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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878961

ABSTRACT

The Qinling-Daba Mountains area is the main producing areas of Gynostemma longipes for medicinal usage, and samples of wild whole plants in Pingli, Shaanxi Province and Qingchuan, Sichuan Province were collected. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS~E) was used to profile the chemical compositions and analyze the similarities and differences of G. longipes samples in these areas. Based on the accurate molecular weight and fragment information obtained from Q-TOF-MS~E, the structures of the main components were identified by combining with the mass spectra, chromatographic behaviors of reference standards and related literatures. The results showed that the components of wild G. longipes from different places among Qinling-Daba Mountains area were similar. Forty-five chemical components were identified in the whole plant of G. longipes from Pingli, Shaanxi Province, including 43 triterpenoid saponins and 2 flavonoids which contain all main peaks in its fingerprint. The main components are dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins, such asgypenoside ⅩLⅨ, gypenoside A and its malonylated product of glycosyl.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gynostemma , Mass Spectrometry , Saponins
2.
Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal ; (24): 715-721, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-857718

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the absorption mechanism of paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Alba, both of Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Angelica Sinensis and Siwu Decoction. METHODS: The circulatory perfusion technique was used in this study, the concentrations of paeoniflorin and phenol red in intestinal absorption circulation were respectively determined by HPLC and UV. The effects of pH value, drug concentration, absorption site and P-gp on the absorption of paeoniflorin were investigated separately. RESULTS: By comparing the absorption of paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Alba, both of Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Angelica Sinensis, and Siwu Decoction, it was found that in the sample solution at the same absorption site, pH value and concentration (based on the concentration of paeoniflorin), the absorption, Ka and cumulative absorption of paeoniflorin in compound Siwu decoction group were significantly increased compared with the other groups (P<0.05), while t1/2 was significantly decreased (P<0.05). When combined with the inhibitor and inducer of P-gp, the absorption of paeoniflorin showed significant increase or decrease in the amount of absorption, Ka and cumulative absorption% compared with the control group (P<0.05), and t1/2 also showed significant decrease or increase (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The absorption of paeoniflorin could be affected by P-gp, and under the same conditions, the absorption of paeoniflorin in complicated Chinese herbal formula is better than that in the single herb and herb-pair.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873181

ABSTRACT

Some patients with corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) experienced a severe exacerbation of the disease due to the occurrence of inflammatory storm during the development of the disease. They are complicated with acute respiratory distress, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and other serious complications, with a poor prognosis and a high mortality. For the inflammation storm, western medicine mostly adopts glucocorticoids, nutritional support, artificial ventilation assistance and other measures at present. The development of artificial liver, blood purification therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and other technologies have also reduced the mortality of patients to some extent. However, due to the high requirements for equipment, the measures have not yet been widely carried out. From the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), the basic pathogenesis of COVID-19 is epidemic toxin invasion, lung and spleen being affected by pathogens, damaging vital Qi, and pathological properties involving dampness, heat, poison, stasis and deficiency. At the stage of inflammation storm, the pathogens are abundant, while the vital Qi is deficient, and the pathogens occlude lung, and disturb the heart and mind, and blood stasis and toxicity are combined with Qi-Yin deficiency. In severe cases, even both Yin and Yang exhaustion occurs. At present, a number of studies have shown that a variety of Chinese herbal medicines have multi-target immunomodulatory effect on viral pneumonia and cytokine storm. TCM participates in whole process of the occurrence and development of inflammation storm, mainly eliminating pathogens in early stage, controlling inflammation and blocking occurrence of inflammation storm, eliminating pathogens and strengthening the body resistance to eliminate the pathological products of the inflammation storm, and promoting the dissipation and absorption of inflammation in the middle stage, and saving lives in late stage by benefiting Qi and relieving depletion, and restoring Yang and rescuing from collapse. On the basis of pathophysiological mechanism of COVID-19 inflammation storm and the theory of TCM syndrome differentiation and treatment, this paper summarized the pharmacological studies on intervention on inflammatory storm with relevant Chinese herbal medicine, Chinese medicine prescriptions and Chinese medicine preparations, and discussed the intervention measures of TCM in different development stages of inflammatory storm, in expectation of providing the guidance for clinical treatment.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873180

