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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888078

ABSTRACT

Excitatory toxicity(ET) is an important factor of neuropathic pain(NPP) induced by central sensitization(CS), and the association of pannexin-1(Panx1)-Src-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2 B(NMDAR-2 B) is an important new pathway for ET to initiate CS. The present study confirmed whether the central analgesic effect of Chuanxiong Rhizoma extract(CRE) was achieved through the synchronous regulation of the brain and spinal pathways of Panx1-Src-NMDAR-2 B. In this study, dynamic and simulta-neo-us microdialysis of the brain and spinal cord in vivo combined with behavioristics, high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)-fluorescence detection, microdialysis analysis(ISCUS~(flex)), ultrasensitive multifactorial electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, ELISA, and Western blot was employed to investigate the protein expression of NMDAR-2 B, Src, and Panx1, extracellular excitatory amino acids, cytokines, energy metabolites, and substance P in spinal dorsal horn(SDH) and anterior cingulate cortex(ACC) after CRE intervention with the rat model of spared sciatic nerve injury(SNI) as the experimental tool. Compared with the sham group, the SNI group exhibited diminished mechanical withdrawal threshold(MWT)(P<0.01), increased cold spray scores(P<0.01), glutamate(Glu), D-serine(D-Ser), and glycine(Gly) in extracellular fluids of ACC, and Glu, D-Ser, interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and lactic acid(Lac) in extracellular fluids of SDH(P<0.05), dwindled tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α)(P<0.05), and elevated protein levels of NMDAR-2 B, Src, and Panx1 in ACC(P<0.05). Compared with the SNI model rats, high-and medium-dose CRE(CRE-H/M) could potentiate the analgesic activity as revealed by the MWT test(P<0.05) and CRE-M enabled the decrease in cold spray scores(P<0.05). CRE-H/M could inhibit the levels of Glu, D-Ser and Gly in the extracellular fluids of ACC(P<0.05), and the levels of Glu in the extracellular fluids of SDH(P<0.05) in SNI rats. CRE-M significantly increased the levels of glucose(Gluc), Lac, interferon-gamma(IFN-γ), keratinocyte chemoattractant/human growth-regulated oncogenes(KC/GRO), and IL-4 in extracellular fluids of SDH in SNI rats(P<0.05). CRE-H/M/L could also inhibit the levels of NMDAR-2 B, Src and Panx1 in ACC and SDH in SNI rats(P<0.05). The central analgesic effect of CRE is presumedly related to the inhibited release of excitatory amino acid transmitters(Glu, D-Ser and Gly) in ACC and SDH of SNI rats, decreased protein expression of NMDAR-2 B, Src and Panx1 in the two regions, and the regulation of the Panx1-Src-NMDAR-2 B pathway in the spinal cord and brain. The above findings partially clarified the scientific basis of clinical analgesic effect of Chuanxiong Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Central Nervous System Sensitization , Neuralgia/drug therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Spinal Cord/metabolism
2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2198-2206, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825740

