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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e10928, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278587

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of cryptic Candida species from candidemia cases in 22 public hospitals in São Paulo State, Brazil, and their antifungal susceptibility profiles. During 2017 and 2018, 144 isolates were molecularly identified as 14 species; C. parapsilosis (32.6%), C. albicans (27.7%), C. tropicalis (14.6%), C. glabrata (9.7%), C. krusei (2.8%), C. orthopsilosis (2.8%), C. haemulonii var. vulnera (2.1%), C. haemulonii (1.4%), C. metapsilosis (1.4%), C. dubliniensis (1.4%), C. guilliermondii (1.4%), C. duobushaemulonii (0.7%), C. kefyr (0.7%), and C. pelliculosa (0.7%). Poor susceptibility to fluconazole was identified in 6.4% of C. parapsilosis isolates (0.12 to >64 µg/mL), 50% of C. guilliermondii (64 µg/mL), 66.6% of C. haemulonii var. vulnera (16-32 µg/mL), and C. duobushaemulonii strain (MIC 64 µg/mL). Our results corroborated the emergence of C. glabrata in Brazilian cases of candidemia as previously reported. Importantly, we observed a large proportion of non-wild type C. glabrata isolates to voriconazole (28.6%; <0.015 to 4 µg/mL) all of which were also resistant to fluconazole (28.6%). Of note, C. haemulonii, a multidrug resistant species, has emerged in the Southeast region of Brazil. Our findings suggested a possible epidemiologic change in the region with an increase in fluconazole-resistant species causing candidemia. We stress the relevance of routine accurate identification to properly manage therapy and monitor epidemiologic trends.


Subject(s)
Candida , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Hospitals
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(11): e9056, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132484

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcal meningitis affects normal hosts and immunocompromised patients exhibiting high mortality rates. The objective of this study was to design two molecular assays, visible microarray platforms and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), to identify Cryptococcus spp. and the species neoformans and gattii from the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). To identify Cryptococcus and the two species, we designed two microarrays DNA platforms based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and CAP59 gene and LAMP assays specific for Cryptococcus species. The assays were tested using CSF from patients with cryptococcal meningitis. CSF from patients with cryptococcal meningitis was cultured in Sabouraud culture medium, and the Cryptococcus spp. grown in the culture medium were also tested for LAMP and microarray platforms. The results were compared to DNA sequencing of the same genetic regions. A total of 133 CSF samples were studied. Eleven CSFs were positive for Cryptococcus (9 C. neoformans and 2 C. gattii), 15 were positive for bacteria, and 107 were negative. The CAP59 platform correctly identified 73% of the CSF samples, while the ITS platform identified 45.5%. CAP59 platform correctly identified 100% of the Cryptococcus isolates, and ITS platform identified 70%. The two sets of LAMP primers correctly identified 100% of the Cryptococcus isolates. However, for CSF samples, the amplification occurred only in 55.5% of C. neoformans. The methodologies were reliable in the identification of Cryptococcus species, mainly for isolates from culture medium, and they might be applied as adjunctive tests to identify Cryptococcus species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/diagnosis , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
3.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2): 531-538, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787943

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Protium heptaphyllum is found in the Amazon region, and in various Brazilian states and South American countries. Also Known as almecega, it produces an oil resin used in traditional medicine as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cicatrizant and expectorant, it is rich in pentacyclic triterpenes and essential oil. The main objective of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of P. heptaphyllumresin (OEPh) over different extraction times and to evaluate their antifungal activity against Candida species, obtained from gardeners with onychomycosis, using the disk diffusion method. The OEPh was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by Multidimensional Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (MDGC / MS). Candida species were obtained from lesions on the nails of horticulturist from a community garden in the city of Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. The antifungal activity in concentrations of 1000 µg/L, 500 µg/L and 250 µg/L, PROTOCOL M44-A2 (CLSI 2009) OEPh was tested. The main constituents identified were: l-limonene, α-terpineol, p-cineol, o-cymene and α-phellandrene, however, its composition varies significantly with extraction time. All species, except C. rugosa, were inhibited with halo (≥ 14 mm) at 1000 μg / L. C. krusei is naturally resistant to the drug fluconazole, but when tested with OEPh the clinical species (case 9) demonstrated sensitivity in three dilutions (halo ≤ 10 ≥ 14) and the standard strain was inhibited at concentration of 1000 μg/Lg / L (halo 14mm). A similar situation also occurred with the standard strain of C. parapsilosis (halo ≥ 11mm). OEPh has considerable antifungal activity, which merits further investigation for alternative clinical applications, since this species is widely distributed in our community, and it presents good yields, and also has important therapeutic applications.


