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1.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(4): 488-494, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339103

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is characterized by the inability of the adrenal cortex to produce sufficient amounts of glucocorticoids and/or mineralocorticoids. Addison's disease (AD) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are the most frequent disorders in adults and children, respectively. Despite the diagnostic advances and the availability of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacements, adrenal crisis (AC) is still a potentially lethal condition contributing to the increased mortality, not only during the first year of life, but also throughout life. Failure in increasing glucocorticoid doses during acute stress, when greater amounts of glucocorticoids are required, can lead to AC and an increase morbimortality rate of PAI. Considering a mortality rate of 0.5 per 100 patient years, up to 1,500 deaths from AC are expected in Brazil in the coming decade, which represents an alarming situation. The major clinical features are hypotension and volume depletion. Nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, lack of energy, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain are common. The main precipitating factors are gastrointestinal diseases, other infectious disease, stressful events (e.g., major pain, surgery, strenuous physical activity, heat, and pregnancy), and withdrawal of glucocorticoid therapy. Suspected AC requires immediate therapeutic action with intravenous (iv) hydrocortisone, fluid infusion, monitoring support, and antibiotics if necessary. AC is best prevented through patient education, precocious identification and by adjusting the glucocorticoid dosage in stressor situations. The emergency card, warning about acute glucocorticoid replacement, has high value in reducing the morbidity and mortality of AC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Addison Disease , Adrenal Insufficiency/etiology , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital , Hydrocortisone , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
2.
Clinics ; 76: e2052, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153974

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Single nucleotide variants (SNVs) are the most common type of genetic variation among humans. High-throughput sequencing methods have recently characterized millions of SNVs in several thousand individuals from various populations, most of which are benign polymorphisms. Identifying rare disease-causing SNVs remains challenging, and often requires functional in vitro studies. Prioritizing the most likely pathogenic SNVs is of utmost importance, and several computational methods have been developed for this purpose. However, these methods are based on different assumptions, and often produce discordant results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of 11 widely used pathogenicity prediction tools, which are freely available for identifying known pathogenic SNVs: Fathmn, Mutation Assessor, Protein Analysis Through Evolutionary Relationships (Phanter), Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT), Mutation Taster, Polymorphism Phenotyping v2 (Polyphen-2), Align Grantham Variation Grantham Deviation (Align-GVGD), CAAD, Provean, SNPs&GO, and MutPred. METHODS: We analyzed 40 functionally proven pathogenic SNVs in four different genes associated with differences in sex development (DSD): 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 (HSD17B3), steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5A1), androgen receptor (AR), and luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR). To evaluate the false discovery rate of each tool, we analyzed 36 frequent (MAF>0.01) benign SNVs found in the same four DSD genes. The quality of the predictions was analyzed using six parameters: accuracy, precision, negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity, specificity, and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC). Overall performance was assessed using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Our study found that none of the tools were 100% precise in identifying pathogenic SNVs. The highest specificity, precision, and accuracy were observed for Mutation Assessor, MutPred, SNP, and GO. They also presented the best statistical results based on the ROC curve statistical analysis. Of the 11 tools evaluated, 6 (Mutation Assessor, Phanter, SIFT, Mutation Taster, Polyphen-2, and CAAD) exhibited sensitivity >0.90, but they exhibited lower specificity (0.42-0.67). Performance, based on MCC, ranged from poor (Fathmn=0.04) to reasonably good (MutPred=0.66). CONCLUSION: Computational algorithms are important tools for SNV analysis, but their correlation with functional studies not consistent. In the present analysis, the best performing tools (based on accuracy, precision, and specificity) were Mutation Assessor, MutPred, and SNPs&GO, which presented the best concordance with functional studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Computational Biology , Mutation, Missense/genetics , Virulence , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sexual Development , Mutation
3.
Clinics ; 75: e2022, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133398

