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2.
J. bras. pneumol ; 48(2): e20220087, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375735

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to describe country-specific lockdown measures and tuberculosis indicators collected during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data on lockdown/social restrictions (compulsory face masks and hand hygiene; international and local travel restrictions; restrictions to family visits, and school closures) were collected from 24 countries spanning five continents. The majority of the countries implemented multiple lockdowns with partial or full reopening. There was an overall decrease in active tuberculosis, drug-resistant tuberculosis, and latent tuberculosis cases. Although national lockdowns were effective in containing COVID-19 cases, several indicators of tuberculosis were affected during the pandemic.


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as medidas de confinamento específicas de cada país e os indicadores de tuberculose coletados durante o primeiro ano da pandemia de COVID-19. Dados referentes a confinamento/restrições sociais (uso obrigatório de máscaras faciais e higiene obrigatória das mãos; restrições a viagens internacionais e locais; restrições a visitas familiares e fechamento das escolas) foram coletados de 24 países em cinco continentes. A maioria dos países implantou múltiplos confinamentos, com reabertura parcial ou total. Houve uma redução geral dos casos de tuberculose ativa, tuberculose resistente e tuberculose latente. Embora os confinamentos nacionais tenham sido eficazes na contenção dos casos de COVID-19, vários indicadores de tuberculose foram afetados durante a pandemia.

4.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(2): e20210054, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250200

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Early, accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis is one of the major pillars of the control of the disease. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide health professionals with the most current, useful evidence for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in Brazil. To that end, the Tuberculosis Committee of the Brazilian Thoracic Association brought together 14 members of the Association with recognized expertise in tuberculosis in Brazil to compose the statement. A nonsystematic review of the following topics was carried out: clinical diagnosis, bacteriological diagnosis, radiological diagnosis, histopathological diagnosis, diagnosis of tuberculosis in children, and diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection.


RESUMO O diagnóstico precoce e adequado da tuberculose é um dos pilares mais importantes no controle da doença. A proposta deste consenso brasileiro é apresentar aos profissionais da área de saúde um documento com as evidências mais atuais e úteis para o diagnóstico da tuberculose. Para tanto, a Comissão de Tuberculose da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia reuniu 14 membros da Sociedade com reconhecida experiência em tuberculose no Brasil. Foi realizada uma revisão não sistemática dos seguintes tópicos: diagnóstico clínico, diagnóstico bacteriológico, diagnóstico radiológico, diagnóstico histopatológico, diagnóstico da tuberculose na criança e diagnóstico da tuberculose latente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Tuberculosis , Brazil , Health Personnel , Consensus
5.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(2): e20210044, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250196

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT On April 1st, 2020, COVID-19 surpassed tuberculosis regarding the number of deaths per day worldwide. The combination of tuberculosis and COVID-19 has great potential for morbidity and mortality. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. In this review article, we address concurrent tuberculosis and COVID-19, with particular regard to the differences between Brazil and Europe. In addition, we discuss priorities in clinical care, public health, and research.


RESUMO Em 1º de abril de 2020, a COVID-19 ultrapassou a tuberculose em número de óbitos por dia no mundo. A associação da tuberculose com a COVID-19 apresenta grande potencial de morbidade e mortalidade. Além disso, a pandemia de COVID-19 tem tido um impacto significativo no diagnóstico e tratamento da tuberculose. Neste artigo de revisão, abordamos tuberculose e COVID-19 concomitantes, com particular atenção às diferenças entre Brasil e Europa. Além disso, discutimos as prioridades em atendimento clínico, saúde pública e pesquisa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200051, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136823

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Laboratory and clinical features of childhood tuberculosis (TB) are non-specific and establishing an accurate diagnosis remains a challenge. This study evaluated a Single tube nested-PCR (STNPCR) to detect genomic DNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in blood and urine. METHODS: Biological samples were obtained from children (<15 years old) with clinical suspicion of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB at public hospitals in Recife-Pernambuco, Brazil. Cultures yielded negative results in a majority of childhood TB cases, which are generally paucibacillary. A set of clinical, epidemiological, radiological, and laboratory criteria with evident clinical improvement after anti-TB treatment were frequently used to define childhood TB cases. RESULTS: Ninety children with clinical suspicion were enrolled in this study (44 with TB and 46 without TB). The pulmonary TB group had 20 confirmed cases and 46 negative controls, while the extrapulmonary TB group had 24 confirmed cases. The STNPCR showed sensitivities to pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB of 47.4% and 52.2% (blood) and 38.8% and 20% (urine), respectively. Considering the low performance of STNPCR on separate samples, we decided to perform a combined analysis (parallel sensitivity analysis) of the results from blood and urine samples. The parallel sensitivity increased to 65% in blood and 62.5% in urine. The specificity in both samples ranged from 93.5-97.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Although STNPCR showed moderate sensitivity, the specificity is high; therefore, the test can be used as an auxiliary tool to diagnose TB in children. It is a rapid test that demonstrated better performance than other diagnostic tests in paucibacillary samples as it does in childhood tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/urine , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/blood , Brazil , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prospective Studies , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics
8.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(6): e20190345, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134909

