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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879003

ABSTRACT

Arecae Semen, as the first place among "Four South Medicines" in China, has great dual-use value of medicine and food. The research of Arecae Semen was mainly focused on the active ingredients and efficacy value, and its potential safety hazards were also concerned. Until now, there is still a lack of clear boundaries between medicine and food, resulting in its safety cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, it is of great significance to establish clear boundaries of medicine and food use and health risk assessment. In this paper, the differences of pretreatment and application methods of Arecae Semen were analyzed, and the research progress of Arecae Semen in chemical composition identification and toxicology research and safety evaluation were reviewed emphatically. Finally, the differences of quality control and safety evaluation of Arecae Semen in pharmacopoeias or standards were analyzed at home and abroad. It was expected to provide reference value for quality control, safety evaluation and international standardization research of Arecae Semen.


Subject(s)
Areca , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Seeds , Semen
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828396

ABSTRACT

Forsythiae Fructus is divided into Qingqiao and Laoqiao due to different harvesting periods. So far, the accumulation of heavy metals in the two types of Forsythiae Fructus has not been reported. In this study, the residual levels of copper(Cu), lead(Pb), chromium(Cr), arsenic(As), cadmium(Cd) and mercury(Hg) in 29 batches of Laoqiao and 60 batches of Qingqiao were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). The samples were collected from Shanxi, Shaanxi, Henan, and Hebei Provinces. In addition, the diversity and correlation of harmful elements in Qingqiao and Laoqiao were analyzed by multivariate statistical method. Furthermore, principal component analysis(PCA) was used to analyze the harmful elements concentrations of Qingqiao and Laoqiao. The results showed that there was a significant difference on the residual levels of heavy metals and harmful elements between Qingqiao and Laoqiao. Among them, the content of Pb in Laoqiao is significantly higher than that in Qingqiao(P<0.01), while the content of Cu is significantly lower than that in Qingqiao. However, the difference in harmful elements among different producing areas of Forsythiae Fructus is not significant. PCA analysis showed that Qingqiao and Laoqiao were successfully grouped into two categories. This study suggests significant difference in the residual levels of heavy metals and harmful elements between Qingqiao and Laoqiao. Besides, Forsythiae Fructus has a certain enrichment of Pb in the fruit ripening stage(Laoqiao). This study provides a reference for the quality classification and safety of Forsythiae Fructus.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Copper , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Metals, Heavy
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828369

ABSTRACT

A highly sensitive monoclonal antibody against aflatoxin B_1(AFB_1) was prepared and an indirect competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ic-ELISA) was established based on the antibody which was used for high-throughput and rapid screening of AFB_1 contamination in Chinese herbal medicines to ensure the safety of medication. In this study, the structure of AFB_1 was modified by improved oxime method, and the carrier protein was coupled by EDC-NHS method to obtain the complete antigen of AFB_1, which was more convenient and environmental friendly. The Balb/c female mice were immunized using increasing the immunization dose and various ways of injection, and finally the AFB_1 monoclonal antibody was prepared. The AFB_1 monoclonal antibody belongs to IgG_(2 b) immunoglobulin by identifying its immunological characteristics, and its sensitivity(IC_(50)) can reach 0.15 μg·L~(-1), and the affi-nity is 2.81×10~8 L·mol~(-1). The cross-reaction rates of AFB_2, AFG_1, and AFG_2 were 35.07%, 8.75%, and 1.15%, respectively, and there was almost no cross-reactivity with other mycotoxins. Based on the high sensitivity and specificity of the antibody, an ic-ELISA method was established and applied to the determination of AFB_1 contamination in Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. According to the matrix matching standard curve, the linear concentration range for AFB_1 was 0.05-0.58 μg·L~(-1)(R~2=0.992), the recoveries were 88.00%-119.0%, and the detection limit was 1.69 μg·kg~(-1). The AFB_1 in 33 batches of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen samples was determined by ic-ELISA, and the contamination level was 3.62-206.58 μg·kg~(-1). The linear correlation coefficient between the detection results of ic-ELISA and UHPLC-MS/MS was 0.996, and there were no false positive and false negative cases. It indicates that the established ic-ELISA is accurate and reliable, and could provide a simple and effective technique for fast screening of AFB_1 contamination in Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, and also could be considered as the reference for the detection and monitoring of AFB_1 contamination in other Chinese herbal medicines.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxin B1 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Drug Contamination , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Mice , Semen , Chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878790