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging pandemic challenge. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 is characterized by a severe cytokine storm. Patients undergoing glucocorticoid (GC) replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency (AI) represent a highly vulnerable group that could develop severe complications due to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we highlight the strategies to avoid an adrenal crisis in patients with AI and COVID-19. Adrenal crisis is a medical emergency and an important cause of death. Once patients with AI present symptoms of COVID-19, the dose of GC replacement therapy should be immediately doubled. In the presence of any emergency warning signs or inability to administer oral GC doses, we recommend that patients should immediately seek Emergency services to evaluate COVID-19 symptoms and receive 100 mg hydrocortisone by intravenous injection, followed by 50 mg hydrocortisone intravenously every 6 h or 200 mg/day by continuous intravenous infusion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hydrocortisone/administration & dosage , Adrenal Insufficiency/complications , Adrenal Insufficiency/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Severity of Illness Index , Risk Factors , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Injections, Intravenous
4.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(2): 167-174, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001214

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The first description of patients with combined pituitary hormone deficiencies (CPHD) caused by PROP1 mutations was made 20 years ago. Here we updated the clinical and genetic characteristics of patients with PROP1 mutations and summarized the phenotypes of 14 patients with 7 different pathogenic PROP1 mutations followed at the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of Sao Paulo. In addition to deficiencies in GH, TSH, PRL and gonadotropins some patients develop late ACTH deficiency. Therefore, patients with PROP1 mutations require permanent surveillance. On magnetic resonance imaging, the pituitary stalk is normal, and the posterior lobe is in the normal position. The anterior lobe in patients with PROP1 mutations is usually hypoplastic but may be normal or even enlarged. Bi-allelic PROP1 mutations are currently the most frequently recognized genetic cause of CPHD worldwide. PROP1 defects occur more frequently among offspring of consanguineous parents and familial cases, but they also occur in sporadic cases, especially in countries in which the prevalence of PROP1 mutations is relatively high. We classified all reported PROP1 variants described to date according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG-AMP) guidelines: 29 were pathogenic, 2 were likely pathogenic, and 2 were of unknown significance. An expansion of the phenotype of patients with PROP1 mutations was observed since the first description 20 years ago: variable anterior pituitary size, different pathogenic mutations, and late development of ACTH deficiency. PROP1 mutations are the most common cause of autosomal recessive CPHD with a topic posterior pituitary lobe. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(2):167-74


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Phenotype , Septo-Optic Dysplasia/genetics , Hypopituitarism/genetics
5.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 62(3): 352-361, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950067

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and complex endocrine disorder that affects 5-20% of reproductive age women. PCOS clinical symptoms include hirsutism, menstrual dysfunction, infertility, obesity and metabolic syndrome. There is a wide heterogeneity in clinical manifestations and metabolic complications. The pathogenesis of PCOS is not fully elucidated, but four aspects seem to contribute to the syndrome to different degrees: increased ovarian and/or adrenal androgen secretion, partial folliculogenesis arrest, insulin resistance and neuroendocrine axis dysfunction. A definitive etiology remains to be elucidated, but PCOS has a strong heritable component indicated by familial clustering and twin studies. Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified several new risk loci and candidate genes for PCOS. Despite these findings, the association studies have explained less than 10% of heritability. Therefore, we could speculate that different phenotypes and subphenotypes are caused by rare private genetic variants. Modern genetic studies, such as whole exome and genome sequencing, will help to clarify the contribution of these rare genetic variants on different PCOS phenotypes. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2018;62(3):352-61


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/genetics , Phenotype
6.
Clinics ; 73: e480, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952800

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Unfavorable predicted adult height and psychosocial inadequacy represent parameters used to guide therapeutic intervention in girls with central precocious puberty. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog is the first-line treatment. The aim of this study was to compare two methods used to predict adult height and assess a validated tool for predicting the age at menarche in girls with central precocious puberty. METHODS: The predicted adult height of 48 girls with central precocious puberty was calculated at diagnosis using the Bayley-Pinneau method based on average and advanced bone age tables and compared with the predicted adult height calculated using a mathematical model. In addition, the age at spontaneous menarche was predicted using the new formulae. After Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog treatment, the predicted adult height was calculated using only the Bayley-Pinneau tables. RESULTS: The achieved adult height was within the target height range in all treated girls with central precocious puberty. At diagnosis, the predicted adult height using the Bayley-Pinneau tables was lower than that using the mathematical model. After the Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog treatment, the predicted adult height using the Bayley-Pinneau method with the average bone age tables was the closest to the achieved adult height. Using the formulae, the predicted age at spontaneous menarche was 10.1±0.5 yr. The Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog treatment significantly postponed this event until 11.9±0.7 yr in these "idiopathic" central precocious puberty girls, highlighting the beneficial effect of this treatment. CONCLUSION: Both initial adult height prediction methods are limited and must be used with caution. The prediction of the age at spontaneous menarche represents an innovative tool that can help in clinical decisions regarding pubertal suppression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Puberty, Precocious/drug therapy , Body Height/physiology , Menarche/physiology , Models, Statistical , Reference Values , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/analogs & derivatives , Age Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric
7.
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e756s, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974949