ABSTRACT

The treatment plan for chronic pain often proceeds from a single drug to drug combination therapy. Sinomenine and ligustrazine, natural alkaline substances derived from traditional Chinese medicines, are expected to provide a new choice for combination analgesic therapy strategies. Here we establish a microdialysis sampling and HPLC-MS/MS quantification method for sinomenine, ligustrazine, gabapentin, paracetamol, pregabalin and amitriptyline in rat blood and brain extracellular fluid. Blood and brain microdialysis probes were implanted in the jugular vein toward the right atrium and left corpus striatum zone (AP +0.2 mm, ML 3.0 mm, DV 3.5 mm) in rats. The blood and brain microdialysis probes were perfused with citric acid buffer solution and Ringer's solution, respectively. Blood and brain extracellular fluid microdialysate were collected at intervals of 20 min at a perfusion rate of 1.5 μL·min-1, and continuously collected for 24 h after administration. The liquid chromatographic separation used a C18-reversed phase chromatographic column (HSS T3 2.5 μm, 2.1 mm×50 mm), the mobile phase was methanol/water (containing 0.05‰ formic acid), and gradient elution was carried out at a flow rate of 0.3 mL·min-1. Mass spectrometric detection used an electrospray ion source, positive ion mode and multi-reaction monitoring method. The selected quantitative ions for sinomenine, ligustrazine, gabapentin, paracetamol, pregabalin, amitriptyline and internal standard naloxone were 330/181, 137/80, 172/154, 152/110, 160/142, 278/233 and 328/310 respectively. The specificity, linear range, matrix effect, accuracy, precision, stability and probe recovery were investigated and confirmed to be suitable for the determination of the above drugs in rat blood and brain extracellular fluid microdialysate. The calculated in vivo recovery of microdialysis probes ranged from 19.38% to 25.88%. After intravenous administration of sinomenine (50 mg·kg-1), ligustrazine (50 mg·kg-1), gabapentin (50 mg·kg-1), paracetamol (50 mg·kg-1), pregabalin (50 mg·kg-1) and amitriptyline (40 mg·kg-1) to rats, the peak concentration in the blood microdialysate was in the range of 0.2-10 μg·mL-1. Drug concentrations could also be detected in brain extracellular fluid microdialysate, however with lower levels (peak concentration: 0.1-6 μg·mL-1) than those of blood microdialysates at each time point. In conclusion, this method can be applied to microdialysis sampling and quantification of sinomenine, ligustrazine, gabapentin, paracetamol, pregabalin and amitriptyline in rats. The method will promote research in identifying herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions, as well as safety concerns in combination-therapy strategies.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 2308-2315, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780338

ABSTRACT

Chuanxiong Qingfengteng mixture (CQM) is an analgesic developed based on clinical evidence and traditional Chinese medicine theory, which majorly consists of Ligusticum chuanxiong and Sinomenium acutum extracts. The current study aims to establish an UHPLC-UV method for the quantification of sinomenine and ligustrazine after CQM administration to rats, mice and cells, and to study the brain permeability of sinomenine and ligustrazine. The selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision and stability of the established method demonstrated that it was suitable for the determination of sinomenine and ligustrazine in biological samples such as plasma, brain tissue and cellular fluid. After CQM was intravenously administered to rats and mice, both sinomenine and ligustrazine were detected in the brain from 5 min-2 h. The CSF/plasma partition coefficients (Kp, C/P) of each component were higher than those of brain tissue/plasma partition coefficient (Kp, B/P), the Kp, C/P and Kp, B/P of ligustrazine were higher than those of sinomenine. The concentrations between CSF and brain tissue were strongly correlated (Pearson's R>0.86, P<0.001). The unbound fraction in plasma of sinomenine and ligustrazine was 78.92% and 34.07%, respectively. The plasma protein binding rates displayed concentration-independent behavior within their respective in vivo concentration ranges. After CQM co-cultured with Caco-2 cell monolayers, the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of sinomenine and ligustrazine were 1.30×10-6 and 3.64×10-6 cm·s-1, respectively, following into the range of the intermediate and high permeability compounds. The efflux ratio (Papp(basolateral→apical)/Papp(apical→basolateral)) of sinomenine and ligustrazine were 0.67 and 0.85, respectively. When combined with P-glycoprotein inhibitor, the Papp of each component did not increase. In conclusion, the UHPLC-UV assay was successfully applied for the brain permeability study of CQM, the components of CQM can be quickly distributed to cerebrospinal fluid and pass through the blood-brain barrier. The brain permeability of ligustrazine is higher than that of sinomenine. The transmembrane transport of sinomenine and ligustrazine may not be affected by efflux transporters. All animal care and use complied with the Regulations for the Administration of Affairs Concerning Experimental Animals approved by the State Council of the People's Republic of China. All animal studies were implemented according to protocols, which were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Experimental Research Center, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences.

