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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912520

ABSTRACT

Strain-resource engineering is often considered as an important infrastructure of microbiology related research and industry. The western developed countries took the lead in establishing the classical microbial resource utilization method, and continuously improved the preservation system, species annotation technology and global sharing mechanism, which realized the expansion and reserve of biological resources since end of the 19th century. The rich and diversified germplasm resources, standard strains and production strains not only have important economic values, but also maintain the advantages of scientific research, bioeconomy (such as antimicrobial agents, vaccines, detection reagent development and standard development, etc.) and national security. Although there has been a lot of progress in related research in recent years, compared with developed countries, there is still a big gap in related fields in China. The investment and top-level design in this area lag far behind the western developed countries, and it is not commensurate with the current level of economic and social development in my country. Drawing lessons from the practice of WFCC and WDCM (World Data Center for Microorganisms, Global microbial data Center, affiliated to WFCC), for the purpose of collecting new clinical species/strains, this paper puts forward some suggestions on the identification, preservation and upload system of isolates.

2.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1143-1146, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911335

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate and analyze the hospital staff and patients, awareness about anesthesiologists′ work.Methods:A questionnaire survey was conducted among the hospital staff in the non-anesthesiology departments and non-operating room and the patients undergoing elective surgery at the same time in tertiary hospitals.Logistic regression was used to analyze the factors affecting the level of awareness of the respondents.Results:Sixty point three percent of the respondents had a low level of awareness about the anesthesiologists′ work.Compared with the patients, the physicians ( OR=2.866, 95%CI: 1.405-5.848) had higher level of awareness.There was no significant difference in the levels of awareness among the nurses ( OR=1.633, 95%CI: 0.815-3.273), medical technicians ( OR=1.359, 95%CI: 0.630-2.935), administrative staff ( OR=1.470, 95%CI: 0.651-3.317) and the patients.The respondents, aged 36-50 yr ( OR=1.848, 95%CI: 1.224-2.792), with master′s degree ( OR=2.068, 95%CI: 1.090-3.925) and bachelor′ s degree ( OR=3.624, 95%CI: 1.701-7.723), had higher level of awareness, and the respondents without history of anesthesia and surgery ( OR=0.574, 95%CI: 0.380-0.867) and without medicine-related education background ( OR=0.354, 95%CI: 0.145-0.865) had lower level of awareness. Conclusion:There is insufficient awareness about anesthesiologists′ work among hospital staff and patients.Hospital staff are generally better than patients in terms of the level of awareness, but there are differences among different job categories.There is no significant difference in the level of awareness among nurses, medical technicians, administrative staff and patients.The respondents who are middle-aged, with higher education level, with history of anesthesia and surgery and with medicine-related education background, have higher level of awareness.

3.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 1332-1336, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911013

ABSTRACT

Cognitive impairment often occurs in elderly patients with heart failure.In this paper, we reviewed the possible mechanism of cognitive impairment in elderly patients with heart failure.The possible pathological mechanism of cognitive impairment in elderly patients with heart failure was discussed from the aspects of decreased cardiac output, renal damage, atrial fibrillation, inflammatory reaction, neuroregulation, depression and high homocysteine level, and the effect of cognitive impairment on heart failure was also summarized, so as to improve both the clinicians' awareness of cognitive impairment and the level of diagnosis and treatment in elderly patients with heart failure.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906481