ABSTRACT

A highly specific electrochemical biosensor based on T-Hg~(2+)-T structure for fast screening trace Hg~(2+) in complex animal drug matrix was constructed by cyclic voltammetry(CV) and differential pulse voltammetry(DPV). In the presence of Hg~(2+), it can be specifically binded to the T base of DNA sequence on the surface of modified gold electrode, which changes the conformation of DNA molecule and the electrochemical signal. The concentration ratio of EDC/NHS, the concentration ratio of FC-DNA and the reaction time of the biosensor were optimized by the index of sensitivity and reproducibility in CV. The results showed that the stability of the biosensor was good within 3 days(RSD≤1.3%), the difference between batches was low(RSD=4.7%), and the specificity of the biosensor was high in the presence of interfering ions(As~(3+), Cd~(2+), Cu~(2+), Pb~(2+), Zn~(2+) and Fe~(3+)). DPV results showed that the peak current signal value has a linear relationship with the lgC_((Hg)) over a concentration range from 0.1 nmol·L~(-1) to 1.0 μmol·L~(-1) with a detection limit of 0.066 nmol·L~(-1). Finally, the recovery rate tested in the matrix of animal medicine was satisfactory as 99.17%-101.3%, which can meet the needs of the determination of trace Hg~(2+) in the matrix of Bombyx Batryticatus, and provide a new idea for the rapid screening of trace heavy metals in the matrix of other types of complex traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biosensing Techniques , DNA/genetics , Electrochemical Techniques , Gold , Mercury , Reproducibility of Results
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802119

ABSTRACT

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by toxigenic Aspergillus spp. (such as A. flavus and A. parasiticus) with carcinogenic,teratogenic and mutagenic effects. Studies have shown that AFB1 is widely found in crops,food,feed and traditional Chinese medicine,which poses a serious safety hazards to humans healthy. The establishment of a rapid detection technique that is suitable for AFB1 in different matrices has a great significance in preventing contamination,controlling food and medicines safety and ensuring human health. With the continuous improvement of small-molecule immune technology,various rapid immunoassays of AFB1 have been developed and utilized in recent years. This review systematically summarized current relevant standards for the detection of AFB1 in China and the maximum recommended levels for the application of aflatoxins in Chinese herbal medicines in some regions and countries. These standards are mainly applicable for aflatoxins in food,feed and some easily contaminated samples of Chinese herbal medicines. Some studies have shown that except the Chinese herbal medicines specified with the maximum recommended levels,some medicinal herbs and their products were also contaminated by aflatoxins. In addition,this paper reviewed the preparation technology of antigen and antibody for AFB1,and the rapid detection methods based on the specific recognition ability between antigen and antibody, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,immunochromatographic assay,fluorescence immunoassay,chemiluminescence immunoassay,and novel immunosensor method, were also summarized and compared. This review aims to provide the reference for rapid,accurate,and sensitive technical standards for the detection of AFB1 in traditional Chinese medicine during the agricultural planting,distribution, trade and quality supervision and for the market, pharmacies and hospitals,so as to ensure the quality and safety of the traditional Chinese medicines.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773253

ABSTRACT

In this paper,the effects of active fractions of Ferula ferulaeoides on the growth and apoptosis of human gastric cancer cell MGC-803 transplantation tumor were systematically studied. The subcutaneous ectopic transplantation tumor model was established in human gastric cancer MGC-803 nude mice by cell suspension implantation method. The anti-tumor rate and organ index were used to evaluate the anti-tumor effect of the active fractions of F. ferulaeoides on the tumor-bearing nude mice. HE staining,TUNEL staining,RT-PCR,Western-blot and ELISA were used for pathological examination,apoptosis observation,and detection of apoptosis-related genes,proteins and cytokines expression. The results showed that as compared with the model group,the low,medium and high doses of the active fraction of F. ferulaeoides had inhibitory effects on xenografts in nude mice,respectively,in a dose-dependent manner; the apoptotic ratio was increased with the increase of drug concentration. As compared with the model group,F. ferulaeoides could down-regulate the expression of survivin mRNA in nude mice,and the protein expression levels of Bax,Bcl-2,caspase-3 and caspase-9 in tumor tissues of nude mice could be increased to different degrees in F. ferulaeoides groups. The contents of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in plasma of nude mice were decreased in high dose group of F. ferulaeoides active fractions. The results indicated that F. ferulaeoides can significantly inhibit the growth of human gastric cancer MGC-803 subcutaneously transplanted tumor,and its mechanism may be related with down-regulating the expression of survivin mRNA,and up-regulating the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bax,caspase-3 and caspase-9.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytokines , Metabolism , Ferula , Chemistry , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude , Neoplasm Transplantation , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Metabolism
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773187

