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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-871759

ABSTRACT

Macular edema is formed by the accumulation of extracellular fluid or intracellular fluid in the macular area of the retina. In a physiological state, the retina is kept relatively dehydrated and transparent, thereby ensuring the transmission of optical signals. This process requires multiple active or passive liquid transport systems to be performed together, and any of these process anomalies can disrupt the retinal water ion homeostasis, causing an imbalance between fluid entry and exit processes, leading to fluid formation. Macular edema is not an independent disease, it can occur in the process of many retinal diseases. It is the main cause of serious damage to the central vision, the main causes of diabetes, retinal vein occlusion, choroidal angiogenesis, uveitis, postoperative inflammation and tumor. This review mainly discusses the complex mechanism of macular edema caused by retinal barrier dysfunction when retinal water ion homeostasis is abnormal at the cellular and molecular levels. The purpose of this review is to provide a deeper overview of macular edema and its mechanisms of development, opening up new prospects for new prevention and treatment strategies for macular edema, a serious threat to vision.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-755504

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the lung protection of residual pump blood processed by microaggregate blood filter-reinfusion in patients undergoing cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).Methods A total of 40 patients,aged 28-55 yr,weighing 46-66 kg,of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Ⅱ or Ⅲ,with New York Heart Association of Ⅱ or Ⅲ,with left ventricular ejection fraction>50%,scheduled for elective cardiac valve replacement under general anesthesia,were divided into 2 groups (n =20 each) using a random number table method:residual pump blood reinfusion group (group C) and residual pump blood processed by microaggregate blood filter-reinfusion group (group M).Residual pump blood was collected immediately after the end of CPB.The residual pump blood was stored in sterile blood collection bags without being filtered in group C.The residual pump blood was stored in sterile blood collection bags after being processed by microaggregte blood filter in group M.Residual pump blood was intravenously reinfused after the CPB pipe was removed.At 10 min before CPB (T1),immediately after the end ofCPB (T2),immediately after processing (T3) and at 12 and 24 h after residual pump blood reinfusion (T4,5),blood samples were collected to measure blood components and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha and intedeukin-6 concentrations (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay).Airway plateau pressure was recorded,arterial blood samples were collected for blood gas analysis,and static lung compliance,oxygenation index and respiratory index were calculated at T1.5.The postoperative mechanical ventilation time,duration of intensive care unit stay,length of hospital stay,and incidence of hypoxemia and pulmonary infection were recorded.Results Compared with group C,white blood cell count was significantly decreased at T3-5,and static lung compliance and oxygenation index were increased,respiratory index was decreased,serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 concentrations were decreased,postoperative mechanical ventilation time and duration of intensive care unit stay were shortened,and the incidence of hypoxemia was decreased at T4.5 in group M (P<0.05).Conclusion Residual pump blood proccessed by microaggregate blood filter-reinfusion can reduce systemic inflammatory responses and exerts lung protection to some extent in the patients undergoing cardiac surgery under CPB.

3.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 989-993, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-754095

ABSTRACT

To evaluate effects of reinfusion of the remaining blood filtered by leukocyte depletion filter on postoperative cellular immune function after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methods Forty patients who underwent selective cardiac valve replacement surgery with CPB in department of anesthesiology of Haikou Municipal Hospital from January to June in 2018 were enrolled. All the patients were divided into the control group and experimental group according to the random number table method, with 20 patients in each group. In the experimental group, patients received residual pump blood transfusion which had been filtered by leukocyte depletion filter and stored in sterile blood collection bags. In the control group, patients received residual pump blood transfusion which was stored in sterile blood collection bags without being filtered. The remaining blood was reinfused after CPB in two groups. Blood samples were taken before CPB (T1), 2 hours following CPB (T2), and 1, 3, 5 days after reinfusion of the remaining blood (T3, T4, T5), the levels of T lymphocyte subsets CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and natural killer cells (NK cells) were detected by flow cytometer, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio was calculated. The levels of plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukins (IL-2, IL-6, IL-8) were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent essay (ELISA). The duration of mechanical ventilation, the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, the length of hospital stay, and incidence of wound and pulmonary infection after surgery were compared between two groups. Results Among 40 patients, there were 22 males and 18 females; with an age of (47.88±12.29) years old; and with 25 cases of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status Ⅱ, and 15 cases of ASAⅢ. There was no statistical difference in the volume of the remaining blood between the two groups (mL: 959.00±116.84 vs. 971.50±115.68, P > 0.05). Compared with T1, the levels of T lymphocyte subsets CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, NK cells and plasma levels of IL-2 were significantly decreased from T2, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was significantly decreased from T3 in two groups, but there was no statistical difference in CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, NK cells, CD4+/CD8+ ratio or plasma level of IL-2 at each time between the two groups. Compared with T1, the plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly increased at T2 in two groups and then decreased gradually. The plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 from T3 in experimental group were lower than those in control group [TNF-α (ng/L): 28.49±4.66 vs. 33.82±4.30, IL-6 (ng/L): 25.98±4.51 vs. 31.38±5.42, IL-8 (ng/L):38.98±4.67 vs. 45.76±5.33, all P < 0.05], they restored to the level of T1 at T5. In addition, compared with control group, the duration of mechanical ventilation, the length of ICU stay in experimental group were significantly decreased (hours: 8.07±1.30 vs. 9.16±1.52, 28.22±2.78 vs. 31.25±3.18, both P < 0.05), and there was no statistical difference in the length of hospital stay (days: 20.65±2.76 vs. 22.45±3.22), incidence of wound and pulmonary infection (25.0% vs. 15.0%, 5.0% vs. 15.0%) between the two groups (all P > 0.05). Conclusion Reinfusion of the remaining blood filtered by leukocyte depletion filtercan inhibit inflammatory responses and don't affect the function of cellular immunity, and don't increase the incidence of infection.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-511136