ABSTRACT

Malignancy must be considered in the management of adrenal lesions, including those incidentally identified on imaging studies. Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare tumors with an estimated annual incidence of 0.7-2 cases per year and a worldwide prevalence of 4-12 cases per million/year. However, a much higher incidence of these tumors (>15 times) has been demonstrated in south and southeastern Brazil. Most ACCs cause hypersecretion of steroids including glucocorticoids and androgens. ACC patients have a very poor prognosis with a 5-year overall survival (OS) below 30% in most series. Pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma (PPGL) is a metabolically active tumor originating from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. The incidence of PPGL is 0.2 to 0.9 cases per 100,000 individuals per year. Pheochromocytomas are present in approximately 4-7% of patients with adrenal incidentalomas. Classically, PPGL manifests as paroxysmal attacks of the following 4 symptoms: headaches, diaphoresis, palpitations, and severe hypertensive episodes. The diagnosis of malignant PPGL relies on the presence of local invasion or metastasis. In this review, we present the clinical and biochemical characteristics and pathogenesis of malignant primary lesions that affect the cortex and medulla of human adrenal glands.


Subject(s)
Humans , Paraganglioma/therapy , Pheochromocytoma/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/therapy , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/therapy , Adrenocortical Carcinoma/therapy , Paraganglioma/diagnosis , Paraganglioma/pathology , Pheochromocytoma/diagnosis , Pheochromocytoma/pathology , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/pathology , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/pathology , Adrenocortical Carcinoma/diagnosis , Adrenocortical Carcinoma/pathology , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Mitotane/therapeutic use
8.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 61(6): 633-636, Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887602

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) is the most common pituitary hormone deficiency and, clinically, patients have delayed bone age. High sequence similarity between CYP21A2 gene and CYP21A1P pseudogene poses difficulties for exome sequencing interpretation. A 7.5 year-old boy born to second-degree cousins presented with severe short stature (height SDS −3.7) and bone age of 6 years. Clonidine and combined pituitary stimulation tests revealed GH deficiency. Pituitary MRI was normal. The patient was successfully treated with rGH. Surprisingly, at 10.8 years, his bone age had advanced to 13 years, but physical exam, LH and testosterone levels remained prepubertal. An ACTH stimulation test disclosed a non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency explaining the bone age advancement and, therefore, treatment with cortisone acetate was added. The genetic diagnosis of a homozygous mutation in GHRHR (p.Leu144His), a homozygous CYP21A2 mutation (p.Val282Leu) and CYP21A1P pseudogene duplication was established by Sanger sequencing, MLPA and whole-exome sequencing. We report the unusual clinical presentation of a patient born to consanguineous parents with two recessive endocrine diseases: non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia modifying the classical GH deficiency phenotype. We used a method of paired read mapping aided by neighbouring mis-matches to overcome the challenges of exome-sequencing in the presence of a pseudogene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Child , Bone Diseases, Developmental/genetics , Steroid 21-Hydroxylase/genetics , Receptors, Neuropeptide/genetics , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Dwarfism, Pituitary/genetics , Pedigree , Phenotype , Bone Diseases, Developmental/etiology , Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone/genetics , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/complications , Consanguinity , Dwarfism, Pituitary/complications , Mutation
9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 43(5): 841-848, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-892887