ABSTRACT

The element speciation analysis for heavy metals in herbal medicines is still in the beginning stage. In this study,the total amount of arsenic( As) in 103 batches of 17 commonly used Chinese medicines( including 16 plant medicines and 1 medicinal fungus) was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry( ICP-MS). Furthermore,based on HPLC-ICP-MS,the simultaneous detection methods of six As speciation kinds in traditional Chinese medicines were established. An AS7 anion exchange column was selected and the As forms in 17 traditional Chinese medicines was systematically analyzed. The results showed that the method of pretreatment of medicinal materials by microwave digestion and the detection of total amount of As by ICP-MS was stable and reliable. As for the speciation analysis of As,the high-speed ultrasonic extraction method was adopted,and it showed that the linear relationship of the six As speciation was satisfied with the correlation coefficient R2>0. 999 9. The LOQ of six kinds of As speciation were 0. 20,0. 10,0. 15,0. 10,0. 25,0. 10 μg·L~(-1) for arsenic betaine( As B),arsenious acid [As( Ⅲ) ],dimethyl arsenic( DMA),arsenic choline( As C),monomethyl arsenic( MMA),arsenic acid[As( Ⅴ) ],respectively. The recoveries were between 84. 24% and 121. 5%,and the relative standard deviations were 2. 7% to 11%. Among the 103 batches of medicinal materials,only one batch of sample As exceeded the Chinese Pharmacopoeia limit standard; As( Ⅲ) and As( Ⅴ) had high detection rate in 103 batches of Chinese herbal medicines,within which As( Ⅴ) was the main detected form,and inorganic As accounted for the ratio reached 80. 90%-98. 73%; some samples detected DMA,MMA and As B,As C was not detected in any batch. This study established an analytical method suitable for the speciation of As in Chinese herbal medicines,and provided basic data for As residual residue in Chinese herbal medicines,which can provide important reference for the risk assessment and quality standards.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Mass Spectrometry
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773185

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the safety of heavy metals contaminated Astragalus membranaceus,an appropriate protocol was established to study the heavy metals pollution level by health risk assessment. This study provided a detailed procedure to assess the medicinal herbs in quality control and safety evaluation,and expected to create awareness among the public on the safety of consuming of A. membranaceus or any other kinds of medicinal herbs. The heavy metals content of Cu,As,Cd,Pb and Hg in a total of 45 batches of A. membranaceus were carefully analyzed with a developed inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry( ICP-MS). Besides,the heavy metal contamination level was further evaluated through 4 main assessment parameters,including maximum residue limit( MRL) set by International Standard Organization,estimated daily intake( EDI) set by IUPAC,target hazard quotients( THQ) and Total THQ set by USEPA and total THQs in raw herbs of A. membranaceus. In addition,the recommended MRLs of 5 main heavy metals aimed to A. membranaceus were calculated based on the regulated consumption quantity. The result showed that,under the ISO international standard of Chinese medicine-Chinese herbal medicine heavy metals,the unqualified rate was 8. 89% for A. membranaceus,which including 4 batches of A. membranaceus exceeded the MRL of As. Here,the standard THQ value of A. membranaceus was firstly proposed as 0. 02 and 0. 011 25 for adults and children,respectively,which were calculated with the recommended consumption quantity of 30 g and 9 g for adults and children. Furthermore,the values of THQ for As and total THQs in adults and children were exceeded the standard THQ in A. membranaceus,and the recommended MRLs of Pb,Cd,Hg and Cu in above medicinal materials that calculated based on health risk assessment model were higher than the regulated MRLs that set by ISO and Chinese Pharmacopeia. The research showed that the contents of heavy metals in A. membranaceus were not in the safe range and the certain non-carcinogenic risks to human body cannot be neglected. Based on above investigation result,it is easily known that the common evaluation method for raw herbs based on the comparison of MRL of heavy metals was not precise enough,and the international model of health risk assessment should be built for each medicinal herb. Above all,this study provided a more realistic research approach for safety evaluation of any other kinds of heavy metals contaminated medicinal herbs,including the establishment of heavy metals standard limit in a specified medicinal herb under recommended consumption quantity,and it is expected to create awareness among the public on the safety of consuming any other medicinal herbs.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus , Chemistry , Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Humans , Metals, Heavy , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Risk Assessment
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690682