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects of Huanglian Jiedutang on learning and memory ability and the cholinergic system in Alzheimer's disease(AD) rats induced by amyloid <italic>β</italic>-protein(A<italic>β</italic>)<sub>1-42</sub>. Method:Sixty male SD rats were divided into normal group, model group, huperzine A group (2.1×10<sup>-5</sup> g·kg<sup>-1</sup>), high-, medium- and low dose of Huanglian Jiedutang groups (6,3,1.5 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>). AD rat model was replicated by hippocampal injection of A<italic>β</italic><sub>1-42</sub>. After 4 weeks of treatment, Morris water maze test was performed. Hematoxylineosin (HE) staining was used to observe the pathological changes of rat hippocampus. Sampling blood from abdominal aorta was taken. Acetylcholine (ACh), acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in serum and hippocampus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of hippocampal <italic>α</italic>7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (<italic>α</italic>7nAChR) protein was detected by Western blot. The expression of hippocampal <italic>α</italic>7nAChR mRNA was detected by Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR). Result:Compared with the normal group, there were obvious pathological changes in the model group,such as neuron necrosis in the cerebral cortex,pyramidal cell or granular cell necrosis in the hippocampus,disorder of arrangement and inflammatory cell infiltration,prolonged escape latency,decreased escape platform times,decreased residence time in the effective area and swimming path in the effective area (<italic>P<</italic>0.05,<italic>P<</italic>0.01). The contents of <italic>α</italic>7nAChR mRNA,ACh,AchE,ChAT,<italic>α</italic>7nAChR in the hippocampus decreased (<italic>P<</italic>0.01). Compared with the model group,the escape latency of the middle dose group was shorter (<italic>P<</italic>0.05), the escape platform times,the swimming path in the effective area and the residence time in the effective area increased (<italic>P<</italic>0.05,<italic>P<</italic>0.01), the contents of serum ACh,ChAT, hippocampal AchE,ChAT and <italic>α</italic>7nAChR increased (<italic>P<</italic>0.05,). The expression of hippocampal <italic>α</italic>7nAChR protein significantly increased (<italic>P<</italic>0.01), the residence time of effective area in high dose group was prolonged (<italic>P<</italic>0.01), the times of escape platform increased,and the contents of serum ACh,ChAT and hippocampal ACh,AchE,<italic>α</italic>7nAChR protein and <italic>α</italic>7nAChR mRNA increased (<italic>P<</italic>0.05). Conclusion:Huanglian Jiedutang can significantly improve the learning and memory ability of AD rats induced by A<italic>β</italic><sub>1-42</sub>,and its mechanism may be related to the improvement of cholinergic system damage and enhancement of cholinergic system function induced by A<italic>β</italic><sub>1-42</sub>.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906406

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of water extract of the<italic> Iris halophila</italic> root on lipopolysaccharide(LPS) stimulated RAW264.7 cells and analyze its chemical constituents. Method:The supernatant of YWG prepared by water extraction and alcohol precipitation was separated by AB-8 macroporous adsorption resin column chromatography to obtain ethanol eluates with different concentrations (YWG,YWG-0%,YWG-20%,YWG-40%,and YWG-60%). Cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) assay was used to determine the effects of YWG-0%,YWG-20%,YWG-40%,and YWG-60% on the viability of RAW264.7 cells. Griess assay was employed to detect the nitric oxide (NO) level in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The release of tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-<italic>α</italic>,interleukin(IL)-6,IL-10,and IL-1<italic>β</italic> was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). YWG and the elution site with the most robust anti-inflammatory activity were identified and compared by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). Result:Ethanol eluates with different concentrations inhibited the release of NO,TNF-α,IL-1<italic>β</italic>, and IL-6 in the supernatant of LPS induced RAW264.7 cells (<italic>P<</italic>0.05),and promoted the release of IL-10 (<italic>P<</italic>0.05). YWG-60% displayed a highly significant effect (<italic>P</italic><0.01). A total of 127 constituents were detected from the comparison of YWG and YWG-60% by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS in the positive and negative ion modes,including 61 flavonoids. YWG-60% contained 25 flavonoids with elevated content as compared with YWG. Conclusion:YWG-60% showed potent anti-inflammatory effect,and the effective anti-inflammatory constituents were presumedly flavonoids. The findings of this study are expected to provide a scientific theoretical basis for the basic research on the medicinal effect of the water extract of YWG.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906272