RESUMO Protium heptaphyllum é encontrada na região amazônica, em vários estados do Brasil e países da América do Sul. Conhecida como almecega produz uma resina oleosa usada na medicina popular como analgésica, antiinflamatória, cicatrizante e expectorante, é rica em triterpenos pentaciclicos e óleo essencial. O objetivo principal do presente trabalho foi analisar a composição química do óleo essencial da resina P. heptaphyllum (OEPh) em diferentes tempo de extração e avaliarsuaatividade antifúngica contra espécies de Candida, isoladas de horticultores com onicomicoses, por método de disco-difusão. O OEPh foi obtido por hidrodestilação, analisado por Cromatografia Gasosa Multidimensinal Acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas (MDGC/MS). As espécies de Candida foram obtidas de lesões nas unhas de horticultores de uma horta comunitária na cidade de Teresina, Piauí, Brasil. Testou-se a atividade antifúngica do OEPhnas concentrações de 1000 μg/L, 500 μg/L e 250 μg/L, protocolo M44-A2 (CLSI 2009). Os principais constituintes identificados foram l- limoneno, α-terpineol, p-cineol, o-cimeno e α-felandreno, entretanto, sua composição varia significativamente em decorrência do tempo de extração. Todas as espécies, exceto a C. rugosa, foram inibidas com halo ( Χ ≥ 14 mm) na concentração de 1000 μg/L. C. krusei é naturalmente resistente ao fármaco fluconazol, mas quando testado com OEPh,a espécie clínico (caso 9) demonstrou sensibilidade nas três diluições (halo Χ ≤ 10 ≥ 14) e a cepa padrão foi inibida na concentração de 1000 μg/L (halo Χ 14mm). Fato semelhante também ocorreu com a cepa padrão de C. parapsilosis (halo Χ ≥ 11mm). O OEPh possui atividade antifúngica considerável, merecendo uma investigação mais aprofundada para aplicações clínicas alternativas, uma vez que esta espécie é amplamente distribuída em nossa comunidade, apresenta bom rendimento e, ainda, aplicações terapêuticas importantes.


Subject(s)
Burseraceae/chemistry , Candida/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Chemical Phenomena/analysis , Disease Susceptibility/classification , Onychomycosis/diagnosis
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 40(4): 943-951, Oct.-Dec. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-528179

ABSTRACT

Several studies have reported the occurrence of infections caused by Candida yeasts as well as the increasing prevalence of non albicans species. The aim of the present work is focused on the obtaining of heteroresistance to amphotericin B and fluconazole in Candida species using two distinct methodologies: selection and induction. Resistant samples were obtained by selective pressure using a medium with fluconazole for growth, followed by growth in a medium with amphotericin B. The selective pressure was also created beginning with growth in amphotericin B medium followed by growth in fluconazole medium. Concomitantly, samples were submitted to the induction of resistance through cultivation in increasing concentrations of fluconazole, followed by cultivation in increasing concentrations of amphotericin B. Subsequently, the induction began with amphotericin B followed by fluconazole. Three samples resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B were obtained, two by induction (C. glabrata and C. tropicalis) and one by selection (C. tropicalis). Both C. tropicalis originated from the same wild sample. After successive transfers for drug free medium, only the sample obtained by selection was able to maintain the resistance phenotype. These results suggest that the phenotype of heteroresitance to fluconazole and amphotericin B can be produced by two methodologies: selection and induction.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/analysis , Candida , Candidiasis , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal , Fluconazole/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Yeasts , Drug Samples , Methods , Prevalence , Methods
5.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 14(2): 224-257, 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-484562

ABSTRACT

Several yeast species of Candida genus can colonize the skin as well as the mucous membrane of the vagina and the digestive tract for short or long periods. Depending on the host's immunological state and the yeast's virulence, colonization can become an infection, invading the colonized tissues and also disseminating. AIDS is characterized by the host's intensive and progressive immunodepression which manifests as diverse symptoms, mainly lesions in the mouth. Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent opportunistic infection in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is an important indicator of the disease progress and the immunosuppression increase. The factors involved in the equilibrium between Candida spp. and HIV-infected subjects are sometimes contradictory and were evaluated in the present study specially for colonization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/classification , Candida/pathogenicity , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/immunology
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