4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 594-599, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341992

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>A beneficial memory effect of acute fornix deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been reported in clinical studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute changes in glucose metabolism induced by fornix DBS.</p><p><b>Methods</b>First, the Morris water maze test and novel object recognition memory test were used to confirm declined memory in aged mice (C57BL/6, 20-22 months old). Then, four groups of mice were used as follows: aged mice with stimulation (n = 12), aged mice with sham-stimulation (n = 8), adult mice (3-4 months old) with stimulation (n = 12), and adult mice with sham-stimulation (n = 8). Ipsilateral hippocampal glucose metabolism and glutamate levels were measured in vivo by microdialysis before, during, and after fornix DBS treatment. Histological staining was used to verify the localization of electrodes and mice with inaccurate placement were excluded from subsequent analyses. The effects of fornix DBS on extracellular glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and glutamate levels over time were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Fisher's least significant difference post hoc test.</p><p><b>Results</b>The aged mice had a higher basal lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR) and lactate/glucose ratio (LGR) than the adult mice (LPR: 0.34 ± 0.04 vs. 0.13 ± 0.02, t = 4.626, P < 0.0001; LGR: 6.06 ± 0.59 vs. 4.14 ± 0.36, t = 2.823, P < 0.01). Fornix DBS decreased the ipsilateral hippocampal pyruvate and lactate levels (P < 0.05), but the glucose levels were not obviously changed in aged mice. Similarly, the LGR and LPR also decreased in aged mice after fornix DBS treatment (P < 0.05). Glucose metabolism in adult mice was not significantly influenced by fornix DBS. In addition, fornix DBS significantly decreased the ipsilateral hippocampal extracellular levels of glutamate in aged mice (P < 0.05), while significant alterations were not found in the adult mice.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>The present study provides experimental evidence that fornix DBS could significantly improve hippocampal glucose metabolism in aged mice by promoting cellular aerobic respiration activity.</p>

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-692310

ABSTRACT

A simple, sensitive and reliable method was developed for simultaneous determination of ten banned drugs residues including zeranols(ZALs),chloroamphenicol,pentachlorophenol,etc. in swine urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The urine samples were pretreated using lyophilization and QuEChERS procedures, respectively. Acetonitrile and ammonium acetate (5 mmol/L) were chosen as mobile phases. Target compounds were separated well in ZorbaxSB-C18by following the optimized gradient elution program and determined by LC-MS/MS in negative electrospray ionization mode. The linearity of the matrix-matched standard curve of ten analytes in two methods was good in the range of the experimental concentration with correlation coefficients more than 0.99. The recoveries of ten drugs were in the range of 80.7%-107.7% and 73.5%-103.3% at the spiked levels of 5,10 and 20 μg/L by lyophilization and QuEChERS methods,respectively. The coefficients of variation were less than 15%. The limits of detection (LOD) and the limits of quantification (LOQ) from lyophilization and QuEChERS method were 0.1 to 2.0 μg/L and 0.2 to 5.0 μg/L,respectively.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287560

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of synchronous perfusion of specific respiratory chain complex IV inhibitor sodium azide (NaN3) in brain on rat ventromedial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and acetylcholine (ACh) and choline (Ch) contents in hippocampal extra-cellular fluid, and establish the AD rat model induced by mitochondrial acute injury.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The synchronous dual-probe dual-channel brain microdialysis sampling technology was applied to synchronously perfuse modified Ringer's solution containing NaN3 (50 micro mol L-1) and neostigmine (2 micro mol L-1) into mPFC and hippocampus of conscious, freely moving normal rats, and continuously collect dialysates from different encephalic areas. Dynamic contents of ACh and Ch were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-post-column immobilized enzyme reactor-electrochemical process.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>ACh and Ch contents in mPFC extracellular fluid of normal rats were higher than that in hippocampus. During the process of perfusion, NaN3 could significantly reduce ACh in mPFC/hippocampal extra-cellular fluid, but remarkably increase Ch, and constantly inhibit the recovery of ACh and Ch contents in mPFC/hippocampus.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The synchronous perfusion of NaN3in rat mPFC and hippocampus can injure functions of the cholinergic nerve projection area, and cause the acute AD model with ACh and Ch metabolic disorders. This model can be used in pathogenetic and pharmacological studies.</p>


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Metabolism , Animals , Choline , Metabolism , Extracellular Fluid , Metabolism , Hippocampus , Cell Biology , Male , Neurotransmitter Agents , Metabolism , Perfusion , Prefrontal Cortex , Cell Biology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sodium Azide , Pharmacology , Time Factors
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-318650