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the role of ARDT after surgical resection of ACC. Materials and Methods: Records of patients from our institutional ACC database were retrospectively assessed. A paired comparison analysis was used to evaluate the oncological outcomes between patients treated with surgery followed by ARDT or surgery only (control). The endpoints were LRFS, RFS, and OS. A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was also performed to evaluate local recurrence of ACC when ARDT was used. Results: Ten patients were included in each Group. The median follow-up times were 32 months and 35 months for the ARDT and control Groups, respectively. The results for LRFS (p=0.11), RFS (p=0.92), and OS (p=0.47) were similar among subsets. The mean time to present with local recurrence was significantly longer in the ARDT group compared with the control Group (419±206 days vs. 181±86 days, respectively; p=0.03). ARDT was well tolerated by the patients; there were no reports of late toxicity. The meta-analysis, which included four retrospective series, revealed that ARDT had a protective effect on LRFS (HR=0.4; CI=0.17-0.94). Conclusions: ARDT may reduce the chance and prolong the time to ACC local recurrence. However, there were no benefits for disease recurrence control or overall survival for patients who underwent this complementary therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms , Adrenocortical Carcinoma/radiotherapy , Case-Control Studies , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms/surgery , Adrenocortical Carcinoma/surgery , Adrenalectomy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Disease-Free Survival , Middle Aged
10.
Clinics ; 72(9): 575-581, Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890730

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism is the most common cause of naturally occurring hypercortisolism in dogs. CRHR1 expression in human and dog corticotrophinomas suggested that this gene affects pituitary tumorigenesis. The present study aimed to investigate mutations in the CRHR1 coding region in poodles with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. METHODS: Fifty poodles with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism and 50 healthy poodles were studied. Genomic DNA was amplified by PCR and analyzed by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: The novel CRHR1 p.V97M mutation was identified in one dog. This valine residue, located in the amino-terminal extracellular domain, exhibits high affinity for its corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) ligand. Bioinformatic analysis revealed structural rearrangements in the mutant protein, with a 17% increase in the surface binding affinity between CRHR1 and CRH. In vitro functional studies showed that mutant CRHR1 induced higher ACTH secretion than the wild type after stimulation with human CRH. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that germline activating mutations in CRHR1 may be a rare cause of pituitary hyperadrenocorticism in poodles.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Mutation , Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion/veterinary , Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/genetics , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Association Studies/veterinary , Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion/genetics , Pituitary Gland/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Prospective Studies , Sequence Analysis, DNA/veterinary , Time Factors
11.
Clinics ; 71(12): 695-698, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840026

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Primary ovarian failure is a rare disorder, and approximately 90% of cases are of unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to search for mutations in NANOS3, a gene that was recently related to the etiology of primary ovarian failure, in a group of Brazilian women. METHODS: We screened for NANOS3 DNA variants in 30 consecutive women who were previously diagnosed with primary ovarian failure, of unknown etiology and compared the results with those from 185 women with normal fertility. The NANOS3 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using pairs of specific primers and then sequenced. The resulting sequences were compared with control sequences available in the National Center for Biotechnology and Information database. RESULTS: No mutations in NANOS3 were found in primary ovarian failure patients, but four previously described polymorphisms were identified at a similar frequency in the control and primary ovarian failure groups. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in NANOS3 were not associated with primary ovarian failure in the present cohort.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Primary Ovarian Insufficiency/genetics , Mutation , Polymorphism, Genetic , Brazil , DNA Mutational Analysis , Case-Control Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cohort Studies , Amino Acid Sequence , Electrophoresis/methods , Alleles
12.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 60(5): 500-504, Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-798187

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a variant of congenital adrenal hyperplasia that is caused by POR gene mutations. The POR gene encodes a flavor protein that transfers electrons from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to all microsomal cytochrome P450 type II (including 21-hydroxylase, 17α-hydroxylase 17,20 lyase and aromatase), which is fundamental for their enzymatic activity. POR mutations cause variable impairments in steroidogenic enzyme activities that result in wide phenotypic variability ranging from 46,XX or 46,XY disorders of sexual differentiation, glucocorticoid deficiency, with or without skeletal malformations similar to Antley-Bixler syndrome to asymptomatic newborns diagnosed during neonatal screening test. Little is known about the PORD long-term evolution. We described a 46,XX patient with mild atypical genitalia associated with severe bone malformation, who was diagnosed after 13 years due to sexual infantilism. She developed large ovarian cysts and late onset adrenal insufficiency during follow-up, both of each regressed after hormone replacement therapies. We also described a late surgical approach for the correction of facial hypoplasia in a POR patient.

