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1.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 154-161, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876707

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the hospitalization cost and its influencing factors of imported malaria patients in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Yunnan Province, so as to provide insights into the evaluation of the economic burden due to imported malaria, and the guiding of malaria control and the rational allocation of medical resources. Methods The data pertaining to the hospitalization costs of imported malaria patients admitted to Shanglin County People’s Hospital in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region during the period from January 1 through December 31, 2019, and Tengchong Municipal People’s Hospital in Yunnan Province from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2019, were collected, and the epidemiological data of these imported malaria patients were extracted from the Information Management System for Parasitic Diseases Control and Prevention, China. The composition of the hospitalization expenses was analyzed using a descriptive method. In addition, the factors affecting the hospitalization expenses of imported malaria patients were identified using a univariate analysis and a recursive system model. Results A total of 206 imported malaria patients were included in this study, including 194 men (94.17%) and 12 women (5.83%). The mean length of hospital stay was 5.00 days per patient and the median hospitalization expenses were 2 813.07 Yuan per time, in which the expenses for laboratory examinations were the highest (45.31%, 1 274.62/2 813.07). Univariate analysis showed that hospital (z = 5.43, P < 0.01), type of malaria (χ2 = 34.86, P < 0.01) and type of payment (χ2 = 7.72, P < 0.05) were factors affecting the hospitalization expenses of imported malaria patients. Recursion system modeling revealed that the total effects on hospitalization expenses of imported malaria patients included length of hospital stay (0.78), selection of hospital (0.34), basic medical insurance for urban and rural residents (0.19), new rural cooperative medical care (0.17), Plasmodium falciparum malaria (0.15), gender (0.11) and P. vivax malaria (0.09). Conclusions The hospitalization expenses of imported malaria patients are affected by multiple factors in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Yunnan Province, in which the length of hospital stay is the most predominant influencing factor. A reduction in the length of hospital stay is effective to decrease the hospitalization expenses of imported malaria patients.

2.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 563-569, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913061

ABSTRACT

In the WHO new road map for neglected tropical diseases 2021—2030, the disease-specific targets are classified into control, elimination as a public health problem, elimination and eradication, and taeniasis and cysticercosis are targeted for control. The overall prevalence of taeniasis and cysticercosis is low in China, and varies remarkably in regions and populations; however, there are many challenges for elimination of taeniasis and cysticercosis in China. Based on previous taeniasis and cysticercosis control programs, developing a sensitive taeniasis and cysticercosis surveillance-response system, updating criteria for diagnosis of taeniasis and cysticercosis, proposing a national guideline for treatment of taeniasis and cysticercosis, and strengthening interdisciplinary and intersectoral communications and collaborations are urgently needed under the One Health concept.

3.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 54-59, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812935

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the epidemic status of Enterobius vermicularis infections among children aged 3 to 9 years in China, so as to provide scientific basis for the formulation of the prevention and control strategies for enterobiasis. Methods The national surveillance of enterobiasis was performed in 736 national surveillance sites (counties) from 30 provinces (municipalities/autonomous regions) in China from 2016 to 2018. All surveillance sites were classified into parts according to the geographical directions, including the eastern, western, southern, northern and middle parts, and a township was randomly selected from each part. Then, an administrative village was randomly selected from the township, and 200 permanent residents at ages of over 3 years living in the administrative village were randomly selected using the cluster sampling method. A total of 1 000 residents were examined in each surveillance site. E. vermicularis infections were detected among children at ages of 3 to 9 years using the modified Kato-Katz technique and the adhesive cellophane-tape perianal swab method, and the prevalence of infections was calculated and compared. Results The prevalence of E. vermicularis infections was 2.50%, 2.84% and 2.46% among children at ages of 3 to 9 years in the 736 surveillance sites from 30 provinces (municipalities/autonomous regions) in China from 2016 to 2018, and there was no gender-specific prevalence of E. vermicularis infections (P > 0.05). Enterobiasis was main prevalent in the southern and southwestern part of China (Jiangxi, Guangxi, Guangdong, Sichuan, Fujian, Chongqing and Hainan), with 5.00% prevalence and greater, and the highest prevalence was seen in Jiangxi and Guangxi for successive 3 years. In addition, the prevalence of E. vermicularis infections was higher in children with the Han ethnicity than in those with the minority ethnicity, and a high prevalence was found in children at ages of 4 to 7 years, and a low prevalence seen in children at ages of 3, 8 and 9 years. Conclusions The prevalences of E. vermicularis infections have not changed much among children at ages of 3 to 9 years in China from 2016 to 2018, and high prevalence is seen in southern and southwestern China, which should be given a high priority.