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, is highly contagious and epidemic, and belongs to the category of "plague" in traditional Chinese medicine, which seriously threatens human life and health. In the face of this sudden public health event, based on the theory of Wenyilun, this paper analyzes the onset characteristics, transmission, and syndrome differentiation-based treatment of COVID-19 in clinical practice. According to the characteristics of this epidemic, the pathogeny of COVID-19 is "epidemic pathogenic factors", and the pathogenesis is that the epidemic suppresses the dampness. Its transmission follows the regularity of "nine transmissions between exterior and interior" recorded in Wenyilun, which can be divided into sequential transmission and reverse transmission. The course of the disease has certain regularity and stages. In the early stage, the pathogen hides in the pleurodiaphragmatic interspace, and the epidemic suppresses the dampness, the treatment shall reach the pleurodiaphragmatic interspace, clear the dampness and turbidness, diffuse the lungs and dredging the lung meridian. In the middle stage, the pathogen can be transmitted to the exterior, the treatment shall be pungent in flavor and cool in property and could relieve the exterior syndrome, so as to remove the pathogen by shivering and sweating. If the dampness toxin enters the interior and be transmitted into the heat, and caused damage to the lung meridian, obstruction of Qi in the lungs, interior excess and heat accumulation, the treatment shall dredge bowel and purge heat, and expel the pathogen out. Any delay in treatment, mistreatment or excessive pathogen can lead to pathogenic invasion into the pericardium, and cause delirium, dysphoria, reversal cold of limbs, barely palpable pulse and other critical manifestations of internal blocking causing external depletion. The treatment shall focus on both attack and supplement, open blocking and relieve depletion. In the recovery period, due to the residual pathogen and the Yin and Qi impairment caused by fever, the treatment shall prevent the recurrence of the residual pathogen, nourish Yin and blood, and restore the vital energy. During the treatment, WU You-ke put forward three principles of "removing the pathogen as the priority, and then avoiding false sweating, and caring for the spleen and stomach". The theory of Wenyilun has a systematic understanding of the pathogeny, pathogenesis, and syndrome differentiation-based treatment of "the epidemic", and provides valuable experience for fight against plagues in later generations, which is also of great significance for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872920

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effect of Paiteling on the proliferation,metastasis and invasion of HeLa cells and relevant proteins of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway. Method:① HeLa cells were divided into blank group and Paiteling concentration gradient groups (3.906,2.604,1.953,1.563,1.302,1.116,0.977 g·L-1). After drug intervention for 24 h,the cell morphological changes were observed under microscope. The cell viability was measured by thiazole blue (MTT) colorimetry,and the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Paiteling on HeLa cells was calculated. ② HeLa cells were divided into blank group,cisplatin group (0.01 g·L-1),Paiteling high-dose group (2.974 g·L-1),Paiteling medium-dose group (1.487 g·L-1) and Paiteling low-dose group (0.991 g·L-1). Cell proliferation and toxicity test (CCK-8) method was used to detect the effect of Paiteling on the proliferation ability of HeLa cells,scratch test was used to detect cell migration,and invasion test (Transwell) was used to detect changes in cell invasion ability. ③ Inhibitor LY294002 group (0.006 g·L-1) was added. Western blot (WB) was used to detect the expressions of Paiteling on PI3K,Akt,recombinant human B-cell lymphoma factor-xl (Bcl-xl),and B-cell lymphoma/leukemia associated D protein (Bad). Result:① Compared with the blank group,microscopic observation showed that the number of cells in the treatment group was significantly reduced, and the cell morphology was incomplete. MTT experiments showed that Paiteling has a significantly inhibitory effect on HeLa cell proliferation (P<0.01). The IC50 of Paiteling on HeLa cells was calculated as 2.974 g·L-1. ② The CCK-8 experiment showed that compared with the blank group,all the drug-treated groups had an inhibitory effect on HeLa cell proliferation at 24,36,48 h (P<0.01), compared with the cisplatin group,middle and low-dose Paiteling groups showed a reduced inhibitory effect on HeLa cell proliferation at each time point (P<0.01). The scratch test showed that,compared with the blank group,each drug-added group could inhibit the migration ability of HeLa cells (P<0.01),and the cell migration rate of the high-dose Paiteling group was lower than that of the cisplatin group (P<0.05). Transwell experiments showed that compared with the blank group,the number of membranes permeated by HeLa cells in each drug-treated group was decreased (P<0.01),and the number of membranes permeated in the middle and low-dose Paiteling groups was increased compared with the cisplatin group (P<0.01). ③ Western blot showed that compared with the blank group,the expression levels of PI3K,Bcl-xl,and Akt in the high,medium,and low-dose Paiteling groups and the LY294002 group decreased (P<0.05,P<0.01),while the expression of Bad increased (P<0.01). Compared with the high-dose Paiteling group,the PI3K,Akt,and Bcl-xl protein expressions were increased in the low-dose Paiteling group (P<0.01),whereas Bad expression was decreased (P<0.01). Conclusion:Paiteling can inhibit HeLa cell proliferation,metastasis and invasion ability in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner,which may be related to its effect on the expressions of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway-related proteins.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773442