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the changes of subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in diabetic patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and clinically significant macular edema(CSME),and then investigate diabetic SFCT and the relationship of diabetic CT with diabetic retinopathy (DR).Methods The patients were divided into 2 groups according to clinical guidelines of DR in China in 2014,including NPDR CSME + group(21 eyes) and NPDR CSME-group(36 eyes).All patients were underwent best corrected visual acuity (BCVA),intraocular pressure,axial length,slit lamp microscope,indirect ophthalmoscope,EDI-OCT examination,and mean arterial blood pressure measurement.The differences of BCVA,central retinal thickness (CRT) and SFCT between NPDR CSME + group and NPDR CSME-group were studied as well by means of using SPSS 18.0 for data statistics.Results There was no significant difference in gender,age,eye axis and intraocular pressure between NPDR CSME + group and NPDR CSME-group (all P > 0.05).There was significant difference in BCVA between the two groups (P =0.001).The mean SFCT were (328.24 ± 101.92) μm in the NPDR CSME + group and (235.31 ± 66.98) μm in the NPDR CSME-group,and the difference was statistically significant (t =4.156,P=0.000).And plotting changes in CRT against changes in SFCT in patients with CSME revealed a positive correlation(r =0.473,P =0.000).Conclusion SFCT in NPDR CSME + patient is thicker than that in NPDR CSME-patient.And plotting changes in CRT against changes in SFCT in patients with CSME reveals a positive correlation.

5.
Chinese Circulation Journal ; (12): 1002-1005, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-501502

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the relationship between blood lipid proifles and intraocular pressure (IOP) in adult subjects. Methods: A total of 1660 adult subjects received regular physical examination in our hospital from 2015-01 to 2015-09 were enrolled. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: Hyperlipidemia group,n=356 and Non-hyperlipidemia group,n=1304. Systolic, diastolic blood pressure (SBP), (DBP), IOP and serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A1(ApoA1) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) levels were measured in all subjects. SPSS19.0 software was used to study the relationship between blood lipid proifles and IOP by univariate and multivariate liner regression analysis respectively. Results: Univariate regression analysis revealed that IOP was positively related to SBP, DBP, TC, TG, LDL-C and ApoB, all P<0.05, while negatively related to HDL-C,P=0.028. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that with adjusted age, SBP and DBP, IOP was positively related to TC, TG, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB, while negatively related to HDL-C, allP<0.05. ApoB level in either Hyperlipidemia group or Non-hyperlipidemia group was signiifcantly related to IOP in both male and female genders,P<0.05. Conclusion: ApoB level was most obviously related to IOP and it might be used as a predictor for IOP elevation in clinical research, while its validity should be further studied.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-637735

ABSTRACT

Background Intraocular neovascularization is a primary cause of visual reduce in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) , and intravitreal injection of ranibizumab is one of treating approachs.Researching the mechanism of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab for PDR is a new target for the prevention and management of PDR.Objective This study was to determine the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in aqueous humor of PDR eyes before and after intravitreai injection of ranibizumab.Methods Self-controlled observational study was designed.Fifteen eyes of 15 PDR patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included in Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command from January to August 2014, and 1 eye combined with neovascular glaucoma and iris rubeosis.Aqueous samples of 0.1 ml at each time were collected before and 7 days after the injection of ranibizumab from all patients under the informed consent.The changes of aqueous VEGF and PEDF concentrations were detected and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.This study complied with Declaration of Helsinki and the protocol was approved by this hospital.Results The freeVEGF concentrations before and 7 days after intravitreal injection were (179.4±136.5) pg/ml and (27.1 ±23.5) pg/ml, respectively, showing a significant reduce after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (t =4.172, P =0.001).PEDF concentrations before and 7 days after intravitreal injection were (394.0-±237.2) pg/ml and (267.7±199.6) pg/ml, respectively, showing a significant reduce after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (t =5.443, P =0.000).Intraocular neovascularization vanished after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab and vitrectomy was carried out at the seventh day after intravitreal injection.Conclusions Free VEGF and PEDF levels in aqueous humor appear to be significantly decreased after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab, and ocular neovascularization disappears at same time,which avoids intraoperative bleeding during vitrectomy.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-489462

