential. This article reviews MDS with genetic predisposition and the practical aspects of management in patients with predisposition syndrome.

11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 283-288, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874357

ABSTRACT

Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FLHCC) is a rare liver cancer affecting adolescents and young adults without any pre existing liver disease. Hyperammonemic encephalopathy (HAE) is a serious paraneoplastic syndrome, and several cases of HAE have been reported in patients with FLHCC. This condition is rare; hence, there are currently no management guidelines for cancer-related HAE. Herein, we report a case of an 18-year-old man with advanced FLHCC who developed HAE during the first course of chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, and interferon-α. He was successfully treated with continuous venovenous hemofiltration, sodium benzoate, sodium phenylbutyrate, and amino acid supplementation for HAE. After the second course of chemotherapy, he underwent surgery, and thereafter, his ammonia levels were normal without any ammonia scavenger therapy. Treatments for HAE described here will be helpful for this rare, but serious metabolic complication of FLHCC and could partially applied to HAE related to any malignancies.

12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 32-44, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874346

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study investigated the incidence and relative survival rates (RSRs) for cancers among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) aged 15-39 years between 1993 and 2016 in Korea @*Materials and Methods@#Data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry were used to calculate percent distributions, age-specific incidence rates, age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) per million, annual percent changes (APCs), average APCs, and RSRs for cancers diagnosed in AYAs. @*Results@#ASR of all cancers among AYAs was 654.5 per million. The largest diagnosed group of cancers was carcinomas (almost 80%). Crude incidence increased with age, from 170.4 per million for those aged 15-19 years to 1,639.8 per million for those aged 35-39 years. ASR increased from 414.8 per million to 820.4 per million, with an APC of 9.0%. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma showed the most rapid increment (APC, 14.0%), followed by non-Hodgkin lymphoma (APC, 13.4%). The 5-year RSR among AYAs significantly improved from 62.1% to 90.8%. Survival improvement in AYAs was higher than that in children but lower than that in older adults (APC, 2.1% vs. 1.9% vs. 3.1%). The most marked survival improvement was found for leukemia and lymphoma. Astrocytoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and carcinoma of the trachea, bronchus, and lung had a 5-year RSR of < 50%. @*Conclusion@#There was an improvement in cancer survivals in AYAs, comparable to that achieved in children. However, survivals in several cancer types do not appear to be improving. Further research focusing on the epidemiology and therapeutic strategies for cancers in AYAs is needed.

13.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 63-66, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897872

ABSTRACT

Synovial sarcoma occurring in the pleura and lung is extremely rare. We report a case of pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma as a second malignant neoplasm. The patient had been diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia at 5 years of age, and received matched sibling donor allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, with total body irradiation and cyclophosphamide conditioning. At 22 years of age, he complained of worsening chest discomfort and exertional dyspnea. Chest CT revealed a huge mass in the right middle lobe, pleura, and diaphragm. The patient was initially diagnosed as sarcomatoid malignant mesothelioma, without any environmental or occupational asbestos exposure. Five months later, the patient presented with soft tissue metastasis and underwent needle biopsy. Pathological examination including SYT-SSX RT-PCR revealed synovial sarcoma, which led to a review of the original tumor findings and confirmed the diagnosis of pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma.To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the first case of pleuropulmonary synovial sarcoma developed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

14.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 378-388, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897430

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly aggressive malignancy with peak incidence in children aged less than 3 years. Standard treatment for central nervous system ATRT in children under the age of 3 years have not been established yet. The objective of this study was to analyze characteristics and clinical outcomes of ATRT in children aged less than 3 years. @*Materials and Methods@#A search of medical records from seven centers was performed between January 2005 and December 2016. @*Results@#Forty-three patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 90 months, 27 patients (64.3%) showed at least one episode of disease progression (PD). The first date of PD was at 160 days after diagnosis. The 1- and 3-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 51.2% and 28.5%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year overall survivals were 61.9% and 38.1%, respectively. The 3-year PFS was improved from 0% in pre-2011 to 47.4% in post-2011. Excluding one patient who did not receive any further therapy after surgery, 27 patients died due to PD (n=21), treatment-related toxicity (n=5), or unknown cause (n=1). In univariate analysis, factors associated with higher 3-year PFS were no metastases, diagnosis after 2011, early adjuvant radiotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT). In multivariate analysis, the use of HDCT and adjuvant radiotherapy remained significant prognostic factors for PFS (both p < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#Aggressive therapy including early adjuvant radiotherapy and HDCT could be considered to improve outcomes of ATRT in children under the age of 3 years.

15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 323-329, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897416

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the cause of pneumonia outbreaks in Wuhan, China, was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In February 2020, the World Health Organization named the disease cause by SARS-CoV-2 as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In response to the pandemic, the Korean Cancer Association formed the COVID-19 task force to develop practice guidelines. This special article introduces the clinical practice guidelines for cancer patients which will help oncologists best manage cancer patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Blood Research ; : S34-S38, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897353

ABSTRACT

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) refers to a heterogeneous group of clonal blood disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, cytopenia, dysplasia, and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A growing number of inherited genetic loci that contribute to MDS/AML development are rapidly being identified. As genetic sequencing has become increasingly integrated into clinical practice, clearly defined syndromes have emerged, known as the MDS/AML predisposition syndrome. With more patients and families being identified with predisposing conditions, knowledge of the approach of evaluating and managing MDS with genetic predisposition is increasingly essential. This article reviews MDS with genetic predisposition and the practical aspects of management in patients with predisposition syndrome.