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate whether the adverse reactions of Xuebijing injection (XBJJ) are mainly pseudoallergic reactions and explore the influencing factors of its pseudoallergic reactions. Method:Mouse model of pseudoallergic reaction was used to study the anaphylactoid reaction of XBJJ which at 0.5, 1 and 2 times of the highest clinical concentration. Next, we compared the differences in pseudoallergic reactions caused by XBJJ for different storage times after preparation. Specifically, XBJJ was prepared into different concentrations, stored for 10 minutes, 2.5 hours, 6 hours and 24 hours, and then injected into the tail vein of mice. Finally, three different injection speeds of 3 seconds, 45 seconds and 90 seconds were selected for XBJJ injection, and then the differences in the paeudoallergic reactions induced by XBJJ in mice under different injection speeds were compared. Result:XBJJ induces pseudoallergic reactions in mice when the drug concentration is higher than the clinically recommended concentration. Compared with storage for 10 minutes after preparation, the degree of pseudoallergic reaction in mice induced by the same concentration of XBJJ increased with the extension of storage time. In addition, when XBJJ was injected in 3 s (the injection rate was 0.083 mL·s<sup>-1</sup>), it produced the strongest pseudoallergic reaction. Conclusion:The adverse reactions induced by XBJJ are mainly pseudoallergic reactions. Excessive storage time after preparation and fast injection speed of XBJJ will lead to aggravation of pseudoallergic reactions in mice. When XBJJ is used clinically, it should strictly follow the usage, dosage, concentration, and drip rate recommended in the drug instruction manual. Rational drug use is of positive significance for improving the safety of XBJJ.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906261

ABSTRACT

Diabetes has become one of the fastest growing public health issues in the world. Its pathological mechanism is complex and affected by multiple factors. There are trillions of microbes in the human intestine, which are roughly divided into three types: probiotics, neutral bacteria, and pathogenic bacteria. They are in a dynamic balance and constitute a complex intestinal micro-ecosystem. The balance and homeostasis of the intestinal micro-ecosystem are essential to maintain the stability of the body's environment and human health. With the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing technology, imbalanced intestinal flora distribution has been proven to be an important factor in promoting the development of insulin resistance (IR), thus increasing the risk of diabetes. In recent years, the regulation of intestinal flora has become a new approach and new target for the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications. The application of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in treatment of metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity has a long history. TCM has its unique characteristics and advantages, however, the unclear mechanism of action has limited its modernization and industrialization. The harmonious symbiosis between the intestinal flora and the host is consistent with the TCM theory of "harmony between human and nature". The effect of TCM on the intestinal microflora has gradually become a hot topic in medical research today. One study believes that diabetes originates from "intestinal fever". At present, some relevant experimental researches and clinical research literatures have shown that some heat-clearing Chinese herbal compounds have a certain regulating effect on imbalanced intestinal flora. Therefore, the relationship between intestinal flora and diabetes was explored, and the mechanism of heat-clearing Chinese herbal compounds (Da Chaihutang, Gegen Qinliantang, Huanglian Jiedutang, and Wumeiwan) in preventing and treating heat syndrome of diabetes through regulation of intestinal flora was analyzed, in order to provide new theoretical basis and research clues for the further development of drugs for treating diabetes.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905989

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effect of Wenjing Huayu Zhitong therapy (Xiangyan Zhitong prescription, XZP) on the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracelluar regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway of primary dysmenorrhea (PD) rats, and explore the pathogenesis of PD and the mechanism of action of Wenjing Huayu Zhitong therapy. Method:Forty-eight female SPF-grade Wistar rats were randomly divided into blank group,model group, western medicine group, low-dose XZP group, medium-dose XZP group, and high-dose XZP group, with 8 rats in each group. In addition to the blank group, dysmenorrhea rat model with cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome was established by cold stimulation combined with estradiol benzoate and oxytocin. The rats in the blank group,model group,western medicine group, low-dose XZP group, medium-dose XZP group, and high-dose XZP group were given distilled water, distilled water,0.06 g·kg<sup>-1</sup> ibuprofen, 6.55 g·kg<sup>-1</sup> XZP, 13.09 g·kg<sup>-1</sup> XZP, and 26.18 g·kg<sup>-1</sup> XZP, respectively, by gavage for 6 days. The writhing latency and writhing frequency of rats were recorded within 30 min after oxytocin injection.Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of B-Raf, mitogen activates extracellular regulated kinases1/2 (MEK1/2), extracellular regulated kinases1/2 (ERK1/2), p-MEK1/2, p-ERK1/2, c-Jun, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in rat uterus. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) was employed to detect the mRNA expression of B-Raf, MEK1, MEK2, ERK1, ERK2, c-Jun, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in rat uterus. Result:Compared with the model group,the treatment groups showed insignificantly prolonged writhing latency and significantly reduced writhing frequency (<italic>P</italic><0.01). On the 6<sup>th</sup> day of modeling, there was no significant difference in the quantitative scores of symptoms and signs among the treatment groups. On the 12<sup>th</sup> day of modeling, the scores changed little in the western medicine group and the low-dose XZP group and decreased significantly in the medium- and high-dose XZP groups (<italic>P</italic><0.01) compared with those in the model group. Compared with those in the blank group, the protein and mRNA levels of p-MEK1/2, p-ERK, B-Raf, c-Jun, and COX-2 in the model group were significantly up-regulated (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with those in the model group, the protein and mRNA levels of p-MEK1/2, p-ERK1/2, B-Raf, c-Jun, and COX-2 in the western medicine group, medium-dose XZP group, and high-dose XZP group were significantly down-regulated (<italic>P</italic><0.05,<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:The mechanism of Wenjing Huayu Zhitong therapy in treating PD with cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome may be related to the down-regulation of MAPK/ERK signaling pathway.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905987

