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Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 87-91, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991584


Objective:To analyze the relationship between dietary composition of residents in endemic fluorosis areas and skeletal fluorosis.Methods:A case-control study was used to analyze the difference of dietary composition between patients with skeletal fluorosis (case group) and residents without skeletal fluorosis (control group). In August 2019, taking the drinking water-borne endemic fluorosis area in Wenshui County, Lvliang City, Shanxi Province as the survey site, a cluster sampling method was adopted to select local residents aged over 18 years old, and a questionnaire survey was conducted by face-to-face interview. The survey contents included gender, age and consumption frequency of various foods. Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between food consumption frequency and skeletal fluorosis. The diagnosis of skeletal fluorosis was made by using portable digital radiography (DR) to take X-ray films of forearm and lower leg, combining with clinical signs, and according to the Diagnostic Standard for Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis (WS/T 192-2008) to determine.Results:A total of 1 061 subjects were included in this study, including 376 in the case group and 685 in the control group. The age composition of patients in the case group (≤60, > 60 years old: 162, 214 cases) was significantly different from that in the control group (≤60, > 60 years old: 423, 261 cases, χ 2 = 34.52, P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in gender ratio (χ 2 = 1.37, P = 0.251). The proportion of patients in the case group who ate meat and eggs > 1 time/week was lower than that in the control group (χ 2 = 8.06, 5.46, P < 0.05), the proportion of patients who ate milk > 1 time/week was higher than that in the control group (χ 2 = 4.01, P = 0.046), and the proportion of patients who ate seafood ≥1 time/week was lower than that in the control group (χ 2 = 4.16, P = 0.046). The results of binary logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for age, sex, and urinary fluoride, the frequency of eating meat, eggs or milk > 1 time/week and the frequency of eating seafood ≥1 time/week were not related to the risk of skeletal fluorosis ( P > 0.05); however, in the group ≤60 years old, the frequency of eating eggs > 1 time/week was associated with the risk of skeletal fluorosis [odds ratio ( OR) = 0.59, 95% confidence interval ( CI): 0.39, 0.88]. Conclusions:The consumption frequency of meat, milk, eggs and seafood is significantly different between the skeletal fluorosis patients and the control people. In the population ≤60 years old, consumption frequency of eggs > 1 time/week may reduce the risk of skeletal fluorosis.

Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 268-272, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883707


Objective:Through determination of urinary arsenic metabolites in high water arsenic exposed areas of Jilin and Shanxi provinces, to explore the mode and possible influencing factors of arsenic metabolism in different populations.Methods:From October 2018 to August 2019, a cluster sampling was carried out in villages (arsenic in drinking water ≥0.05 mg/L) of some townships (towns) in Lyuliang City, Shanxi Province and Baicheng City, Jilin Province for epidemiological investigation and general health examination. The residents over 35 years old drinking water from local centralized water supply and small well water sources were selected as arsenic exposure group, and people (nearby low-arsenic water source areas) with the same diet and living habits and similar economic conditions were selected as control group. Urine samples were collected. Liquid chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry(LC-AFS) technology was used to separate and detect 4 species of arsenic compounds, including trivalent inorganic arsenic (iAs Ⅲ), pentavalent inorganic arsenic (iAs Ⅴ), methylated arsine (MMA), and dimethylated arsine (DMA). Total arsenic (tAs), inorganic arsenic percentage (iAs%), MMA percentage (MMA%), DMA percentage (DMA%), primary methylation index (PMI) and the secondary methylation index (SMI) were calculated. The influencing factors of arsenic metabolism were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results:A total of 1 415 villagers were investigated, including 1 256 in arsenic exposure group and 159 in control group. Compared with the control group, there were no significant differences in age, gender ratio and occupation distribution between arsenic exposure group and control group ( P > 0.05), but there were significant differences in smoking, drinking, body mass index (BMI) and education level distribution ( P < 0.05). The median of urinary tAs, iAs%, MMA%, DMA%, PMI and SMI in control group and arsenic exposure group were 12.86 μg/L, 15.03, 5.23, 76.35, 84.97, 93.68 and 69.68 μg/L, 10.24, 8.37, 79.31, 89.76, 90.65, respectively, the levels of urinary tAs, DMA% and PMI in arsenic exposed group were higher than those in control group, while iAs% and SMI were lower than those in control group, the differences were statistically significant ( U=- 13.87, - 4.30, - 6.64, - 6.64, - 1.99, P < 0.05). After analysis of the factors influencing urinary arsenic metabolism in the population, we found that age and BMI had an impact on iAs% ( β=- 0.08, - 0.08, P < 0.05); gender, drinking, BMI and education level were influencing factors of MMA% ( β =- 0.11, - 0.09, - 0.07, 0.08, P < 0.05); DMA% was mainly affected by age, gender, BMI and education level ( β = 0.06, 0.09, 0.10, - 0.09, P < 0.05); PMI was mainly affected by age and BMI ( β = 0.08, 0.08, P < 0.05); while SMI was affected by gender, drinking, BMI and education level ( β=0.09, 0.08, 0.08, - 0.09, P < 0.05). Conclusions:The urinary arsenic metabolism models of different arsenic exposed groups are different. Age, gender, smoking, drinking, BMI and education level may be influencing factors of different arsenic metabolism models.