4.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 476-482, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829572

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the prevalence of soil-borne nematode infections among residents living in urban/town areas of China, so as to provide insights into the control and elimination of soil-borne nematodiasis. Methods A total of 5 epidemic areas were classified in China according to the prevalence of human Clonorchis sinensis infections captured from the 2014–2015 national survey on major human parasitic diseases in China, and the total sample size was estimated according to the binomial distribution and Poisson’s distribution. Then, the total sample size was allocated proportionally to each province (autonomous region, municipality) of China based on the percentage of residents living in urban and town areas, and the number of survey sites in each province (autonomous region, municipality) was proportionally assigned according to the percentages of residents living in urban and town areas. Then, stratified sampling was performed at county, township and community levels according to the number of sampling sites in each province (autonomous region, municipality), and the survey site (community) was defined as the smallest sampling unit. All permanent residents in the survey sites were selected as the study subjects, and their stool samples were collected for identification and counting of parasite egg using a Kato-Katz technique. The prevalence and intensity of each parasite species were calculated. Results From 2014 to 2015, among the 133 231 residents detected in 31 provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities) of China, the overall prevalence of soil-borne nematode infections was 1.23% (1 636/133 231), and the prevalence rates of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections were 0.77% (1 032/133 231), 0.32% (426/133 231) and 0.17% (224/133 231), respectively. The highest prevalence of soil-borne nematode infections was seen in Jiangxi (4.03%, 82/2 034) and Chongqing (4.03%, 524/13 012), followed by in Hainan (3.47%, 72/2 075). The prevalence of soilborne nematode infections was 1.07% (662/62 139) in men and 1.37% (974/71 092) in women, and the greatest prevalence was found in residents at ages of 65 to 70 years (2.56%, 219/8 569). With regard to occupations and education levels, herdsmen (2.47%, 2/81) and illiterate residents (3.33%, 226/6 795) were found to have the highest prevalence of soil-borne nematode infections, respectively. In addition, mild infections were predominantly identified in hookworm-, A. lumbricoides- and T. trichiura-infected individuals (all > 90%). Conclusions The overall prevalence of soil-borne nematodiasis remains low in urban and town areas of China; however, human infections are widespread. According to the epidemiological features, health education combined with deworming are recommended to reduce the prevalence of soil-borne nematode infections among residents living in urban and town areas of China.

5.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 192-196, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818906

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the status and capability of professionals at provincial parasitic diseases control institutions in main clonorchiasis-endemic areas of China. Methods The status and capacity of professionals at four provincial parasitic diseases control institutions were collected using questionnaire surveys, including Guangdong, Guangxi, Heilongjiang and Jilin, and the data were analyzed. Results There were totally 37 professionals working on parasitic diseases control in the four provincial institutions in 2018, including 33 full-time and 4 part-time professionals, and there were 12, 16, 3 and 6 professionals working at Guangdong, Guangxi, Heilongjiang and Jilin provincial institutions, respectively. Of the 37 professionals, there were 24.32%, 37.84% and 37.84% at ages of 35 years and lower, 35 to 45 years, and greater than 45 years. Men consisted of 54.05% of all professionals, and 86.49% had an education of bachelor and above, while 78.38% had a title of moderate or above. Among all professionals, there were 29 responsible for clonorchiasis prevention and control; however, they all participated in the prevention and control of other parasitic diseases; 33 professionals were able to prepare Kato-Katz smears and 34 read the smears; 30 professionals were able to detect metacercaria in fishes, and 24 and 16 professionals were able to perform immunological and mo-lecular tests. In addition, 26 professionals participated in provincial projects, 19 in national projects; however, few professionals participated in international projects or undertook provincial, national or international projects. Furthermore, there were 34 professionals (91.89%) participating in national trainings on parasitic diseases; however, only 12 (32.43%) completed a training for more than one week. Conclusions There are few professionals at provincial parasitic diseases control institutions in main clonorchiasis-endemic areas of China, and they have a relative high capability in parasitic disease control; however, their research capacity is relative weak.