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#A strain of Aspergillus niger (A. niger), capable of releasing bound phenolic acids from wheat bran, was isolated. This strain was identified by gene sequence identification. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity of ferulic acid released from wheat bran by this A. niger strain (FA-WB) were evaluated.@*METHODS@#Molecular identification techniques based on PCR analysis of specific genomic sequences were conducted; antioxidant ability was examined using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays, and erythrocyte hemolysis assays. RAW264.7 cells were used as a model to detect anti-inflammatory activity.@*RESULTS@#The filamentous fungal isolate was identified to be A. niger. ORAC and CAA assay showed that FA-WB had better antioxidant activity than that of the ferulic acid standard. The erythrocyte hemolysis assay results suggested that FA-WB could attenuate AAPH-induced oxidative stress through inhibition of reactive oxy gen species (ROS) generation. FA-WB could significantly restore the AAPH-induced increase in intracellular antioxidant enzyme activities to normal levels as well as inhibit the intracellular malondialdehyde formation. TNF-a, IL-6, and NO levels indicated that FA-WB can inhibit the inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).@*CONCLUSION@#Ferulic acid released from wheat bran by a new strain of A. niger had good anti-inflammatory activity and better antioxidant ability than standard ferulic acid.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Antioxidants , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Aspergillus niger , Genetics , Metabolism , Coumaric Acids , Metabolism , Pharmacology , DNA, Fungal , Dietary Fiber , Microbiology , Erythrocytes , Metabolism , Fermentation , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Pharmacology , Mice , Sheep , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 555-564, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-780136

ABSTRACT

Melatonin (MLT) is an endogenous chemical that has antitumor effects at high doses. However, it shows low oral bioavailability and short in vivo half-life, leading to drug resistance. Here, liposomal melatonin dry powder inhalers (LMD) were prepared, and were used for treatment of primary rat lung cancer by pulmonary delivery. Liposomal melatonin (LM) was prepared by the ethanol injection method to achieve an entrapment efficiency of 98.89%. LMD was obtained by freeze-drying after LM was mixed with mannitol. LMD appeared as spherical particles under a scanning electron microscope. The rehydrated liposomes had a small size of 65.15 nm and the zeta potential of -14.2 mV without change inentrapment efficiency. LMD had an aerodynamic particle size of 6.73 ± 0.012 μm and a fine particle fraction (FPF<8.06 μm) of 22.2%, suitable for pulmonary delivery. When administered with the same dose, LMD showed much higher inhibition on A549 lung cancer cells than MLT and gemcitabine. LMD of a large dose had no effect on the growth of normal lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Rat lung cancer models were established after 45 days by instilling 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) and N,N-dimethylnitrosamine (DEN) into the rat lungs once (the experiments had been approved by the ethics committee and carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations). Decreases of tumor nodules and inflammatory cells in the tumor-bearing rat lungs were observed after treatment of MLT, gemcitabine and LMD by pulmonary delivery compared with the models, wherein LMD was most effective. The efficiencies of inhibition of NF-κB p65, increase of Tunel detection (indicating enhancement of apoptosis), and decrease of malondialdehyde corresponded to LMD being most effective. Therefore, given the fact that LMD can deliver the drug into the tumor tissues of lungs, and it presents as a promising pulmonary inhalable regiment for treatment of lung cancer.