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar características clínicas, tomográficas e microbiológicas dos pacientes com doença pulmonar causada pela M. kansasii (DPMK) atendidos em unidade ambulatorial no período 2006-2016. Métodos Estudo descritivo, em que foram analisados 38 pacientes. Foram analisadas as características demográficas, clínico-radiológicas, laboratoriais e terapêuticas. Resultados A média de idade foi 64 anos (DP=10,6; IIQ=57-72; mediana=65,0) e 22 (57,9%) eram pacientes do sexo masculino. Comorbidade pulmonar estava presente em 89,5%. A comorbidade mais frequente foi a bronquiectasia (78,9%). Tratamento anterior para tuberculose pulmonar (TBP) foi relatado em 65,9%. O esquema terapêutico mais utilizado foi rifampicina, isoniazida e etambutol (44,7%). A tomografia de tórax (TCT) mostrou bronquiectasia (94,1%), distorção arquitetural (76,5%), espessamento de septo (67,6%) e cavidades (64,7%). A doença foi bilateral em 85,2%. Houve 10,7% de resistência à rifampicina, 67,9% resistentes ao etambutol e sensibilidade à claritromicina. Conclusão Em pacientes com doença pulmonar estrutural, é importante a busca de DPMNT, principal diagnóstico diferencial com TBP. TC de tórax demonstra diferentes padrões que se sobrepõem ao de doença estrutural causada por TBP ou outras enfermidades pulmonares. Destaca-se a resistência ao etambutol, fármaco componente do esquema preconizado.


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate clinical, tomographic, and microbiological characteristics of pulmonary disease caused by M. kansasii (MKPD) in patients treated at an outpatient unit from 2006-2016. Methods We studied thirty eight patients, and analyzed socio-demographic, clinical-radiological, laboratory, and therapeutic characteristics. Results The mean age was 64 years (SD = 10.6; IIQ = 57-72; median = 65.0), and 22 (57.9%) male patients. Pulmonary comorbidity was present in 89.5% of the patients. The most frequent comorbidity was bronchiectasis (78.9%). Previous treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) was found in 65.9%. The most used therapeutic regimen was rifampicin, isoniazid and ethambutol (44.7%). Chest tomography (CT) showed bronchiectasis (94.1%), architectural distortion (76.5%), septum thickening (67.6%), and cavities (64.7%). Disease was bilateral in 85.2%. We observed 10.7% resistance to rifampicin, 67.9% resistance to ethambutol, and sensitivity to clarithromycin. Conclusion In patients with structural lung disease, it is important to search for NTM, the main differential diagnosis with PTB. Chest CT showed different patterns that overlapped with structural disease caused by PTB or other lung diseases. We observed resistance to ethambutol, a drug component of the recommended regimen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium kansasii/isolation & purification , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/drug therapy , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/drug therapy , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/epidemiology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Ethambutol/therapeutic use , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases/microbiology , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/diagnosis
9.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(5): e20190297, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134906