6.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 143-147, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818894

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the basic information and epidemic characteristics of new cases of cysticercosis in Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the prevention and control strategy of cysticercosis. Methods The data of inpatients in the Dali Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control Center from 2014 to 2017 were collected and the eligible data of new cases of cysticercosis were analyzed by the epidemiological method. Results There were 1 552 patients with cysticercosis, including 549 new cases of cysticercosis. Among the new cysticercosis patients, most were neurocysticer-cosis cases (484 / 549, 88.16%). The symptoms included epilepsy and headache (51.73%), headache (40.98%), and dizziness (18.76%). The new cysticercosis patients were mainly middle-aged male farmers of Bai nationality, and they were distributed in all counties (cities) of Dali Prefecture, especially in Eryuan County (26.78%), and Dali City (19.49%). The annual incidence rate was 4.423/105 in 2014, 3.837/105 in 2015, 3.765/105 in 2016, and 3.442/105 in 2017, and there was no significance among the different years’incidence ( χ2 = 4.595, P > 0.05). Conclusion Dali Prefecture is still an endemic area of cysticercosis. Therefore, the monitoring, prevention and control of the disease should be strengthened.

7.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 192-196, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818784

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the status and capability of professionals at provincial parasitic diseases control institutions in main clonorchiasis-endemic areas of China. Methods The status and capacity of professionals at four provincial parasitic diseases control institutions were collected using questionnaire surveys, including Guangdong, Guangxi, Heilongjiang and Jilin, and the data were analyzed. Results There were totally 37 professionals working on parasitic diseases control in the four provincial institutions in 2018, including 33 full-time and 4 part-time professionals, and there were 12, 16, 3 and 6 professionals working at Guangdong, Guangxi, Heilongjiang and Jilin provincial institutions, respectively. Of the 37 professionals, there were 24.32%, 37.84% and 37.84% at ages of 35 years and lower, 35 to 45 years, and greater than 45 years. Men consisted of 54.05% of all professionals, and 86.49% had an education of bachelor and above, while 78.38% had a title of moderate or above. Among all professionals, there were 29 responsible for clonorchiasis prevention and control; however, they all participated in the prevention and control of other parasitic diseases; 33 professionals were able to prepare Kato-Katz smears and 34 read the smears; 30 professionals were able to detect metacercaria in fishes, and 24 and 16 professionals were able to perform immunological and mo-lecular tests. In addition, 26 professionals participated in provincial projects, 19 in national projects; however, few professionals participated in international projects or undertook provincial, national or international projects. Furthermore, there were 34 professionals (91.89%) participating in national trainings on parasitic diseases; however, only 12 (32.43%) completed a training for more than one week. Conclusions There are few professionals at provincial parasitic diseases control institutions in main clonorchiasis-endemic areas of China, and they have a relative high capability in parasitic disease control; however, their research capacity is relative weak.

8.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 143-147, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818772

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the basic information and epidemic characteristics of new cases of cysticercosis in Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Province, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the prevention and control strategy of cysticercosis. Methods The data of inpatients in the Dali Parasitic Disease Prevention and Control Center from 2014 to 2017 were collected and the eligible data of new cases of cysticercosis were analyzed by the epidemiological method. Results There were 1 552 patients with cysticercosis, including 549 new cases of cysticercosis. Among the new cysticercosis patients, most were neurocysticer-cosis cases (484 / 549, 88.16%). The symptoms included epilepsy and headache (51.73%), headache (40.98%), and dizziness (18.76%). The new cysticercosis patients were mainly middle-aged male farmers of Bai nationality, and they were distributed in all counties (cities) of Dali Prefecture, especially in Eryuan County (26.78%), and Dali City (19.49%). The annual incidence rate was 4.423/105 in 2014, 3.837/105 in 2015, 3.765/105 in 2016, and 3.442/105 in 2017, and there was no significance among the different years’incidence ( χ2 = 4.595, P > 0.05). Conclusion Dali Prefecture is still an endemic area of cysticercosis. Therefore, the monitoring, prevention and control of the disease should be strengthened.

9.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 23-25, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815890

ABSTRACT

The current status of soil-transmitted nematodiasis in China is analyzed. The achievements in prevention and control of soil-transmitted nematodiasis are illustrated. Moreover, the challenges in condition of the decline of soil-transmitted nematodiasis in China are demonstrated. Finally, the working principals for prevention and control of soil-transmitted nematodiasis in the new period are proposed, combining with the health poverty alleviation project, focusing on the goals of control plan for important parasitic diseases, establishing monitoring system for soil-transmitted nematodiasis, and implementing the principles of precise prevention and control.