13.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(2): 108-117, 03/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-709331

ABSTRACT

O início da puberdade caracteriza-se pelo aumento de amplitude e frequência dos pulsos do hormônio secretor de gonadotrofinas (GnRH) após um período de relativa supressão hormonal durante a infância. A reemergência da secreção pulsátil do GnRH resulta em aumento na secreção de gonadotrofinas, hormônio luteinizante (LH) e folículo estimulante (FSH), pela hipófise anterior e consequente ativação gonadal. A ativação prematura do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-gonadal resulta em puberdade precoce dependente de gonadotrofinas, também conhecida como puberdade precoce central (PPC), e se caracteriza pelo desenvolvimento dos caracteres sexuais secundários antes dos 8 anos nas meninas e 9 anos nos meninos. O início do desenvolvimento puberal provém da interação complexa de fatores genéticos, nutricionais, ambientais e socioeconômicos. O diagnóstico clínico da PPC baseia-se em reconhecimento de desenvolvimento puberal progressivo, concentrações púberes de LH em condição basal e/ou após estímulo com GnRH e avanço de idade óssea. A ressonância magnética de encéfalo é útil no estabelecimento de diagnóstico diferencial entre as formas orgânica ou idiopática. Os análogos de GnRH de ação prolongada representam o tratamento de escolha da PPC. O componente genético da PPC foi recentemente fortalecido pela evidência de mutações no gene MKRN3, localizado no braço longo do cromossomo 15, em crianças com PPC familial. Nessa revisão, dados clínicos e terapêuticos da PPC serão amplamente discutidos, visando à atualização e à conduta criteriosa dessa condição clínica de grande relevância na endocrinologia pediátrica.


The onset of puberty is first detected as an increase in the amplitude and frequency of pulses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) after a quiescent period during childhood. The reemergence of pulsatile GnRH secretion leads to increases in the secretion of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) by the pituitary gland, and the consequent activation of gonadal function. Early activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis results in gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty, also known as central precocious puberty (CPP), which is clinically defined by the development of secondary sexual characteristics before the age of 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys. Pubertal timing is influenced by complex interactions among genetic, nutritional, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. CPP is diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs of progressive pubertal development before the age of 8 years in girls and 9 years in boys, pubertal basal and/or GnRH-stimulated LH levels, and advanced bone age. Magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system is essential for establishing the CPP form as organic or idiopathic. Depot GnRH-analogues represent the first-line of therapy in CPP. Very recently, the genetic component of CPP was demonstrated by the evidence that the deficiency of the MKRN3 gene, located on long arm of chromosome 15, causes familial CPP in humans. In this current review, clinical and therapeutic aspects of the CPP will be discussed, contributing to adequate diagnosis and criterious approach of this relevant condition of pediatric endocrinology.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Puberty, Precocious , Age of Onset , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/analogs & derivatives , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism , Hamartoma/complications , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Menarche/physiology , Puberty, Precocious/diagnosis , Puberty, Precocious/drug therapy , Puberty, Precocious/etiology , Reproductive Control Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Clinics ; 69(3): 179-184, 3/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703600

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with clinical and metabolic profiles in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a complex endocrine disease that affects 5-8% of women and may be associated with metabolic syndrome, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cortisol action and dysregulation account for metabolic syndrome development in the general population. As glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) polymorphisms regulate cortisol sensitivity, we hypothesized that variants of this gene may be involved in the adverse metabolic profiles of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. METHOD: Clinical, metabolic and hormonal profiles were evaluated in 97 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome who were diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria. The alleles of the glucocorticoid gene were genotyped. Association analyses were performed using the appropriate statistical tests. RESULTS: Obesity and metabolic syndrome were observed in 42.3% and 26.8% of patients, respectively. Body mass index was positively correlated with blood pressure, triglyceride, LDL-c, total cholesterol, glucose and insulin levels as well as HOMA-IR values and inversely correlated with HDL-c and SHBG levels. The BclI and A3669G variants were found in 24.7% and 13.4% of alleles, respectively. BclI carriers presented a lower frequency of insulin resistance compared with wild-type subjects. CONCLUSION: The BclI variant is associated with a lower frequency of insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Glucocorticoid gene polymorphism screening during treatment of the syndrome may be useful for identifying subgroups of at-risk patients who would benefit the most from personalized treatment. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/genetics , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/metabolism , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/genetics , Alleles , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol , Fluoroimmunoassay , Gene Frequency , Genes, bcl-1/genetics , Hypertension/genetics , Hypertension/metabolism , Insulin Resistance/genetics , Metabolic Syndrome/genetics , Metabolic Syndrome/metabolism , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
15.
Clinics ; 68(6): 785-791, jun. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676928