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the performance of the No-Apnea score, a simplified screening instrument for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), by gender. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including adults undergoing full polysomnography. The No-Apnea model comprises two items (neck circumference and age) with a total score of 0 to 9. The severity of OSA was categorized, on the basis of the apnea-hypopnea index, as any (≥ 5 events/h), moderate-to-severe (≥ 15 events/h), or severe (≥ 30 events/h). The performance of the No-Apnea instrument was assessed by determining the area under the (ROC) curve (AUC) and by constructing contingency tables. Results: We evaluated a total of 6,606 adults (53.8% men). For categorizing the level of OSA severity, the No-Apnea score had a sensitivity of 83.9-93.0% and a specificity of 57.3-35.2%. At all OSA severity levels, the No-Apnea score exhibited higher sensitivity and lower specificity in men than in women. The No-Apnea score proved to be an appropriate screening model for patients in general or when separated by gender or severity of OSA (AUC > 0.7 for all). The discriminatory power of the No-Apnea score to predict any, moderate-to-severe, and severe OSA was similar between genders (p = 0.109, p = 0.698, and p = 0.094, respectively). Conclusions: In a sample of adults referred to the sleep laboratory, there was no significant difference between men and women in terms of the discriminatory power of the No-Apnea instrument in for screening for OSA severity.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o desempenho do escore No-Apnea, um instrumento simplificado para a triagem da apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS), relacionado ao gênero. Métodos: Estudo transversal incluindo indivíduos adultos submetidos à polissonografia completa. O No-Apnea é um modelo contendo dois itens (circunferência do pescoço e idade) com uma pontuação total de 0 a 9. A gravidade da AOS foi baseada no índice de apneia-hipopneia ≥ 5 eventos/h (qualquer AOS), ≥ 15 eventos/h (AOS moderada/grave) e ≥ 30 eventos/h (AOS grave). O desempenho do No-Apnea foi avaliado pela área sob a curva (ASC) ROC e tabelas de contingência. Resultados: No total, 6.606 adultos (53,8% homens) foram avaliados. No geral, para a triagem dos diferentes níveis de gravidade de AOS, o No-Apnea teve sensibilidade variando de 83,9% a 93,0% e especificidade variando de 57,3% a 35,2%. Em todos os níveis de gravidade da AOS, o No-Apnea exibiu maior sensibilidade e menor especificidade nos homens que nas mulheres. O No-Apnea mostrou ser um adequado modelo de triagem para os pacientes em geral ou quando separados por gênero ou gravidade da AOS (ASC > 0,7 para todos). A capacidade discriminatória do No-Apnea em predizer qualquer AOS, AOS moderada/grave e AOS grave foi semelhante entre os sexos (p = 0,109, p = 0,698 e p = 0,094, respectivamente). Conclusões: Em uma amostra de indivíduos adultos encaminhados para laboratório do sono, o No-Apnea apresentou discriminação similar para a triagem de AOS de acordo com sua gravidade em mulheres e homens.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Sleep/physiology , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/instrumentation , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sensitivity and Specificity , Polysomnography , Sex Distribution , Laboratories
11.
J. bras. pneumol ; 46(2): e20180198, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090801

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare patients with and without previous lung disease, in terms of the spirometry results after they had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and cured, as well as to analyze risk factors related to functional severity. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted at four referral centers in Brazil. Patients were divided into two groups: those with a history of lung disease or smoking (LDS+ group); and those with no such history (LDS− group). Patients underwent spirometry (at least six months after being cured). Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected. Results: A total of 378 patients were included: 174 (46.1%) in the LDS+ group and 204 (53.9%) in the LDS− group. In the sample as a whole, 238 patients (62.7%) had spirometric changes. In the LDS+ group, there was a predominance of obstructive lung disease (in 33.3%), whereas restrictive lung disease predominated in the LDS− group (in 24.7%). Radiological changes were less common in the LDS− group than in the LDS+ group (p < 0.01), as were functional changes (p < 0.05). However, of the 140 (79.1%) LDS− group patients with a normal or minimally altered chest X-ray, 76 (54%) had functional changes (p < 0.01). The risk factors associated with functional severity in the LDS− group were degree of dyspnea (p = 0.03) and moderate or severe radiological changes (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Impaired pulmonary function is common after treatment for PTB, regardless of the history of lung disease or smoking. Spirometry should be suggested for patients who develop moderate/severe dyspnea or relevant radiological changes after treatment for PTB.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar os resultados da espirometria de pacientes tratados e curados para tuberculose pulmonar (TBP) com e sem doença pulmonar prévia e analisar os fatores de risco relacionados à gravidade funcional. Métodos: Estudo transversal, multicêntrico, em quatro centros de referência no Brasil. Os pacientes foram classificados em dois grupos: grupo com doença pulmonar prévia ou história de tabagismo (grupo DPT+) e grupo sem doença pulmonar prévia e sem tabagismo (grupo DPT−). Os pacientes realizaram espirometria (pelo menos seis meses após a cura), e foram coletados dados sociodemográficos e clínicos. Resultados: Foram incluídos 378 pacientes: 174 (46,1%) no grupo DPT+ e 204 (53,9%) no grupo DPT−. Na amostra total, 238 pacientes (62,7%) apresentaram alguma alteração espirométrica. No grupo DPT+ houve predominância de distúrbio ventilatório obstrutivo (em 33,3%), e distúrbio ventilatório restritivo predominou no grupo DPT− (em 24,7%). Quando comparados com o grupo DPT+, os pacientes do grupo DPT− apresentaram menos frequentemente alteração radiológica (p < 0,01) e funcional (p < 0,05). Porém, dos 140 (79,1%) do grupo DPT− com radiografia de tórax normal ou minimamente alterada, 76 (54%) apresentaram alguma alteração funcional (p < 0,01). Os fatores de risco relacionados com a gravidade funcional no grupo DPT− foram grau de dispneia (p = 0,03) e alterações radiológicas moderadas ou acentuadas. Conclusões: O comprometimento da função pulmonar é frequente após o tratamento da TBP independentemente do histórico de tabagismo ou doença pulmonar prévia. A espirometria deve ser sugerida para esses pacientes que evoluem com grau moderado/grave de dispneia e/ou alteração radiológica relevante após o tratamento da TBP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spirometry/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/complications , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Lung/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Smoking/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Lung/microbiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/physiopathology
13.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190179, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132181