ABSTRACT

Cadmium contamination of environment is a subject of serious international concern. Bioaccumulation of cadmium occurs primarily through ingestion of contaminated water and food. Cadmium poisoning came into prominence with the "itai-itai" disease event in Japan in the 1950s. It could also cause damages to liver, kidney, lung and other organs. Thus, the treatment of cadmium poisoning has become a research hotspot. Researchers are trying their best to explore prophylactic and therapeutic medicines for prevention and treatment of cadmium-induced poisoning. So far, chelation therapy, the conventional treatment for heavy metal toxicity, is reported to have a number of safety and efficacy issues. Natural medicines have a variety of advantages such as extensive sources, high safety, less adverse reactions, and thus have great potentials in treating cadmium poisoning. In this review, the progress in the antagonistic effects of natural drugs in cadmium poisoning and their therapeutic mechanisms were summarized in order to provide certain references for the future development and in-depth study of antagonistic substances.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690409

ABSTRACT

With the extensive clinical application of Tripterygium wilfordii, there are many counterfeit products on the market. Traditional technology can not effectively identify the authenticity of the traditional Chinese medicine. Therefore, a strategy of accurate identification and quality evaluation of Tripterygium based on DNA barcode and chemical fingerprint spectrum was established. Based on DNA barcode technology, HMMer annotation method of hidden Markov model and K2P model were used to analyze genetic distance.BLAST1, nearest distance and phylogenetic tree (NJ-tree) methods were used to assess the identification efficiency of the ITS2 barcode. The fingerprint of 27 T. wilfordii was established by UPLC-PDA method, and the similarity of the fingerprint of different sources was evaluated. The main components of T. wilfordii were determined by LC-MS/MS. The results revealed that the intraspecific genetic distances of T. wilfordii were lower than the interspecific genetic distances between T. wilfordii and its adulterants. The results of similarity search showed that ITS2 sequence was used to identify T. wilfordii and its adulterants. The clustering of T. wilfordii and its adulterants was clear in the tree of NJ cluster, and 12 of 27 samples were identified as true T. wilfordii.The chemical fingerprint spectrum research indicates that the feature one region can distinguish the false product of tripterygium glycosides more intuitively. The cluster analysis of HCA-thermal map showed that the contents of six active components of T. wilfordii from different habitats were significantly different, which could be used to evaluate the quality of T. wilfordii. This paper is of guiding significance for the accurate identification and quality evaluation of Tripterygium medicinal plants.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690365

ABSTRACT

In the processes of planting, harvest, transport and storage, improper treatment of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and foodstuffs and agricultural products will result in fungal growth and mycotoxins contamination, which will not only directly affect the quality, safety and efficacy of these complex matrices, but also seriously threaten the consumers' health and lives. Therefore, the establishment of high-throughout analytical methods with high sensitivity for the determination of mycotoxins in CMM and foodstuffs and agricultural products at trace levels will provide reliable references for reducing the risk of mycotoxin exposure in humans. Due to the matrix complexity of CMM and foodstuffs and agricultural products, highly-effective pretreatment technologies are necessary for the establishment of such analytical techniques. In this review, the current extraction and purification methods commonly used for the detection of mycotoxins were summarized, the importance of pretreatment techniques for the precise quantification of mycotoxins in complex matrices such as Chinese herbal medicines was highlighted, as well as the development tendency about the pretreatment techniques for mycotoxins in complex matrices in the future was proposed.