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the analgesic effect of sinomenine on the neuropathic pain rat model induced by SSNI, and discuss its impact on monoamine neurotransmitters in striatal extracellular fluid.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Male SD rats were randomly divided into the sham operation group, the SSNI model group, the gabapentin group (100 mg x kg(-1)), the sinomenine high dose group (40 mg x kg(-1)) and the sinomenine low dose group (20 mg x kg(-1)). Mechanical hyperalgesia and cold pain sensitivity were evaluated by Von Frey hairs and cold spray. Striatum was sampled by microdialysis. High performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD) were used to detect the content of such neurotransmitters as monoamine neurotransmitters noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT) and their metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic phenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA).</p><p><b>RESULT</b>SSNI model rats showed significant improvement in mechanical withdrawal threshold and cold pain sensitivity, significant decrease in intracerebral NE and notable increase in DA, 5-HT and their metabolites. Compared with the model group, the sinomenine high dose group showed significant increase in mechanical withdrawal threshold at 60, 90, 180 and 240 min after abdominal administration (P < 0.01), significant decrease in cold pain sensitivity score during 30-240 min (P < 0.05). Sinomenine can significantly up-regulated NE content in striatal extracellular fluid during 45-135 min (P < 0.05), remarkably reduce DA content and DOPAC at 45, 75 and 135 min (P < 0.05), 5-HT content during 45-135 min, DOPAC during 75-165 min (P < 0.05), and 5-HIAA during 45-135 min (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Sinomenine has the intervention effect on neuropathic pain in SSNI model rats. Its mechanism may be related to disorder of monoamine neurotransmitters in striatal extracellular fluid.</p>


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Pharmacology , Animals , Biogenic Monoamines , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Extracellular Fluid , Male , Morphinans , Pharmacology , Neostriatum , Pathology , Neurotransmitter Agents , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sciatic Nerve , Wounds and Injuries , Metabolism , Pathology
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-291327

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the analgesic effect of CQM on photochemically-induced prosopalgia model rats, and discuss its impact on the exciting amino acid neurotransmitter-glutamate (Glu).</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Male SD rats were randomly divided into the sham operation group and the prosopalgia group. And the latter was subdivided into the model group, the gabapentin group (100 mg kg(-1)), and the CQM low-dose (35 mg x kg(-1)) and CQM high-dose (70 mg x kg(-1)) groups. The mechanical allodynia test was adopted to evaluate the pain behavior of rats, and reflect the efficacy with the mechanical withdrawal thresholds. The rat striatum extra-cellular fluid was collected by brain micro-dialysis. The Glu level of samples was measured by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescene detector (HPLC-FLD).</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Compared to the control group, the threshold of the mechanical allodynia of the IoN injury group was decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and the concentration of Glu was increased dramatically (P < 0.05). Compared to the model group, the mechanical allodynia of photochemically-induced prosopalgia model rats increased significantly (P < 0.01), with a notable increase in brain Glu concentration (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, all of mechanical withdrawal thresholds increased. Among them, the CQM high-dose group showed a remarkably growth at three time points (P < 0.05), with the maximum up to (23 +/- 7.3) g. And the gabapentin group showed a remarkably growth at two time points (P < 0.05), with the maximum up to (20.5 +/- 9.2) g. All of the drug groups showed significantly lower Glu concentrations in rat brains than the model group (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>CQM can ease the mechanical allodynia of photochemically-induced prosopalgia model rats. Its analgesic effect may be related to the decrease of Glu concentrations in striatum extra-cellular fluid.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glutamic Acid , Metabolism , Humans , Male , Neurotransmitter Agents , Metabolism , Pain , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Trigeminal Nerve Diseases , Drug Therapy , Metabolism
9.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 512-519, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295833

ABSTRACT

With the growing threat of malignancy to health, it is necessary to analyze cancer incidence and patient survival rates among the residents in Pudong New Area of Shanghai to formulate better cancer prevention strategies. A total of 43,613 cancer patients diagnosed between 2002 and 2006 were recruited from the Pudong New Area Cancer Registry. The incidence, observed survival rate, and relative survival rate of patients grouped by sex, age, geographic area, and TNM stage were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier, life table, and Ederer II methods, respectively. Between 2002 and 2006, cancer incidence in Pudong New Area was 349.99 per 100,000 person-years, and the 10 most frequently diseased sites were the lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, breast, esophagus, pancreas, brain and central nervous system, thyroid, and bladder. For patients with cancers of the colon and rectum, breast, thyroid, brain and central nervous system, and bladder, the 5-year relative survival rate was greater than 40%, whereas patients with cancers of the liver and pancreas had a 5-year relative survival rate of less than 10%. The 1-year to 5-year survival rates for patients grouped by sex, age, geographic area, and TNM stage differed significantly (all P < 0.001). Our results indicate that cancer incidence and patient survival in Pudong New Area vary by tumor type, sex, age, geographic area, and TNM stage.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Breast Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Pathology , China , Epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Pathology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Liver Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Pathology , Lung Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Pathology , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Pathology , Rural Population , Sex Factors , Stomach Neoplasms , Epidemiology , Pathology , Survival Rate , Urban Population
10.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1016-1020, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289593