ABSTRACT

Abstract (1) Background: The Commercial Kit SIRE Nitratase® PlastLabor, is a drug susceptibility test kit used to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to first-line TB treatment drugs. The present study aimed at evaluating its performance in a multicenter study. (2) Methods: To determine its accuracy, the proportion methods in Lowenstein Jensen medium or the BACTECTMMGITTM960 system was used as a gold standard. (3) Results: The study revealed that the respective accuracies of the kit with 190 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates, using the proportion methods in Lowenstein Jensen medium or BACTECTMMGITTM960 system as a gold standard, were 93.9% and 94.6%, 96.9% and 94.6%, 98.0% and 97.8%, and 98.0% and 98.9%, for streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol, respectively. (4) Conclusion: Thus, the kit can rapidly screen resistance to streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol. Additionally, it does not require sophisticated equipment; hence, it can be easily used in the laboratories of low and middle income countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/classification
14.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 54(5): 524-530, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057938

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Lung cancer is the leading cause of death by cancer, and the bones are one of the most common sites of metastasis from this condition. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of lung carcinoma histology on the frequency of bone metastases. Methods This retrospective study evaluated the medical records of 407 patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 2003 and 2012. The prevalence of bone metastases and their association with histological subtypes were evaluated using chi-squared tests, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The overall survival was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results The prevalence of bone metastases was 28.2% (n = 115), and the spine was the most frequently affected site (98 metastases; 32.1%). Adenocarcinoma was the most common histological subtype of lung carcinoma (46.7%), and it was significantly more frequent among patients with bone metastases (58.3% versus 42.1%; p = 0.003; OR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.29-2.97). Squamous cell carcinoma was significantly less frequent among patients with bone metastases (13.0% versus 29.8%; p = 0.0004; OR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.19-0.64). The median survival time after the first bone metastasis diagnosis was 4 months. Conclusion Adenocarcinoma was the most common histological subtype of lung carcinoma, and it was significantly associated with a higher risk of developing bone metastases.


Resumo Objetivo O câncer de pulmão é a principal causa de morte por neoplasia, e os ossos são os principais locais de metástases desse tipo de câncer. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência do tipo histológico do carcinoma de pulmão na frequência das metástases ósseas. Métodos Foram avaliados retrospectivamente os registros médicos de 407 pacientes diagnosticados com câncer de pulmão entre 2003 e 2012. A prevalência de metástases ósseas e suas associações com os subtipos histológicos foram avaliadas com o teste qui-quadrado, razão de probabilidade (RP), e intervalos de confiança (IC) de 95%. A sobrevida global foi avaliada com o método de Kaplan-Meier. Resultados A prevalência das metástases ósseas foi de 28,2% (n = 115), e a coluna vertebral foi o local mais frequente (98 metástases: 32,1%). O adenocarcinoma foi o subtipo histológico mais comum de carcinoma pulmonar (46,7%) e foi significativamente mais frequente entre os pacientes com metástases ósseas (13,0% versus 29,8%; p = 0,0004; OR = 0,35; 95% IC: 0,19-0,64). O tempo médio de sobrevida após o diagnóstico da primeira metástase óssea foi de 4 meses. Conclusão O adenocarcinoma foi o subtipo histológico mais comum de carcinoma pulmonar e foi significativamente associado a um maior risco de desenvolvimento de metástases ósseas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bone and Bones , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Adenocarcinoma , Retrospective Studies , Morbidity , Cause of Death , Histology , Lung Neoplasms , Neoplasm Metastasis
15.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(2): e20190023, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002432