10.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 47-53, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837668

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish an evaluation system for the field assessment of the Kato-Katz technique in detecting soiltransmitted nematodes, so as to provide insights into the field application of the Kato-Katz technique. Methods The initial evaluation indicators were determined through literature search, brainstorming and expert consultation. The evaluation indicatorswere improved and the weight of each indicator was decided through three rounds of expert consultation by using the Delphimethod. In addition, the expert authority coefficient and the coordination coefficient of each indicator were calculated at eachround of expert consultations. Results The recovery rates of the questionnaire were 100.00%, 100.00% and 89.29% at the firstto the third round of the expert consultations, respectively, and the expert authority coefficients were all more than 0.85 at eachround. The final evaluation system included 4 first-level indicators and 15 second-level indicators. In the first-level indicators, “detecting effect” and “funds investment” had the mean weighted value of 4.53 and 4.49, which were relatively higher than that of“person-time investment“ and "operability“ (both 4.34). Among the second-level indicators under each first-level indicator, thefour most significant indicators included “ability of personnel in egg discrimination“, “cooperation of village cadres and doctors“,“Person-time on testing“ and “organizational start-up cost“, with the mean weighted values of 4.74, 4.43, 4.39 and 4.17, respectively. The coordination coefficients were 0.39 to 0.65, 0.28 to 0.58 and 0.45 to 0.65 at the first to the third round of the expertconsultations, respectively, and there were significant differences in the coordination coefficients at all three rounds of the consultations (all P < 0.05). Conclusions An evaluation system for the field assessment of the Kato-Katz technique in detecting soiltransmitted nematodes is successfully established, among which “ability of personnel in egg discrimination“ and “cooperation ofvillage cadres and doctors“ have the greatest mean weighted values of the significance.

11.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 513-517, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818834

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the current drug treatment against clonorchiasis in China, in order to promote the standardization of drug treatment and national deworming for clonorchiasis. Methods All the 10 provinces were enrolled, which reported clonorchiasis in the work report for important helminthiasis in 2016. Then, 20 counties were selected from these 10 provinces. The data on drug treatment including both mass chemotherapy and individual treatment against clonorchiasis were collected and compared. Results All the 10 provinces had no guideline for mass chemotherapy, while only 3 had that for individual treatment against clonorchiasis. Out of 20 counties, only 1 implemented mass chemotherapy. Among these 20 counties, 13 applied praziquantel in individual treatment, while other 7 employed albendazole. In the 12 counties with clear protocol for praziquantel, the total dosage for a man of 60 kg ranged from 3.6 to 18.0 g, the days and times for administration ranged from 1 to 6 and from 3 to 18, respectively. In the 4 counties with clear protocol for albendazole, the total dosage for a man of 60 kg ranged from 0.8 to 8.4 g, the days and times for administration ranged from 2 to 7 and from 2 to 14, respectively. Conclusions Nowadays, the guideline on mass chemotherapy for clonorchiasis is inadequate in China. Although individual treatment is applied in many areas, the protocols vary in drugs, dosage, and days and times for treatment. Thus, the national guideline of mass chemotherapy for clonorchiasis should be established, while the protocols for individual treatment should be standardized.

12.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 513-517, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818712

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the current drug treatment against clonorchiasis in China, in order to promote the standardization of drug treatment and national deworming for clonorchiasis. Methods All the 10 provinces were enrolled, which reported clonorchiasis in the work report for important helminthiasis in 2016. Then, 20 counties were selected from these 10 provinces. The data on drug treatment including both mass chemotherapy and individual treatment against clonorchiasis were collected and compared. Results All the 10 provinces had no guideline for mass chemotherapy, while only 3 had that for individual treatment against clonorchiasis. Out of 20 counties, only 1 implemented mass chemotherapy. Among these 20 counties, 13 applied praziquantel in individual treatment, while other 7 employed albendazole. In the 12 counties with clear protocol for praziquantel, the total dosage for a man of 60 kg ranged from 3.6 to 18.0 g, the days and times for administration ranged from 1 to 6 and from 3 to 18, respectively. In the 4 counties with clear protocol for albendazole, the total dosage for a man of 60 kg ranged from 0.8 to 8.4 g, the days and times for administration ranged from 2 to 7 and from 2 to 14, respectively. Conclusions Nowadays, the guideline on mass chemotherapy for clonorchiasis is inadequate in China. Although individual treatment is applied in many areas, the protocols vary in drugs, dosage, and days and times for treatment. Thus, the national guideline of mass chemotherapy for clonorchiasis should be established, while the protocols for individual treatment should be standardized.