17.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e279-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831549

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hereditary hemolytic anemia (HHA) is a rare disease characterized by premature red blood cell (RBC) destruction due to intrinsic RBC defects. The RBC Disorder Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology established and updated the standard operating procedure for making an accurate diagnosis of HHA since 2007. The aim of this study was to investigate a nationwide epidemiology of Korean HHA. @*Methods@#We collected the data of a newly diagnosed pediatric HHA cohort (2007–2016) and compared this cohort's characteristics with those of a previously surveyed pediatric HHA cohort (1997–2006) in Korea. Each participant's information was retrospectively collected by a questionnaire survey. @*Results@#A total of 369 children with HHA from 38 hospitals distributed in 16 of 17 districts of Korea were investigated. RBC membranopathies, hemoglobinopathies, RBC enzymopathies, and unknown etiologies accounted for 263 (71.3%), 59 (16.0%), 23 (6.2%), and 24 (6.5%) of the cases, respectively. Compared to the cohort from the previous decade, the proportions of hemoglobinopathies and RBC enzymopathies significantly increased (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively). Twenty-three of the 59 hemoglobinopathy patients had immigrant mothers, mostly from South-East Asia. @*Conclusion@#In Korea, thalassemia traits have increased over the past 10 years, reflecting both increased awareness of this disease and increased international marriages. The enhanced recognition of RBC enzymopathies is due to advances in diagnostic technique; however, 6.5% of HHA patients still do not have a clear diagnosis. It is necessary to improve accessibility of diagnosing HHA.

18.
Clinical Pediatric Hematology-Oncology ; : 6-11, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763509

ABSTRACT

Vascular anomalies comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by abnormal growth or development of blood vessels. Diagnosis of vascular anomalies is often challenging due to the large variety of conditions, which exhibit phenotypic heterogeneity and a wide range of symptomology and severity. Accurate diagnosis is crucial for appropriate evaluation and management, often requiring multidisciplinary specialists. Recent interdisciplinary collaboration has led to collaborative studies and their outcomes are being prospectively evaluated. While there is still a role for surgical intervention in various vascular anomalies, discoveries of pharmacologic agents effective in treating vascular anomalies have broadened our medical therapeutic options. This paper focuses on vascular anomaly issues often seen by the pediatricians and reviews the clinical pearls on infantile hemangiomas, lymphatic malformations, venous malformations, and arteriovenous malformations.


Subject(s)
Arteriovenous Malformations , Blood Vessels , Cooperative Behavior , Diagnosis , Hemangioma , Population Characteristics , Prospective Studies , Specialization
19.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 124-128, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760893

ABSTRACT

Bacillus cereus causes serious central nervous system infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Successful treatment requires adequate antimicrobial concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid; however, in some cases, achieving this with systemic treatment alone is difficult. We treated intractable B. cereus ventriculitis with intraventricular vancomycin, with no major adverse events.


Subject(s)
Bacillus cereus , Bacillus , Central Nervous System Infections , Cerebral Ventriculitis , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Immunocompromised Host , Injections, Intraventricular , Pharmacokinetics , Vancomycin
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 357-367, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719418

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dexrazoxane has been used as an effective cardioprotector against anthracycline cardiotoxicity. This study intended to analyze cardioprotective efficacy and secondary malignancy development, and elucidate risk factors for secondary malignancies in dexrazoxane-treated pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data was collected from 15 hospitals in Korea. Patients who received any anthracyclines, and completed treatment without stem cell transplantation were included. For efficacy evaluation, the incidence of cardiac events and cardiac event-free survival rates were compared. Data about risk factors of secondary malignancies were collected. RESULTS: Data of total 1,453 cases were analyzed; dexrazoxane with every anthracyclines group (D group, 1,035 patients) and no dexrazoxane group (non-D group, 418 patients). Incidence of the reported cardiac events was not statistically different between two groups; however, the cardiac event-free survival rate of patients with more than 400 mg/m2 of anthracyclines was significantly higher in D group (91.2% vs. 80.1%, p=0.04). The 6-year cumulative incidence of secondary malignancy was not different between both groups after considering follow-up duration difference (non-D, 0.52%±0.37%; D, 0.60%±0.28%; p=0.55). The most influential risk factor for secondary malignancy was the duration of anthracycline administration according to multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Dexrazoxane had an efficacy in lowering cardiac event-free survival rates in patients with higher cumulative anthracyclines. As a result of multivariate analysis for assessing risk factors of secondary malignancy, the occurrence of secondary malignancy was not related to dexrazoxane administration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anthracyclines , Cardiotoxicity , Dexrazoxane , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Korea , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Risk Factors , Stem Cell Transplantation
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