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the incidence and survival rates of primary liver cancer (PLC) among residents in Pudong district of Shanghai.Methods Permanent residents of Pudong district,Shanghai were recruited in the study between 2002 and 2011,among whom 7981 PLC cases were diagnosed and 7233 death cases were certified.Both morbidity and mortality of PLC were calculated and standardized (ASR) by the world population of 1966,in order to analyze the survival condition of PLC patients on gender or address,to explore the prognosis of surgical excision treatment.Results Among the incident cases of PLC between 2002 and 2011,5754 cases were males,with an average age of 60.27; while 2227 cases were females,with an average age of 68.26.The crude incidence rate for both sexes was 30.73 per 100 000 person-year,and was 44.30 per 100 000 person-year for males,higher than that in females,17.16 per 100 000 person-year.The difference showed statistical significance (u=3.46,P<0.01).The ASR for incidence rates were 25.72 per 100 000 person-year in males and 8.22 per 100 000 person-year in females,respectively,with difference statistically significant (u=3.00,P<0.01).There were 7233 PLC death cases in total,including 5151 males and 2082 females,with the crude mortality rate as 27.85 per 100 000 person-year.Rate for males was 39.65 per 100 000 person-year,significantly different from 16.04 per 100 000 person-year in females,statistically (u=3.16,P<0.01).The ASRs for mortality were 22.77 per 100 000 person-year in males and 7.39 per 100 000 person-year in females,with statistically significant difference (u=2.80,P<0.01).Both incidence and mortality rates increased apparently for males aged over 35 and females aged over 45.The 1-to 5-year survival rates of PLC were 19.88%,14.91%,12.19%,10.29% and 8.56%,respectively.There were statistically significant differences among urban,town and rural areas in the over-all survival rates(x2=8.711,P=0.013) ;The differences in 1-to 5-year survival rates between surgical and non-surgical groups showed statistically significant differences (u=10.8,6.93,4.75,3.3 and 2.61,respectively,P<0.01).Conclusion The incidence and mortality rates in males were significantly higher than in females and the over-all survival in rural area was significantly lower than in other areas of Pudong district,suggesting that surgical treatment could improve the prognosis of PLC.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-638434

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the prognostic sequelae in neontes with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and ven-tricnlar dilatation.Methods Seventy-six full term newborns infants with HIE were followed up at the age from 3 to 19 months after therapy. Twenty-five infants among them were followed up by telephone in the epidemic period of SARS.Results Among 76 infants of 88 newborn infants with HIE(84.6%), 73 infants were normal (96.1% ). 1 infant had cerebral palsy (1.3%), 2 infants died (2.6 %).Among 39 cases with mild HIE, none of them had cerebral sequelae; among moderate HIE. 1 infant had cerebral palsy (2.9%) 1 infant died (2. 9 %), interlenkin-4 among severe HIE 50 % died (P00.5 The poor outcome of HIE in those infants were related to intrauterine growth retardation,severe birth asphyxia;and inadequate treatment.Cranial ultra-sonography of 49 infants were done on follow-up,and 12 of them (24.5 % ) had ventricular dilatations, which appeared after birth with 6 infants. Others occurred on follow-up with 1 infant had cerobral palsy,all ventricular dilatations recovered to normal at 12- 19 months except the cerebral palsy.Conclusions The poor outcome of HIE depends on the infants with intranterine growth relarda-tion,severe birth asphyxia and inadequate treatment.The prognosis of transient ventrealar ddatation are good except cerebral palsy.J Appl Clin pediatr,2004,19(12) : 1045- 1047

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