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the effect of preoperative intravitreal ranibizumab injection (IVR) on the operation duration of vitrectomy and postoperative vision for the treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).Methods A prospective study was carried out with the 90 PDR patients (90 eyes) who underwent vitrectomy.The 90 patients(90 eyes)were assigned to the vitrectomy only group(43 eyes) and the IVR combined with vitrectomy group (47 eyes).The IVR was performed 5-13 days prior to vitrectomy in the IVR combined with vitrectomy group.There were 15 eyes with fibrous proliferation PDR (FPDR),16 eyes with advanced PDR (APDR) without involving the macular and 16 eyes with APDR involving the macular in the vitrectomy only group.There were 14 eyes with FPDR,15 eyes with APDR without involving the macular and 14 eyes with APDR involving the macular patients in the IVR combined with vitrectomy group.All the eyes in the two groups were regularly operated by the same doctor to complete the vitrectomy.The start and end time of vitrectomy were recorded.The average follow-up time was 10 months.The changes of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) before and 1,3 and 6 months after surgery were compared between the two groups.Results The duration of operation of the FPDR type (t=-8.300) and the APDR involving the macular type (t=-2.418) in the IVR combined with vitrectomy group was shorter than vitrectomy only group (P<0.05).The comparison of duration of operation of the APDR without involving the macular type in the two groups has no statistically significant difference (t=-1.685,P>0.05).At 1 month after surgery,the comparison of BCVA of the IVR combined vitrectomy group and the vitrectomy only group in APDR involving the macular type has no statistically significant difference (t=0.126,P>0.05).At 3,6 months after surgery,the BCVA of the IVR combined vitrectomy group in APDR involving the macular type was significantly better than the BCVA of the vitrectomy only group (t=8.014,7.808;P<0.05).At 1,3,and 6 months after surgery,the BCVA of the IVR combined vitrectomy group in FPDR type (t=3.809,1.831,0.600) and APDR without involving the macular type (t=0.003,1.092,3.931) compared with pre-treatment,the difference were not statistically significant (P>0.05);the BCVA in APDR without involving the macular type compared with pre-treatment,the difference was distinctly statistically significant (t=2.940,4.162,6.446;P<0.05);the BCVA in APDR involving the macular type (t =0.953,1.682,1.835) compared with pre-treatment,the difference were not statistically significant (P>0.05).Conclusion Preoperative IVR of PDR can shorten the operation duration and improve the BCVA of APDR involving the macular type.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-483330

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in aqueous humor of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) before and after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab.Methods Twenty-five eyes of 20 PDR patients were collected as the PDR group.Twenty-five eyes of 21 senile cataract patients were collected as the control group.There were no statistical significance in gender (x2 =0.223), age (Z=-1.555) and intraocular pressure (Z=0.225) between the two groups (P>0.05).Samples of aqueous humor (0.1 ml) were collected just before and 7 days after the injection of ranibizumab in PDR group.Samples of aqueous (0.1 ml) humor were collected just before cataract surgery in control group.The concentrations of VEGF and PEDF in the aqueous humor were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results The VEGF and PEDF concentration in the aqueous humor were reduced significantly after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab in PDR group (Z=-4.072,-4.319;P<0.05).The concentrations of VEGF and PEDF in the aqueous humor before intravitreal injection of ranibizumab in PDR group were significantly higher than the control group (Z=-5.228, 4.706;P<0.05).The VEGF concentration in the aqueous humor after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab in PDR group were similar to control group (Z=-1.557,P> 0.05).However, the concentration of PEDF in the aqueous humor after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab in PDR group still higher than control group (Z=-2.475, P<0.05).The ratio of VEGF/PEDF before and after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab was statistically different (Z=-2.058, P<0.05), but was the same between PDR group and control group (Z=-0.456,-0.844;P>0.05).The aqueous humor concentrations of VEGF and PEDF were not significantly correlated with each other, neither in PDR group (r=-0.195,-0.174;P>0.05) nor in control group (r=-0.286, P>0.05).Conclusions Aqueous humor concentrations of VEGF and PEDF are significantly elevated in eyes with PDR.Intravitreal injection of ranibizumab significantly decreased the VEGF and PEDF in the aqueous humor after 7 days.

9.
Modern Clinical Nursing ; (6): 4-6, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-477211

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the hospitalization status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) . Method In total, 12,838 COPD patients hospitalized from January 2008 to December 2014 were involved in the study and their hospitalization status were analyzed. Results Among the 12,838 patients, 2,499 were hospitalized for critical conditions (19.47%), 5,455 for acute attack (42.49%), 4,884 for acute exacerbation (38.04%). The ratio of male/female was 5.32:1. Those in 71 to 80 years old were at the highest risk. They were hospitalized at least for 1 time, at most for over 38 times, averaged (3.52 ± 4.05) times. Conclusions The COPD patients were hospitalized due to acute attack and acute exacerbation. The patients'age ranged from 71 to 80 years. The male patients had a predominant incidence than the female ones. The times of hospitalization were related with possible complications of other chronic diseases. Therefore, nursing staff should draw up individual continuing nursing strategies based on the patients′ hospitalization reasons to reduce the hospitalization rate of acute attack and acute exacerbation. Meanwhile, we should formulate the pre-hospital rescue plan for the hospitalized patients at the peak age and implement prospective nursing.

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