12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1879-1886, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780069

ABSTRACT

The toxicity of heavy metals and harmful elements is close related to their speciation. In the present study, the methods for mercury and arsenic speciation analysis based on high-performance liquid chromatography conjunction with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) were established and applied to the determination of 31 kinds of animal drugs, 29 of which were included in the Chinese Pharmacopeia (2015 edition). The results showed that the LODs for all the speciation were within 0.1-0.65 μg·kg-1, and the recoveries were within 86.9%-116.6% with the RSD of 1.49%-4.23%. Inorganic mercury (Hg2+) was detected in all the 87 batches of samples that came from 31 kinds of animal drugs, and the contents were 2.39-6567 μg·kg-1. Methylmercury (MeHg) was detected in 33 batches of samples that came from 12 kinds of animal drugs, and the contents were 2.83-319.7 μg·kg-1. Ethylmercury (EtHg) were detected in none of the samples. The detection rates of As(Ⅲ), As(V), monomethylarsononous acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) in the 31 batches of animal drugs was 96.77%, 100%, 45.16%, 90.32%, 93.55% and 22.58%, respectively. According to the toxic level of different speciation, the animal drugs with high risks of mercury were Agkistrodon, Bungarus Parvus, Zaocys, and Scolopendra; the animal drugs with high risks were Pheretima, Agkistrodon, Zaocys, and Aspongopus. This study can provide important evidence for the risk assessment, setting and revision of the limit standards of heavy metals and harmful elements.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771685

ABSTRACT

As an important part of traditional medicine in China, traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) plays a significant role because of its unique medical efficiency, less adverse reactions and extensive resources. However, in recent years, the aflatoxins in medicinal herbs have been detected excessive both at home and abroad, seriously affecting the reputation and credibility of traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, the current status of aflatoxins contamination in medicinal herbs was analyzed, and the internal and external factors of aflatoxins contamination in traditional Chinese medicine were also summarized. In view of the high toxicity of aflatoxins, it is proposed to strengthen the mildew prevention and control from the early planting to storage stage, and the reasonable detoxification mode should also be considered. This review aims to provide a reference in guaranteeing the clinical safe administration of medicinal herbs and reducing the risk of being poisoned by aflatoxins.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins , China , Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771567

ABSTRACT

Endogenous toxic components have become an important topic in the field of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). Since the endogenous toxic components in TCMs are often used as clinical effective components, the safety and effectiveness of endogenous toxic substances has become an important part of the research of TCMs. In this paper, the classification and evaluation criteria of toxic Chinese medicinal materials are described, and the analytical methods of endogenous components in TCMs are summarized and expounded base on with the techniques of chromatography, spectroscopy, immunoassay, and so on. On this basis, the problems in terms of endogenous toxic components are analyzed and discussed. This paper could provide ideas and methods for the evaluation of the validity and safety of TCMs containing endogenous toxic components.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771541

ABSTRACT

Chromium has been discovered for more than two hundred years, and it has advantages of wear-resisting, high temperature, corrosion resistance and so on. Chromium has been widely used in industrial production and received extensive attention in China and abroad. Detailed limit standards have been set for chromium in food and fishery product, and chromium can also be enriched in many traditional Chinese medicines. Besides, the toxicities of different chromium speciation are quite different, and thus morphological analysis is necessary. However, the transformation or migration is easily happened among different speciation which brings difficulties to research and analysis. This article summarizes the research status of chromium and its aims to provide reference for scientific research and pollution prevention of chromium.


Subject(s)
China , Chromium , Corrosion , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775317