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the characteristics of four commonly adopted animal models of hyperuricemia (HUA) for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) screening, so as to choose the adequate model for screening Chinese herbs and herbal compounds capable of lowering the uric acid. Method:Fifty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into nine groups, namely the normal group, hypoxanthine (HX) + oxonic acid potassium salt (OAPS) model group, yeast extract (YE) + OAPS model group, low-dose adenine (AD) + ethambutol (EMB) model group, high-dose AD + EMB model group, and four positive drug allopurinol (Allo) groups. The modeling lasted for 14 d. The levels of serum uric acid (SUA), urinary uric acid (UUA), serum creatinine (SCr), urea nitrogen (BUN), kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were detected on the 3rd, 7th, and 14th days. Urine was collected on the 7th and 14th days to investigate changes in urine volume, and the crystals in the residual urine were observed under a polarizing microscope. After the modeling, the kidney was harvested and weighed, followed by pathological examination. Result:The urine volumes in the HX + OAPS model group and high-dose AD + EMB model group were significantly reduced (<italic>P</italic><0.05). The renal indexes of each model group, except for the YE + OAPS model group, were significantly elevated (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). The increase in SUA of the HX + OAPS model group and YE + OAPS model group started later (<italic>P</italic><0.05). The KIM-1 and NGAL levels of the HX + OAPS model group rose significantly from the 7th day (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), and the BUN increased significantly on the 14th day (<italic>P</italic><0.05). There was no significant difference in the above-mentioned indicators in the YE + OAPS model group. The SUA levels of the low- and high-dose AD + EMB model groups increased significantly on the 3rd day (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), with a persistent increase found in the low-dose AD + EMB model group. Besides, the increase in BUN, KIM-1, and NGAL occurred later (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). By contrast, the high-dose AD + EMB model group exhibited a transient increase in SUA. Moreover, the SCr, BUN, KIM-1, and NGAL elevation occurred earlier and were more obvious than those in the low-dose AD + EMB model group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Remarkable histomorphological abnormalities were detected in the kidney of all model groups, except for the YE+OAPS model group, with the most severe injury present in the high-dose AD+EMB model group. Conclusion:The four models commonly used to screen TCM have their own characteristics. In the four models, the SUA elevation in the HX + OAPS model group and YE + OAPS model group started later, with the mild renal injury observed in the HX + OAPS model group instead of the YE + OAPS model group. The SUA of the low-dose AD + EMB model group increased rapidly and lasted for a long time, accompanied by mild renal injury. The SUA of the high-dose AD + EMB model group only showed a transient increase, accompanied by severe renal injury. The investigation on the characteristics and application of different models and the evaluation of these models based on sensitive and objective indicators are helpful for determining the suitable model for the screening of TCM targeting HUA in the future.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905985