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of (CA)n repeats in the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene and a variable number of tandem repeats of the insulin gene on birth size in children who are small or adequate-sized for gestational age and to correlate these polymorphisms with serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and insulin sensitivity in children who are small for gestational age, with and without catch-up growth. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 439 infants: 297 that were adequate-sized for gestational age and 142 that were small for gestational age (66 with and 76 without catch-up). The number of (CA)n repeat in the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene and a variable number of tandem repeats in the insulin gene were analyzed using GENESCAN software and polymerase chain reaction followed by enzymatic digestion, respectively. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from all patients. RESULTS: The height, body mass index, paternal height, target height and insulin-like growth factor 1 serum levels were higher in children who were small for gestational age with catch-up. There was no difference in the allelic and genotypic distributions of both polymorphisms between the adequate-sized and small infants or among small infants with and without catch-up. Similarly, the polymorphisms were not associated with clinical or laboratory variables. CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms of the (CA)n repeats of the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene and a variable number of tandem repeats of the insulin gene, separately or in combination, did not influence pre- or postnatal growth, insulin-like growth factor 1 serum levels or insulin resistance. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Insulin/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Tandem Repeat Sequences/genetics , Adenosine , Brazil , Birth Weight/genetics , Blood Glucose/genetics , Body Height/genetics , Body Weight/genetics , Cytosine , Insulin Resistance/genetics , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis , Risk Factors
16.
Clinics ; 68(6): 887-891, jun. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676940

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The expression of transcription factors involved in early pituitary development, such as PROP1 and POU1F1, has been detected in pituitary adenoma tissues. In this study, we sought to characterize the transcriptional profiles of PROP1, POU1F1, and TBX19 in functioning and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas in an attempt to identify their roles in tumorigenesis and hormone hypersecretion. METHODS: RT-qPCR analyses were performed to assess the transcriptional pattern of PROP1, POU1F1, TBX19, and hormone-producing genes in tissue samples of corticotrophinomas (n = 10), somatotrophinomas (n = 8), and nonfunctioning adenomas (n = 6). RESULTS: Compared with normal pituitary tissue, POU1F1 was overexpressed in somatotrophinomas by 3-fold. PROP1 expression was 18-fold higher in corticotrophinomas, 10-fold higher in somatotrophinomas, and 3-fold higher in nonfunctioning adenomas. TBX19 expression was 27-fold higher in corticotrophinomas. Additionally, the level of TBX19 mRNA positively correlated with that of pro-opiomelanocortin (r = 0.49, p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that PROP1 is overexpressed in pituitary adenomas, mainly in corticotrophinomas. Together with previously published data showing that patients who harbor PROP1 loss-of-function mutations present a progressive decline in corticotrope function, our results support a role for PROP1 in pituitary tumor development and in the maintenance of cell lineages committed to corticotrophic differentiation. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma/metabolism , Adenoma/metabolism , Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , T-Box Domain Proteins/metabolism , Transcription Factor Pit-1/metabolism , ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma/genetics , ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma/pathology , Adenoma/genetics , Adenoma/pathology , Cell Differentiation , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Pituitary Gland , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , T-Box Domain Proteins/genetics , Transcription Factor Pit-1/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics , Transcription Factors/metabolism
17.
Clinics ; 68(5): 579-585, maio 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-675761