8.
Journal of Medical Postgraduates ; (12): 595-601, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-700879

ABSTRACT

Objective Little is known about the effect of RNAi on mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. This study aims to explore the effects of the Survivin shRNA-APC double-gene on colon cancer mitochondrial apoptosis pathway-related factors survivin,cytochrome C (Cytc),second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac),and cysteine aspartic acid specific protease 9 (Caspase-9) as well as on the apoptosis of colon cancer transplanted tumor (CCTT) cells. Methods Thirty nude mice were randomly divided into five groups of equal number,Survivin shRNA-APC double-gene,survivin shRNA,APC,empty vector and blank transfection. The CCTT model was established in the nude mice by subcutaneous injection of the colon cancer cell strains stably transfected with the Survivin shRNA-APC double-gene,survivin shRNA,APC,an empty vector and HT-29,respectively,into the mid-posterior part of the left armpit of the nude mice. The rate of tumor growth inhibition was calculated by measuring the volume and weight of the CCTTs in the nude mice. The mRNA and protein expressions of survivin,Cytc,Smac and Caspase-9 in the tumor tissue were detected by real time PCR and immunohistochemistry,respectively,and the apoptosis rate of the CCTT cells was detected by TUNEL. Results The model of CCTT was successfully established in the nude mice. Com-pared with the empty vector and blank transfection groups,the mice in the double-gene,survivin shRNA and APC groups showed sig-nificantly decreased average volume and weight of the tumor tissue (P<0.05) but increased inhibition rate of its volume and weight (P<0.05). In comparison with the survivin shRNA and APC groups,the double-gene group exhibited remarkably decreased average volume and weight of the tumor tissue (P<0.05) but increased inhibition rate of its volume and weight (P<0.05). The mRNA and pro-tein expressions of survivin were significantly lower while those of Cytc,Smac and Caspase-9 markedly higher in the double-gene,sur-vivin shRNA and APC groups than in the empty vector and blank transfection groups (P<0.05),the former even lower (P<0.05) and the latter even higher in the double-gene than in the survivin shRNA and APC groups (P<0.05). The apoptosis rate of the CCTT cells was significantly increased in the double-gene ([56.78±3.04]%),survivin shRNA ([33.61±2.02]%) and APC groups ([30.16± 1.72]%) as compared with the empty vector ([10.05±0.42]%) and blank transfection groups ([9.87±0.30])% (P<0.05),even higher in the double-gene group than in the survivin shRNA and APC groups (P<0.05). Conclusion The Survivin shRNA-APC double-gene may induce apoptosis of colon cancer transplanted tumor cells by down-regulating the expression of the apoptosis inhibitor survivin,upregulating the expressions of Cytc,Smac and Caspase-9,and suppressing the growth of the colon transplanted tumor,with more significant abilities than a single gene in regulating apoptosis-related factors,inducing cell apoptosis and inhibiting the growth of the transplanted tumor.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 634-640, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779640

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aim to develop a pH-sensitive transmembrane peptide TH (AGYLLGHINLHH LAHL(Aib)HHIL-Cys) modified liposome loaded with immunoadjuvant α-galactosylceramides (αGC-TH- Lip) and then investigate its effect on the immune function in tumor-bearing mice and its immune mechanism of action. The liposomes were prepared by membrane dispersion-probe ultrasound method and the size and zeta potential of αGC-TH-Lip were also characterized. The uptake of TH modified liposomes (TH-Lip) and polyethylene glycols modified liposomes (PEG-Lip) in DC2.4 cells in vitro were analyzed and the activation of natural killer T (NKT), natural killer (NK) and macrophages in tumor-bearing mice were also measured after systemic administrations of samples. Besides, the degree of maturation of dendritic cell (DC), the number of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and the differentiation of helper T cell (Th) were determined. The results showed the particle size of αGC-TH-Lip was about 117.9 nm and the zeta potential was about -8.37 mV under the neutral condition (pH 7.4) and the αGC-TH-Lip had high serum stability in 50% fetal bovine serum. The uptake of TH-Lip in DC2.4 cells in vitro was 1.48 times higher than that of PEG-Lip. After systemic administrations of the samples, the numbers of NKT cells, NK cells and macrophages in tumor-bearing mice were (0.43±0.048)%, (12.80±0.50)% and (3.13±0.26)%, respectively, and the number of mature DCs and CTLs reached (2.30±0.22)% and (32.30±0.80)% separately, which was significantly different from the con-trol group. Finally, we discovered the αGC-TH-Lip had the strongest induction effect on the differentiation of Th1 cells, while barely promote the differentiation of Th2 cells. All the above results demonstrated that the αGC-TH-Lip can improve the immune the activity of mice, enhance the effect of α-galactosylceramide and promote the differentiation of lymphocytes toward the direction of cellular immunity, which consequently achieve a better anti-cancer immune activity.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327911

ABSTRACT

To study the chemical constituents of Cymbopogon citratus, isolation and purification of constituents were carried out on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and prepatative HPLC. The structures of the compounds were identified by physicchemical properties and spectral data analysis. Eight compounds were isolated and identified as 3beta-methoxy lanosta-9(11)-en-27-ol (1), 3beta-hydroxylanosta-9 (11)-en (2), (24S) -3beta-methoxylanosta-9(11), 25-dien-24-ol (3), 8-hydroxyl-neo-menthol (4), (2E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,7-octadiene-1, 6-diol (5), (+)-citronellol (6), 7-hydroxymenthol (7) and ethyl nonadecanoate(8). Compounds 1 is a new one. Compounds 2-3 are obtained from C. citratus for the first time.


Subject(s)
Cymbopogon , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Triterpenes , Chemistry
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