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effects of Albiziae Flos (AF) and Polygalae Radix (PR) alone and their combination on the improvement of depression-like behavior in rats with chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) as well as on hippocampal ultrastructure and the expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (NOX2), to explore their action mechanisms. Method:Seventy-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into the normal group, model group, AF group, PR group, AF-PR group, and fluoxetine group. Rats in all groups except for the normal group were exposed to CUS and separated feeding to induce depression. Since the first day of modeling, rats in the AF group, PR group, AF-PR group were provided with the corresponding decoction containing 1.05 g·kg<sup>-1</sup> total crude drug by gavage, the ones in the fluoxetine group with 2.1 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup> fluoxetine hydrochloride aqueous solution, and those in the normal group and model group with the distilled water, for 28 successive days. The open field test and forced swimming test were performed 1 d before modeling and 7, 14, 21, 28 d after modeling, respectively. The morphological changes in hippocampus were observed under an electron microscope on the 28<sup>th</sup> day. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in hippocampus were detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and the expression levels of CREB and NOX2 were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and Western blot. Result:The behavioral experiment results showed that the number of horizontal activities and sugar water consumption in the model group declined as compared with those in the normal group, while the immobility time in the forced swimming test was prolonged (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, the AF group, PR group, and AF-PR group exhibited elevated number of horizontal activities, increased sugar water consumption but shortened immobility time in the forced swimming test (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the AF group or PR group, the AF-PR group showed significantly different behavioral indexes (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Morphological results showed that the mitochondria of the model group were obviously swollen and the ultrastructure of the hippocampus was destroyed. By contrast, the hippocampal ultrastructure in each administration group was close to normal. The comparison with the normal group revealed that the activity of SOD in the hippocampus of the model group was significantly reduced, whereas the content of MDA was elevated (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, the AF group, PR group, and AF-PR group displayed increased activity of SOD and decreased content of MDA in the hippocampal tissues (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with AF or PR alone, the herbal pair AF-PR resulted in significant differences in the above-mentioned indexes (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). The results of Real-time PCR and Western blot demonstrated that NOX2 expression in the hippocampus of the model group was up-regulated in comparison with that in the normal group, while the CREB expression was down-regulated (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, the AF group, PR group, and AF-PR group all showed diminished NOX2 expression but elevated CREB expression in the hippocampal tissues (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). The protein expression levels of NOX2 and CREB in the AF group or PR group were significantly different from those in the AF-PR group (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:AF and PR alone and their combination improve the depression-like behavior of rats exposed to CUS, which may be related to the reduction of oxidative stress, the up-regulation of CREB expression, and the down-regulation of NOX2 expression in hippocampus.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904493

ABSTRACT

Objective:To determine the level of manganese and assess potential health risks of lip cosmetics. Methods:Assessment on manganese of lip cosmetics was performed using high-end exposure analysis mode based on the daily dosage. Results:In a total of 264 lip cosmetics samples, manganese was detected in the 249 sample, with a detection rate of 94.3%. Daily exposure was determined to be 3.88×10-5 mg/kg. Safety margin was 3 608 and safety limit was 45 mg/kg. Conclusion:Level of manganese in lip cosmetics remains safe. Health risk is low when appropriately used according to the daily usage. However, it is noted that level of manganese exceeds the limits in approximately 10% of the samples, posing a potential health threat.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904345

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effect of typical hot spring bathing of Guizhou Province on dyslipidemia, which could provide scientific basis for clarifying the physiotherapy effect of hot springs. Methods The typical hot spring sites of three main types(hydrothermal hot spring, warm mineral hot spring and metasilicate hot spring)in Guizhou Province were selected as investigation sites. 189 residents with hyperlipidemia near the investigation sites were selected as subjects and were treated with hot spring baths for 4 weeks, once a day, 5 times a week and 40-50 minutes each time. The age and gender distribution of the subjects were obtained by a questionnaire. The levels of TC, TG, LDL-C and HDL-C in serum were measured by automatic biochemical analyzer at baseline and at the end of hot spring baths. The differences of the three kinds of hot spring baths on improvement rate of dyslipidemia, the changes of abnormal blood lipid indexes and their improvement rates were compared. Results After baths of hydrothermal hot springs, warm mineral hot springs and metasilicate hot springs, the improvement rates of abnormally elevated lipids were 15.6%, 40.4% and 47.9%, respectively. The improvement rates of abnormally elevated lipids after baths of warm mineral hot springs and metasilicate hot springs were significantly higher than that after hydrothermal spring baths(all P < 0.05). Compared with before hot spring bathing, the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C and non-HDL-C in serum significantly decreased in all three kinds of hot springs. Moreover, the degree of decrease of TG in serum and the improvement rate of abnormal TG after baths of warm mineral spring and metasilicate hot spring were significantly higher than that after hydrothermal spring baths. The degree of decrease of LDL-C in serum and the improvement rate of abnormal LDL-C after baths of metasilicate hot spring were significantly higher than that after baths of hydrothermal spring and warm mineral spring(all P < 0.05). Conclusion The three types of typical hot spring baths in Guizhou Province can mitigate the elevation of blood lipid. Compared with hydrothermal spring, warm mineral spring and metasilicate hot spring may have better improvement effect on blood lipid elevation due to their more significant improvement effect on abnormal elevation of TG and LDL-C in serum.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862734