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with Cushing's disease exhibit wide phenotypic variability in the severity of obesity, diabetes and hypertension. In the general population, several glucocorticoid receptor genes (NR3C1) and HSD11B1 polymorphisms are associated with altered glucocorticoid sensitivity and/or metabolism, resulting in an increased or reduced risk of an adverse metabolic profile. Our aim was to analyze the association of NR3C1 and HSD11B1 gene variants with the severity of some clinical and hormonal features of Cushing's disease. METHODS: Sixty-four patients presenting with Cushing's disease were diagnosed based on adrenocorticotrophic hormone levels, high-dose dexamethasone suppression tests and/or inferior petrosal sinus sampling and magnetic resonance imaging. The A3669G, ER22/23EK, N363S BclI-NR3C1 and HSD11B1-rs12086634 variants were screened. RESULTS: The BclI, HSD11B1-rs12086634 and A3669G variants were found in 36%, 19.5% and 14% of alleles, respectively. The N363S and ER22/23EK polymorphisms were identified in heterozygosis once in only two patients (1.5% of alleles). There were no differences in the weight gain or prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in the patients carrying the abovementioned alleles compared to the wild-type carriers. Interestingly, the mean body mass index (BMI) of the BclI carriers was significantly higher than the non-carriers (34.4±7 kg/m2 vs. 29.6±4.7 kg/m2, respectively). None of the polymorphisms were associated with the basal adrenocorticotrophic hormone, FU levels or F level after dexamethasone suppression testing. CONCLUSION: Although Cushing's disease results from increased glucocorticoid secretion, we observed that interindividual variability in the peripheral glucocorticoid sensitivity, mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor, could modulate the obesity phenotype. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Alleles , /genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/genetics , Body Mass Index , Genotype , Phenotype , Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion/blood
18.
Clinics ; 68(2): 147-152, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-668799

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The protocols for glucocorticoid replacement in children with salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficiency are well established; however, the current recommendation for mineralocorticoid replacement is general and suggests individualized dose adjustments. This study aims to retrospectively review the 9-∝-fludrocortisone dose regimen in salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficient children who have been adequately treated during infancy. METHODS: Twenty-three salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficient patients with good anthropometric and hormonal control were followed in our center since diagnosis. The assessments of cortisone acetate and 9-∝-fludrocortisone doses, anthropometric parameters, and biochemical and hormonal levels were rigorously evaluated in pre-determined intervals from diagnosis to two years of age. RESULTS: The 9-∝-fludrocortisone doses decreased over time during the first and second years of life; the median fludrocortisone doses were 200 µg at 0-6 months, 150 µg at 7-18 months and 125 µg at 19-24 months. The cortisone acetate dose per square meter was stable during follow-up (median = 16.8 mg/m²/day). The serum sodium, potassium and plasma rennin activity levels during treatment were normal, except in the first month of life, when periodic 9-∝-fludrocortisone dose adjustments were made. CONCLUSIONS: The mineralocorticoid needs of salt wasting 21-hydroxylase deficient patients are greater during early infancy and progressively decrease during the first two years of life, which confirms that a partial aldosterone resistance exists during this time. Our study proposes a safety regiment for mineralocorticoid replacement during this critical developmental period.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Fludrocortisone/administration & dosage , Age Factors , Anthropometry , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/genetics , Cortisone/administration & dosage , Cortisone/analogs & derivatives , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
19.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 56(9): 646-652, Dec. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660280

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of variants in the TAC3 and TACR3 genes, which encode NKB and its receptor (NK3R), respectively, in a large cohort of patients with idiopathic central pubertal disorders. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two hundred and thirty seven patients were studied: 114 with central precocious puberty (CPP), 73 with normosmic isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), and 50 with constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP). The control group consisted of 150 Brazilian individuals with normal pubertal development. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and the entire coding region of both TAC3 and TACR3 genes were amplified and automatically sequenced. RESULTS: We identified one variant (p.A63P) in NKB and four variants, p.G18D, p.L58L (c.172C>T), p.W275* and p.A449S in NK3R, which were absent in the control group. The p.A63P variant was identified in a girl with CPP, and p.A449S in a girl with CDGP. The known p.G18D, p.L58L, and p.W275* variants were identified in three unrelated males with normosmic IHH. CONCLUSION: Rare variants in the TAC3 and TACR3 genes were identified in patients with central pubertal disorders. Loss-of-function variants of TACR3 were associated with the normosmic IHH phenotype. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2012;56(9):646-52.