ABSTRACT

This project was launched to study on the overall residual status of heavy metals of comprehensive understanding in decoction pieces of Bupleuri Radix (DPBR) from different habitats and risk assessment. In this study, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine the heavy metals of 30 batches of Bupleuri Radix in different producing areas. Simulated gastrointestinal fluid method was used to determine the dissolution rate of heavy metals in the simulated gastrointestinal fluid and the average daily intake Average Daily Dose (ADD) and Hazard Quotient (HQ) index were used to assess the risk of heavy metals in DPBR. The results showed that the contents of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) in the 30 batches of DPBR didn't exceed the limit of Chinese Pharmacopeia, however, the chromium (Cr) in DPBR exeeded the limit set by NSF in USA and the limit for herbal ingredients in Canada. The mean bioaccessible heavy metal concentrations decreased from Cu (5.27 mg·kg⁻¹)>Cr (4.67 mg·kg⁻¹)>As (0.18 mg·kg⁻¹)>Pb (0.12 mg·kg⁻¹)>Cd (0.06 mg·kg⁻¹), and Hg was not detected in this test. In addition, cumulative non-carcinogenic health risks (HI) for adults and children were 0.799 and 0.714, respectively. Both HI values in adults and children for combined trace element and heavy metal element exposures were below the value of 1 (HI<1), indicating very low carcinogenic health risk. Heavy metals toxicity in herbal medicines and its health risk to humans would be overestimated when assessed only by the total concentrations without considering the bioaccessibility. Therefore, bioaccessibility has great significance for evaluating the human health risks induced by heavy metals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Metals, Heavy , Risk Assessment
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687343

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese herbs are readily contaminated by mold that produced mycotoxins which are closly related to the herbs' external factors and external environments during the storage process. In this study, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium was used as example, and the characteristics of traits, water content, active components (naringin, hesperidin, sinensetin, naringin, tangeretin) and the accumulation of aflatoxins (AFs) were selected as the evaluation indexes. Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium was stored under different environments and packaging materials for 12 months, and then the quality changes and mildew of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium were examined. The results showed that the color of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium was deepened after storage, but without mildew phenomenon. Besides, the sample storage in kraft paper and woven bags had varying degrees of moth phenomenon after 12 months storage, and the water content exceeded the limit of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In addition, the contents of the five active constituents obviously decreased, especially for hesperidin, which did not meet the pharmacopoeia standard after storage. AFs were not detected in any of the tested samples. According to the results, we conclude that low temperature and humidity environment is more suitable for the storage of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, and that packaging materials should be further investigated. This study is of great significance for preventing the mold to contaminate the traditional Chinese medicine and ensuring the quality, effectiveness and safety of TCMs.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-258499

ABSTRACT

Natural plant pigment is rich in resources, with the features of natural color and environment friendly, which has a broad space for development and market prospects. In order to further develop and utilize of natural plant pigment, this paper mainly introduces the natural plant dyes in the domains of food, cosmetics and health care products on the historical development process and their application. In addition,this paper summarizes the application of representative natural plant pigment, dyes, and prospects the market of natural plant pigment, so as to provide reference for the development of natural plant pigment in the enlarged health industry of China.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275174

ABSTRACT

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic secondary metabolite mainly produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium species, with strong renal toxicity, teratogenic, carcinogenic, mutagenic effect. Studies have shown that OTA is not only widely contaminated in food and feed crops, but also has been widely contaminated in Chinese herbal medicines such as spices, licorice and so on. In view of OTA's universality and harmfulness, this paper summarizes the flow visualization test strip, microsphere, electrochemical sensor, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy technology in OTA rapid detection, which provides reference for the research and application of high throughout detection instrument miniaturization in order to achieve OTA quick detection and simple operation.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350194

ABSTRACT

Owing to the intrinsic factors and some extrinsic environmental conditions, many foods, agricultural products and Chinese materia medicas (CMMs), if not handled properly in the processes of growth, harvesting, processing and storage, can be easily contaminated by all kinds of molds to produce mycotoxins of serious toxicity, which will not only affect the quality, safety and effectiveness of CMMs, but also result in potential threatens to human and animal's health and life. Therefore, in recent decades, it has become the focus on how to prevent and control the foods, agricultural products and CMMs from being moldy and producing toxicity for scientific preservation. Many Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) especially those with high content of volatile oils with strong antifungal activities have been applied for the scientific preservation of foods, agricultural products and CMMs. Based on these situations, natural anti-mildew agents have been further developed and made into some useful dosage forms, such as tablets, aerosol, liposomes and inclusion, which will not only greatly expand the application scope of CHMs to make the use of anti-mildew agents more convenient, but also achieve the sustained or controlled release of the antifungal effect for scientific preservation of foods, agricultural products and CMMs.

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