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the influencing factors of stroke symptoms in middle-aged and elderly patients with hypertension in the community, and to provide reference for the prevention and control of stroke. Methods A total of 410 cases of middle-aged and elderly hypertensive patients registered in community health service centers (or health centers) were randomly selected from 2 administrative regions of Wuhan to conduct a unified questionnaire survey. Chi-square test, analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the influencing factors of stroke symptoms in hypertensive patients. Results Of 31.83% the study subjects had stroke symptoms. The analysis of the results showed that high monthly per capital household income, adequate fruit intake and high level of dietary knowledge were protective factors for stroke symptoms in middle-aged and elderly patients with hypertension. Hypertension complications, annual medical check-ups in the hospital and a history of stroke / heart disease in immediate family members were risk factors for stroke symptoms. Conclusion Improving the health awareness of middle-aged and elderly people, vigorously promoting health education and raising the level of social security for low-income groups can reduce the risk of stroke in middle-aged and elderly patients with hypertension.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888179

ABSTRACT

This study aims to establish the high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) fingerprints of different batches of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, determine their pharmacodynamic indexes of promoting blood circulation, and explore the spectrum-effect relationship between the chemical components of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and the efficacy of promoting blood circulation. Firstly, the HPLC fingerprints of different batches of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were established. Then, the pharmacodynamic indexes were determined after the capillary coagulation experiment and the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats, including capillary coagulation time, percentage of cerebral ischemic area, cerebral water loss rate, and brain-body index. Afterward, the partial least-squares method was used to explore the spectrum-effect relationship between the chemical components of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and the pharmacodynamic indexes. The results showed that this study successfully established the HPLC fingerprints of different batches of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, found 23 common peaks, and identified 12 of them, all of which were saponins. The method was proved stable and reliable. Both the capillary coagulation experiment and the middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemia-reperfusion experiment on rats revealed that there were obvious differences in the pharmacodynamic indexes of different batches of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma. The relationships between 23 common components of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma in different batches and the pharmacodynamic indexes were discussed by means of spectrum-effect correlation analysis, of which 17 components had positive effects while 6 components had negative effects on the pharmacodynamic indexes. This study provides a certain reference basis for the clinical rational use and quality control of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Coagulation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Quality Control , Rats , Rhizome , Saponins
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888080

ABSTRACT

As a dangerous disease with rapid progression, endotoxemia is easy to induce the damage to multiple organs. However, its specific and efficient treatment methods are still lacking at present. Both Qingkailing Injection(QKLI) and Shengmai Injection(SMI) have been proved effective in anti-inflammation, anti-endotoxin and organ protection. In this study, carrageenan and endotoxin were injected successively into rats to establish an endotoxemia model. Different doses of QKLI and SMI were administered to the endotoxemia rats by intraperitoneal injection separately or in combination. Then the count of white blood cells, the number of platelets, the content of cytokines, biochemical indexes, organ coefficient and pathological changes of main organs in the rats were detected. The results showed that the rats in the model group had obvious symptoms of endotoxemia, i.e., leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, increase in cytokines(IL-6 and TNF-α) and biochemical indexes of liver and kidney function as well as pathological damage to liver, kidney and lung. QKLI alone can alleviate the above symptoms of endotoxemia and the organ injury. SMI alone is less effective in improving disseminated intravascular coagulation(DIC) and cytokine secretion complicated with endotoxemia, but capable of reducing the inflammation degree of the lung, liver and kidney. The combination of QKLI and SMI remarkably increased the number of platelets in the peripheral blood, improved the liver and kidney function and reduced inflammatory factors, with lung, liver, kidney and other organ structures protected well. Moreover, the improvement effect of the combination of QKLI and SMI was stronger than those of the two injections alone at fixed doses, indicative of a synergistic effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Endotoxemia/drug therapy , Rats
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888076