OBJETIVO: Investigar a presença de variantes nos genes TAC3 e TACR3, os quais codificam a NKB e seu receptor (NK3R), respectivamente, em uma coorte de pacientes com distúrbios puberais centrais idiopáticos. SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: Duzentos e trinta e sete pacientes foram estudados: 114 com puberdade precoce central (PPC), 73 com hipogonadismo hipogonadotrófico isolado normósmico (HHI) e 50 com retardo constitucional do crescimento e desenvolvimento (RCCD). O grupo controle consistiu de 150 indivíduos brasileiros que apresentaram desenvolvimento puberal normal. O DNA genômico foi extraído de sangue periférico, e as regiões codificadoras dos genes TAC3 e TACR3 foram amplificadas e sequenciadas automaticamente. RESULTADOS: Uma variante (p.A63P) foi identificada na NKB, e quatro variantes, p.G18D, p.L58L (c.172C>T), p.W275X e p.A449S, foram identificadas no NK3R, as quais foram ausentes no grupo controle. A variante p.A63P foi identificada em uma menina com PPC, e a variante p.A449S, em uma menina com RCCD. As variantes previamente descritas, p.G18D, p.L58L e p.W275X, foram identificadas em três indivíduos com HHI normósmico do sexo masculino não relacionados. CONCLUSÃO: Variantes raras nos genes TAC3 e TACR3 foram identificadas em pacientes com distúrbios puberais centrais idiopáticos. Mutações de perda de função no gene TACR3 foram associadas com o fenótipo de HHI normósmico. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2012;56(9):646-52.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Growth Disorders/genetics , Hypogonadism/genetics , Neurokinin B/genetics , Puberty, Delayed/genetics , Puberty, Precocious/genetics , /genetics , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
20.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 55(8): 632-637, nov. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-610466

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate weight-adjusted strategy for levels of neonatal-17OHP in order to improve newborn screening (NBS) efficiency. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Blood samples collected between 2-7 days of age from 67,640 newborns were evaluated. When N17OHP levels were > 20 ng/mL, and a second sample was requested. We retrospectively analyzed neonatal-17OHP levels measured by Auto DELFIA- B024-112 assay, grouped according to birth-weight: G1: < 1,500 g, G2: 1,501-2,000 g, G3: 2,000-2,500 g and G4: > 2,500 g. 17OHP cutoff values were determined for each group using the 97.5th, 99th, 99.5th and 99.8th percentiles. RESULTS: 0.5 percent of newborns presented false-positive results using the cutoff level > 20 ng/mL for all groups. Neonates of low birthweight made up 69 percent of this group. Seven full-term newborns presented congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and, except for one of them, 17OHP levels were > 120 ng/mL. Only the 99.8th percentile presented higher predictive positive value (2 percent), and lower rate of false-positives in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest the use of 99.8th percentile obtained by weight-adjusted N17OHP values of healthy newborns to reduce the rate of false-positive results in NBS.


OBJETIVO: Avaliamos retrospectivamente os valores da 17OHP ajustados para o peso ao nascimento para melhorar a eficiência da triagem neonatal. SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: 67.640 recém-nascidos com amostras coletadas entre 2-7 dias de vida. Uma segunda amostra foi solicitada na presença de testes com valores da 17OHP > 20 ng/mL. 17OHP dosada pelo método DELFIA- B024-112 e correlacionada com o peso ao nascimento: G1 < 1.500 g, G2 1.501-2.000 g, G3 2.000-2.500 g e G4 > 2.500 g. Pontos de corte da 17OHP foram determinados para cada grupo usando os percentis 97,5th, 99th, 99,5th e 99,8th. RESULTADOS: Falso-positivos ocorreram em 5 por cento dos resultados com o ponto de corte > 20 ng/mL, dos quais 69 por cento eram prematuros. Sete recém-nascidos apresentaram deficiência da 21-hidroxilase e, exceto em um, os valores da 17OHP foram > 120 ng/mL. Somente o valor da 17OHP do 99,8th apresentou maior valor preditivo positivo (2 por cento) e menor índice de falso-positivos. CONCLUSÕES: Sugerimos o valor da 17OHP do 99,8th ajustado para o peso ao nascimento para se reduzir a taxa de resultados falso-positivos da triagem neonatal.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , /blood , Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital/diagnosis , Birth Weight , Neonatal Screening/methods , Brazil/epidemiology , False Positive Reactions , Fluoroimmunoassay/methods , Predictive Value of Tests , Reference Values , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric
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