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Most people infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) do not have any signs or disease symptoms, a condition known as latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). The introduction of biological agents, mainly tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and other rheumatic diseases, increased the risk of reactivation of LTBI, leading to development of active TB. Thus, this review will approach the aspects related to LTBI in patients with rheumatologic diseases, especially those using iTNF drugs. For this purpose it will be considered the definition and prevalence of LTBI, mechanisms associated with diseases and medications in use, criteria for screening, diagnosis and treatment. Considering that reactivation of LTBI accounts for a large proportion of the incidence of active TB, adequate diagnosis and treatment are crucial, especially in high-risk groups such as patients with rheumatologic diseases.


RESUMO A maioria das pessoas infectadas por Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) não possui sinais ou sintomas da doença, quadro conhecido como infecção latente por tuberculose (ILTB). A introdução de agentes biológicos, sobretudo inibidores do fator de necrose tumoral (iTNF), para o tratamento de doenças imunomediadas, como artrite reumatoide (AR) e outras doenças reumatológicas, aumentou o risco de reativação de ILTB, levando ao desenvolvimento de tuberculose (TB) ativa. Assim, esta revisão abordará os aspectos relacionados à ILTB em pacientes com doenças reumatológicas, especialmente naqueles em uso de medicamentos iTNF. Para tanto, serão considerados a definição e a prevalência de ILTB, os mecanismos associados às doenças e às medicações em uso, bem como os critérios para rastreamento, diagnóstico e tratamento da ILTB. Como a reativação da ILTB é responsável pela grande proporção de casos de TB ativa, o diagnóstico e o tratamento adequados são cruciais, principalmente em grupos de alto risco, como os pacientes com doenças reumatológicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Rheumatic Diseases/complications , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Latent Tuberculosis/etiology , Tuberculin Test , Risk Factors , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Interferon-gamma Release Tests
17.
Acta ortop. bras ; 26(6): 388-393, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-973585

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Pathological fractures are frequent skeletal-related events among lung cancer patients, which result in high morbidity and decreased overall survival and make operative treatment decisions challenging. Objectives: To identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of pathological fractures in patients with lung cancer and to determine survival. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study with 407 lung carcinoma patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2015. The prevalence of bone metastases and pathological fractures was calculated. Statistical analysis was conducted using a chi-squared test, and the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated. Overall survival was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and differences were compared using the log-rank test. Results: The prevalence of bone metastases and pathological fractures was 28.2% (n = 115) and 19.1% (n = 22), respectively. Pathological fractures were more frequent among patients with bone metastases at the time of diagnosis of lung cancer (24.7% [n = 20] vs. 5.9% [n = 2]; p < 0.05). The median overall survival following the diagnosis of lung cancer, bone metastases, and pathological fracture was 6, 4, and 2 months, respectively. Conclusions: Pathological fracture was associated with synchronous bone metastases and overall survival times were considerably reduced. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series.


RESUMO Introdução: Fratura patológica é um evento esquelético frequente em pacientes com câncer de pulmão, resultando em alta morbidade e sobrevida global reduzida que torna a decisão de tratamento cirúrgico desafiadora. Objetivos: Identificar fatores de risco associados à ocorrência de fraturas patológicas em pacientes com câncer de pulmão e determinar a sobrevida. Métodos: Conduzimos um estudo retrospectivo de coorte com 407 pacientes diagnosticados com carcinoma pulmonar entre 2006 e 2015. A prevalência de metástase óssea e fratura patológica foi calculada. Análise estatística foi conduzida usando o teste X2, e razão de chances e o intervalo de confiança de 95% foi calculado. A sobrevida global foi determinada usando o método de Kaplan-Meier e as diferenças foram comparadas usando o teste do log-rank. Resultados: A prevalência de metástases ósseas e fraturas patológicas foi de 28,2% (n = 115) e 19,1% (n = 22), respectivamente. Fraturas patológicas foram mais frequentes em pacientes com metástases ósseas ao diagnóstico do câncer de pulmão (24,7 % [n = 20] vs. 5,9% [n = 2]; p < 0.05). A sobrevida global média após o diagnóstico do câncer de pulmão, da metástase óssea e da fratura patológica foram 6, 4 e 2 meses, respectivamente. Conclusão: Fratura patológica foi associada à metástase óssea sincrônica e a sobrevida global consideravelmente reduzida. Nível de Evidência IV. Série de Casos.