13.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 307-311,328, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704281

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish an evaluation system for health education products of parasitic diseases by using a Del-phi method,so as to provide references for the evaluation of health education products.Methods An expert panel was estab-lished and evaluation indicators were determined by brainstorming and face-to-face discussion,then the weight of each evalua-tion indicator was determined through a two-round Delphi method and the evaluation system was established.Results The eval-uation indicators for material products,graphic design products and audio-visual products were established respectively by ex-pert panel.Four first indicators and 12 second indicators were included in each type of products.The consensus was achieved fol-lowing the two rounds of expert consultation among 23 knowledgeable and experienced experts,who considered"scientificity"and"acceptability"to be the most important of all the first indicators,and"information accuracy"and"behavioral guidance"of all the second indicators.Conclusion A scientific and rational evaluation system is established,and it can be used in compre-hensive evaluation of health education products for parasitic diseases.

14.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 282-288, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704277

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of death cases of echinococcosis in China from 2008 to 2016,so as to provide an important reference for the prevention and control of echinococcosis.Methods The death in-formation registration and management system data were selected to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of the death cas-es of echinococcosis.The data were analyzed by SPSS 21.0 and the map was drawn by ArcGIS 10.1 software.Results From 2008 to 2016,a total of 367 death cases of echinococcosis were reported in China,and the number of deaths in turn was 33,30,21,32,35,54,55,and 81 in each year,with an annual average crude mortality of 129.29/105.The average age of death was(56 ± 18)years;the sex ratio of male to female was 100:94.There was no statistical difference between the male and fe-male death cases(Χ2=0.33,P>0.05).The death cases of echinococcosis were mainly distributed in endemic areas of Qinghai,Sichuan,Ningxia,Xinjiang,Gansu,Inner Mongolia,Yunnan and non-endemic areas of Heilongjiang,Jiangsu,Henan and Shandong.The death cases in the first eleven provinces accounted for 87.5%(321/367)of the total death cases,among which the highest proportions of the nationality,occupation,educational level,highest diagnostic units,and the place of death were Han(52.0%,191/367),farmer(46.6%,171/367),junior high school or below(57.2%,210/367),provincial or three-level hospitals(46.6%,171/367),and at home(59.9%,220/367).Conclusions Since 2014,the death cases of echinococcosis in China have been increasing year by year,indicating that the prevention and treatment of echinococcosis is still very serious.The causes for the rise of the fatality rate remain to be further studied.

15.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 211-214,225, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704261

ABSTRACT

A taeniasis/cysticercosis information management system was designed to achieve the dynamic monitoring of the epidemic situation of taeniasis/cysticercosis and improve the intelligence level of disease information management.The system in-cludes three layer structures(application layer,technical core layer,and data storage layer)and designs a datum transmission and remote communication system of traffic information tube in Browser/Server architecture.The system is believed to promote disease datum collection.Additionally,the system may provide the standardized data for convenience of datum analysis.

16.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control ; (6): 99-103, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704237

ABSTRACT

Cysticercosis refers to a parasitic infection caused by the larvae of pork tapeworm Taenia solium.It is a parasitic zoonosis and listed by the World Health Organization(WHO)as one of the neglected tropical diseases.Cysticercosis is spread-ing all over the world through globalization and it mainly epidemic in developing countries.In the southwest and minority nation-ality areas of China,as a result of the low level of medical and health care,and the unchangeable diet custom,there are still many cases of cysticercosis,which is manifested as a local high prevalence.Neuroimaging is the preferred method for cysticerco-sis diagnosis,and by using CT and MRI scans it is possible to visualise the infecting cysticerci and assess their number and loca-tion within the central nervous system(CNS).The immunological assay is also required in the diagnosis.At present,the preven-tion and control of cysticercosis is still relatively weak.In this paper,the current status and research progress of cysticercosis are reviewed,and further suggestions on the prevention and control of cysticercosis are put forward.

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