ABSTRACT

This article aims to establish the fingerprints, determine the hemostatic pharmacodynamic indicators, and explore the spectrum-effect relationship of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma in 12 different specifications. Firstly, HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS) were employed to establish the fingerprints of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma. The rat plasma recalcification experiment and the rat gastric bleeding experiment were conducted to determine the pharmacodynamic indicators, including plasma recalcification time(PRT), thrombin time(TT), prothrombin time(PT), and activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT). Afterwards, the partial least squares method was employed to explore the spectrum-effect relationship of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma in different specifications. Twenty-six common peaks were detected in the HPLC fingerprints of different specifications of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, and 11 out of the 26 common peaks represented saponins. The content of dencichine was determined by LC-MS. The rat experiments showed that the pharmacodynamic indicators were significantly different among different specifications of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma. The spectrum-effect relationship was explored between 27 common components and pharmacodynamic indicators. Among them, 16 components had positive effects on the pharmacodynamic indicators of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, and 11 exerted negative effects. This study provides a basis for the precision medication and quality control of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Hemostatics , Quality Control , Rats , Rhizome , Saponins
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888014

ABSTRACT

The volatile oil of Curcumae Rhizoma has many active components,which are the key to the quality of Curcumae Rhizoma. Exploring the difference between volatile oil of different kinds of Curcumae Rhizoma facilitates the quality control and rational application of resources. In this study,GC-MS was applied to realize online qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of the chemical composition spectrum of volatile oil from Curcuma wenyujin( CW),C. phaeocaulis( CP),and C. kwangsiensis( CK). Forty components were identified and their fingerprints were compared and evaluated. Hierarchical cluster analysis( HCA),principal component analysis( PCA),and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis( OPLS-DA) were adopted to analyze the overall and outlier data. The results showed that the whole data could be divided into three kinds according to each analysis mode,and the volatile components of Curcumae Rhizoma vary greatly among species. PCA explored the difference between outliers and the mean value of the group and found that some volatile oils from CW may be greatly affected by the origin. By OPLS-DA,the samples from Zhejiang were able to gather,but those from Guizhou remained isolated,indicating the influence of growing environment on Curcumae Rhizoma metabolites. Based on VIP results combined with the heat map,characteristic volatile oil components of Curcumae Rhizoma from different varieties were screened out: curdione and linalool for CW; 2-undecanone for CP; humulene,γ-selinene,and zederone for CK. The GCMS method established in this study describes Curcumae Rhizoma samples comprehensively and accurately,and the characteristic components screened based on chemometrics can be used to distinguish Curcumae Rhizoma from different varieties and give them unique pharmacodynamic significance,which is fast,convenient,stable,and reliable and supports the rational application of Curcu-mae Rhizoma resources. It is found that the region of origin has great influence on CW,which is worthy of further study.


Subject(s)
Curcuma , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Oils, Volatile , Principal Component Analysis , Rhizome
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887152

ABSTRACT

Road traffic injury is a major public health problem globally. In China, about 10 thousand children died from road traffic injuries every year. This paper describes the current research status and epidemiological characteristics of road traffic injuries in children and adolescents, and analyzes the influencing factors and the current interventions, in order to reduce the incidence of road traffic injuries in children and to ensure the safety of children̩’s life and health.

