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Medical Journal of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. 2017; 39 (3): 15-24
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-190258


Background: stress changes the behaviors due to variation in the central neurotransmitters, especially serotonin. Since, imipramine including effective drugs on brain serotonergic system, this study was aimed to evaluation the role of serotonergic system in behavior response to stress and depression

Methods: This study was conducted on 30 male rats in Institute. Animals were randomly divided into five groups: controls, under immobilization stress, the Imipramine-treated [30mg/kg] group, the Cyproheptadine-treated [4mg/kg] group and the Imipramine+Cyproheptadine-treated group. Immobilization stress was induced in rats by limiting. At the end of treatment, the tail suspension test was used to assess the depression-like behavior, lipid peroxidation and catalase activity in the treated groups were studied

Results: Immobilization stresses were significantly increased immobility time and lipid peroxidation, reduced catalase activity compared to the control groups. Administration of imipramine or cyproheptadine alone was more effective in reducing the immobility time compared to the coadministration of these drugs. Administrations of imipramine or cyproheptadine were non-significantly reduced lipid peroxidation. While administrations of imipramine were significantly increased catalase activity compared to the cyproheptadine groups. Administrations of imipramine or cyproheptadine drugs alone were more effective in reducing oxidative stress factors

Conclusion: Immobilization stress caused like-depression behavior with the induction oxidative damage, but administration of imipramine or cyproheptadine to improve stress-induced like-depression behavior. According to these drugs, including drugs that affect the serotonergic system, thought to be, these drugs is exert their effects through the serotonergic receptors

Tehran University Medical Journal [TUMJ]. 2013; 71 (2): 79-89
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-133003


Widespread of telecommunication systems in recent years, have raised the concerns on the possible danger of cell phone radiations on human body. Thus, the study of the electromagnetic fields on proteins, particularly the membrane nano channel forming proteins is of great importance. These proteins are responsible for keeping certain physic-chemical condition within cells and managing cell communication. Here, the effects of cell phones radiation on the activity of a single nanopore ion channel forming protein, OmpF, have been studied biophysically. Planar lipid bilayers were made based on Montal and Muller technique, and the activity of single OmpF channel reconstituted by electrical shock was recorded and analyzed by means of voltage-clamp technique at 20[degree]C. The planar lipid bilayers were formed from the monolayers made on a 60 micro m diameter aperture in the 20 micro m thick Teflon film that separated two [cis and trans] compartments of the glass chamber. In this practical approach we were able to analyze characteristics of an individual channel at different chemical and physical experimental conditions. The voltage clamp was used to measure the channel's conductance, voltage sensitivity, gating patterns in time scales as low as microseconds in real time. Our results showed that exposure of single voltage dependent channel, OmpF, to EMF of cell phone at high-frequency has a significant influence on the voltage sensitivity, gating properties and substate numbers of the single channel but has no effect on single-channel conductance. Regarding to the relaxation time, the channel also recovers in the millisecond time range when the field is removed. We observed an increase in the voltage sensitivity of the OmpF single channel while it had no effect on the single-channel conductance, which is remained to be further elucidated.

Electromagnetic Fields , Porins , Nanopores , Biophysics , Ion Channel Gating , Patch-Clamp Techniques
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2013; 12 (1): 249-255
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-193166


Internationalization is a matter of committed decision-making that starts with export marketing, in which an organization tries to diagnose and use opportunities in target markets based on realistic evaluation of internal strengths and weaknesses with analysis of macro and microenvironments in order to gain presence in other countries. A developed model for export and international marketing of pharmaceutical companies is introduced. The paper reviews common theories of the internationalization process, followed by examining different methods and models for assessing preparation for export activities and examining conceptual model based on a single case study method on a basket of seven leading domestic firms by using mainly questioners as the data gathering tool along with interviews for bias reduction

Finally, in keeping with the study objectives, the special aspects of the pharmaceutical marketing environment have been covered, revealing special dimensions of pharmaceutical marketing that have been embedded within the appropriate base model. The new model for international activities of pharmaceutical companies was refined by expert opinions extracted from result of questionnaires