18.
Acta ortop. bras ; 26(5): 314-319, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-973579

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To introduce the intralesional calcitonin and methylprednisolone percutaneous injection method, which results in the promotion of primary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) healing. Methods: A retrospective cohort study involving 76 patients diagnosed with ABC was performed between 2005 and 2014. Patients treated with calcitonin and methylprednisolone injection and who underwent more than 2 years of follow-up were considered eligible for the study (n=47). The Enneking staging and Capanna classification systems were used during the initial evaluation. Treatment response was assessed by Rastogi radiographic grading based on the degree of healing. X2 and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and odds ratio calculations were used in the statistical analysis with a 5% significance level. Results: The proximal tibia extremity was the most commonly affected site (17.0%). Thirty-three (70.3%) ABC cases were staged as B3 and 28 (59.7%) were classified as type II. The average number of injections performed was 2.8 per patient, with an average reduction of the initial lytic area of 83.7% (p-value=0.00001). Satisfactory results for 91.4% (n=43; p-value=0.00001) were obtained and 5 recurrences occurred. No side effects were observed. Conclusion: Intralesional calcitonin and methylprednisolone percutaneous injection is a minimally invasive, effective, and safe method for promoting primary ABC healing. Level of evidence IV, Type of study: case series.


RESUMO Objetivo: Apresentar o método de injeção intralesional percutânea de calcitonina e metilprednisolona para promover a ossificação do cisto ósseo aneurismático (COA). Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de coorte envolvendo 76 pacientes com diagnóstico de COA entre 2005 e 2014. Os pacientes tratados com injeção de calcitonina e metilprednisolona e acompanhados durante mais de dois anos foram considerados elegíveis para o estudo (n = 47). Foram utilizados o sistema de estadiamento de Enneking e a classificação de Capanna durante a avaliação inicial. A resposta ao tratamento foi avaliada pela classificação radiográfica Rastogi, com base no grau de cicatrização. Os testes X2, Wilcoxon e o cálculo da razão de chances foram utilizados na análise estatística com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: A extremidade proximal da tíbia foi o local mais frequente (17,0%). Trinta e três (70,3%) COA eram B3 e 28 (59,7%) do tipo II. O número médio de injeções aplicadas foi de 2,8 por paciente, com redução média da área lítica inicial de 83,7% (p = 0,00001). Resultados satisfatórios para 91,4% (n = 43; p = 0,00001) dos pacientes e houve cinco recidivas. Nenhum efeito colateral foi observado. Conclusão: A injeção intralesional percutânea de calcitonina e metilprednisolona é um método minimamente invasivo, eficaz e seguro para promover a ossificação do COA. Nível de evidência IV, Tipo de estudo: série de casos.

19.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(2): 145-152, Mar.-Apr. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893908

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tuberculosis continues to be a major public health problem. Although efforts to control the epidemic have reduced mortality and incidence, there are several predisposing factors that should be modified in order to reduce the burden of the disease. This review article will address some of the risk factors associated with tuberculosis infection and active tuberculosis, including diabetes, smoking, alcohol use, and the use of other drugs, all of which can also contribute to poor tuberculosis treatment results. Tuberculosis can also lead to complications in the course and management of other diseases, such as diabetes. It is therefore important to identify these comorbidities in tuberculosis patients in order to ensure adequate management of both conditions.


RESUMO A tuberculose continua a ser um importante problema de saúde para a humanidade. Embora os esforços para controlar a epidemia tenham reduzido sua mortalidade e incidência, há vários fatores predisponentes a ser controlados a fim de reduzir a carga da doença. Este artigo de revisão aborda alguns dos fatores de risco associados à infecção por tuberculose, como diabetes, tabagismo, uso de álcool e uso de outras drogas, que podem também contribuir para maus resultados do tratamento da tuberculose. A tuberculose pode levar a complicações no curso e no manejo de outras doenças, como o diabetes. Portanto, é importante identificar essas comorbidades em pacientes com tuberculose a fim de assegurar um manejo adequado de ambas as condições.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis/etiology , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Smoking/adverse effects , Cocaine-Related Disorders/complications , Diabetes Complications/complications , Risk Factors
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