19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2230-2240, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887039

ABSTRACT

Excessive exercise makes the body consume more oxygen and produce excessive free radicals. The increased free radicals lead to oxidative stress injury and dysfunctions in liver tissue. Our previous study showed that Anwulignan, an active monomer in Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils. (Schisandra), had anti-fatigue effects in mice. However, whether Anwulignan has a protective effect on liver damage in exhausted mice and the mechanism underlying remain elusive. An exhaustive swimming mice model was used to study the protective effects of Anwulignan on liver damage. The involvement of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2)/antioxidant responsive element (ARE) antioxidative pathway in Anwulignan-mediated anti-fatigue was analyzed using NRF2 inhibitor ML385 in HepG2 cells treated with H2O2. Animal welfare and experimental process follow the regulations of the Animal Ethics Committee of Beihua University. Anwulignan significantly lowered serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, reduced liver tissue damages, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT), and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) contents in the livers of exhausted mice, demonstrating a strong antioxidant effect. Furthermore, Anwulignan up-regulated the NRF2/ARE antioxidant pathway in liver tissue, increased B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression, and decreased Bcl-2-like protein 4 (Bax) and caspase3 expression. In HepG2 cells, Anwulignan improved the cell viability and SOD activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MDA contents, up-regulated the expression of the NRF2/ARE signaling pathway and Bcl-2, and decreased Bax and caspase3 expression in the cells. Furthermore, pretreated ML385 partly abolished all these effects of Anwulignan. Anwulignan protects the liver from damage in the exhausted mice by its antioxidant effects and related to its activation of the NRF2 pathway.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885918

ABSTRACT

Objective:To quantitatively analyze the clinical and drug resistance feature of diarrhea of adults patients in 2016 and 2019 induced by the Escherichia coli (diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, DEC), and to reveal the difference of DEC′s epidemiological features of before and after measuring to strengthen food hygiene and safety in Beijing. Methods:A total number of 3 408 patients with food-borne adult diarrhea were received diagnosis and treatment in the intestinal clinic department of Beijing Tongren Hospital in 2016 and 2019.There were 1 926 patients in 2016 and 1 482 in 2019, respectively. The clinical information of patient were entered into the intestinal early warning system and were carefully preserved. The clinical specimens (the stool samples) were isolated and the DECs were identified by culturing. The colony of DECs was identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Five pathogenic types of Escherichia coli were classified by multiplex PCR methods. The drug-susceptibility test was performed according to the standards of the American Society for Clinical and Laboratory Standardization in 2019. The categorical data were analyzed by χ 2 test or Fisher′s exact test to verify the statistical difference. Results:A total number of 581 DECs strains were detected in 3 408 specimens. Among the subtypes of E Coli, the Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) accounted for 53.36% (310/581), and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) was detected. In 2016, the total detection rate of DEC was 14.54% (280/1 926), enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) accounted for 18.21% (51/280), and ETEC accounted for 71.79% (173/280). In 2019, the total detection rate of DEC was 20.31% (301/1 482), EAEC accounted for 41.23% (116/301), and ETEC accounted for 48.93% (137/301). Compared with 2016, the detection rate of EAEC in 2019 increased significantly (χ2=29.26, P<0.001), followed by EPEC (χ2=9.37, P=0.002), and ETEC decreased (χ2=15.43, P<0.001). Compared with other pathogenic types, EAEC can easily cause nausea(χ2=32.72, P<0.001).The red blood cells(χ2=16.44, P=0.001) or the white blood cells (χ2=26.82, P<0.001) could be easily observed in stool specimens of patients infected with enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC). The resistance rates of EIEC to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam and gentamicin were 80.95% (17/21), 66.67% (14/21) and 57.14% (12/21), respectively. Three strains of EAEC resistant to carbapenem antimicrobials were discovered in 2019 and of which two strains were resistant to ertapenem and imipenem, and the other one strain was only resistant to ertapenem. The whole genomic sequencing showed that there are multiple resistance mechanisms: including the mainly drug-resistant nodular cell differentiation family efflux pump, penicillin binding site mutation, and New Delhi metal-β-lactamase 5 production. Conclusions:The detection rate of DECs in adult patients with food-borne diarrhea is high, and the foremost subtype of DECs is ETEC. Compared with 2016, the detection rates of ETEC in clinical specimens decreased in 2019, and the detection rate of EAEC increased significantly, respectively. In 2019, a carbapenem-resistant antibacterial drug-resistant Escherichia coli strain was isolated. It is of great significance to focus on the biological characteristics and epidemiological changes of DEC.

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