Chinese Journal of Endemiology ; (12): 313-317, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-866121


Objective:To investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphism at the estrogen receptor 1(ESR1) gene rs1801132 with the risk of brick-tea type skeletal fluorosis.Methods:The typical brick-tea type fluorosis areas in Qinghai, Xinjiang, and Inner Mongolia were selected as the survey sites for a cross-sectional study. An epidemiological questionnaire was conducted by the staffs on the sites for participants older than 16 years, and physical examination and X-ray diagnosis were performed. Brick tea, blood, and urine samples were collected at the same time. The diagnosis of skeletal fluorosis through X-ray was based on the "Diagnostic Criteria for Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis" (WS/T 192-2008); The determination of tea's fluoride and urinary fluoride was performed by fluoride ion-selective electrode method; gene sequencing analysis of rs1801132 locus of ESR1 gene was done by Sequenom MassARRAY flight mass spectrometry system.Results:A total of 994 patients were included in this study. The total prevalence of skeletal fluorosis was 23.9% (238/994). The prevalence of skeletal fluorosis in Tibetans(39.9%, 123/308) was higher than those of Mongolian and Han nationality [22.2% (58/261), 13.4% (57/425), χ 2=20.435, 67.811, P < 0.05]. Based on binary logistic analysis, the daily tea fluoride intake ≤ 3.5 mg, urinary fluoride content ≤1.6 mg/L, and age ≤45 years were used as the reference groups, and then, when the daily tea fluoride intake > 7.0 mg ( OR=2.865, 95% CI: 1.923-4.268), urinary fluoride content > 1.6-3.2 mg/L ( OR=2.368, 95% CI: 1.686-3.326) and > 3.2 mg/L ( OR=3.559, 95% CI: 2.401-5.276), the age > 45-65 years old ( OR=2.361, 95% CI: 1.603-3.477) and > 65 years old ( OR=4.556, 95% CI: 2.845-7.296), the risk of fluorosis was higher than that of the reference group, respectively. When the daily tea fluoride intake was > 3.5-7.0 mg and the level of urinary fluoride was > 1.6-3.2 mg/L, G allele had a protective effect on skeletal fluorosis in Mongolian population (adjusted OR=0.207, 95% CI: 0.044-0.974); when the daily tea fluoride intake was > 3.5-7.0 mg, gender was male group, G allele had a protective effect on skeletal fluorosis in Han population (adjusted OR=0.315, 95% CI: 0.112-0.887). Conclusion:The single nucleotide polymorphism of the rs1801132 locus at the ESR1 gene may be associated with the risk of susceptibility to brick-tea type skeletal fluorosis in Mongolian and Han nationality.