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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915541

ABSTRACT

Background@#To investigate the clinical findings of choroideremia patients and perform genetic analysis by whole-exome sequencing (WES). @*Methods@#A total of 94 patients initially diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) at another hospital, and who visited our hospital for genetic analysis by WES, were included in the study, along with 64 family members. All subjects underwent comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation, including best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp examination, fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein angiography (FAG), visual field (VF), electroretinogram (ERG), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). @*Results@#In six male patients with suspected choroideremia, extensive retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and severe loss of choroid were observed in the fundus, but not in the macula. CHM gene mutation was confirmed in five patients. A novel single nucleotide variant at a splice site was observed in one patient. OCT showed marked thinning of the outernuclear layer and choroid, except in the macula. FAF showed a small area of hyperfluorescence in the posterior pole. In addition, characteristic interlaminar bridges were observed in four patients. On FAG, hypofluorescence was seen up to the far-peripheral retina in five patients. @*Conclusion@#Of the 94 patients initially diagnosed with RP, CHM mutation was identified in five (5.3%) by WES. Choroideremia should be considered as a differential diagnosis of RP.WES would be useful for identifying the causes of hereditary retinal disease.

2.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 77-82, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902832

ABSTRACT

We present the case of a healthy 28-day-old female full-term neonate who was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit for severe metabolic acidosis, hypoglycemia, and an initial sinus rhythm. The first diagnostic hypothesis was hypovolemic shock, and fluid resuscitation was started immediately. During fluid therapy, cardiovascular collapse occurred with supraventricular tachycardia. The latter was successfully treated with adenosine and beta-blockers. After 8 days, electrocardiography showed ventricular pre-excitation, and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome was diagnosed. A novel variant of the MYL2 gene that is related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and conduction defect was found after discharge. Cardiogenic shock should be considered, despite being a rare cause of shock in neonates.

3.
Neonatal Medicine ; : 77-82, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895128

ABSTRACT

We present the case of a healthy 28-day-old female full-term neonate who was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit for severe metabolic acidosis, hypoglycemia, and an initial sinus rhythm. The first diagnostic hypothesis was hypovolemic shock, and fluid resuscitation was started immediately. During fluid therapy, cardiovascular collapse occurred with supraventricular tachycardia. The latter was successfully treated with adenosine and beta-blockers. After 8 days, electrocardiography showed ventricular pre-excitation, and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome was diagnosed. A novel variant of the MYL2 gene that is related to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and conduction defect was found after discharge. Cardiogenic shock should be considered, despite being a rare cause of shock in neonates.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810929

ABSTRACT

Kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (kEDS) is an autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder characterized by muscular hypotonia, hyperextensible skin, skin fragility, joint hypermobility, and progressive kyphoscoliosis. The disorder results from a deficiency of the enzyme collagen lysyl hydroxylase 1 due to mutations in the gene PLOD1. We describe the rare cases of kEDS in Korean siblings with two novel compound heterozygous variants, c.926_934del (p.Leu309_Leu311del) and c.2170_2172del (p.Phe724del) in the PLOD1 gene. They had congenital hypotonia, joint laxity, skin hyperextensibility, Marfanoid habitus, high myopia and atrophic scarring. The younger sibling had an early-onset progressive kyphoscoliosis, while the older sibling showed mild scoliosis during childhood. Intrafamilial variability of the clinical severity and age of kyphoscoliosis onset observed in our cases.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899802

ABSTRACT

Kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (kEDS) is an autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder characterized by muscular hypotonia, hyperextensible skin, skin fragility, joint hypermobility, and progressive kyphoscoliosis. The disorder results from a deficiency of the enzyme collagen lysyl hydroxylase 1 due to mutations in the gene PLOD1. We describe the rare cases of kEDS in Korean siblings with two novel compound heterozygous variants, c.926_934del (p.Leu309_Leu311del) and c.2170_2172del (p.Phe724del) in the PLOD1 gene. They had congenital hypotonia, joint laxity, skin hyperextensibility, Marfanoid habitus, high myopia and atrophic scarring. The younger sibling had an early-onset progressive kyphoscoliosis, while the older sibling showed mild scoliosis during childhood. Intrafamilial variability of the clinical severity and age of kyphoscoliosis onset observed in our cases.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892098

ABSTRACT

Kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (kEDS) is an autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder characterized by muscular hypotonia, hyperextensible skin, skin fragility, joint hypermobility, and progressive kyphoscoliosis. The disorder results from a deficiency of the enzyme collagen lysyl hydroxylase 1 due to mutations in the gene PLOD1. We describe the rare cases of kEDS in Korean siblings with two novel compound heterozygous variants, c.926_934del (p.Leu309_Leu311del) and c.2170_2172del (p.Phe724del) in the PLOD1 gene. They had congenital hypotonia, joint laxity, skin hyperextensibility, Marfanoid habitus, high myopia and atrophic scarring. The younger sibling had an early-onset progressive kyphoscoliosis, while the older sibling showed mild scoliosis during childhood. Intrafamilial variability of the clinical severity and age of kyphoscoliosis onset observed in our cases.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831757

ABSTRACT

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a heterogeneous group of clonal disorders characterized by the overproduction of mature blood cells that have an increased risk of thrombosis and progression to acute myeloid leukemia. Next-generation sequencing studies have provided key insights regarding the molecular mechanisms of MPNs. MPN driver mutations in genes associated with the JAK-STAT pathway include JAK2 V617F, JAK2 exon 12 mutations and mutations in MPL, CALR, and CSF3R. Cooperating driver genes are also frequently detected and also mutated in other myeloid neoplasms; these driver genes are involved in epigenetic methylation, messenger RNA splicing, transcription regulation, and signal transduction. In addition, other genetic factors such as germline predisposition, order of mutation acquisition, and variant allele frequency also influence disease initiation and progression. This review summarizes the current understanding of the genetic basis of MPN, and demonstrates how molecular pathophysiology can improve both our understanding of MPN heterogeneity and clinical practice.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831635

ABSTRACT

Philadelphia-negative (Ph−) classical myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) include polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis. Somatic driver mutations in the JAK2, CALR, and MPL genes serve as major diagnostic criteria of the Ph− MPNs and these mutations occur in a mutually exclusive manner. In this report, we describe the first case of ET harboring double mutations in JAK2 V617F and MPL. For MPL, the patient had multiple clones of MPL mutations: c.1543_1546delinsAGGG (p.Trp515_Gln516delinsArgGlu) and c.1546C>G (p.Gln516Glu). The JAK2 V617F allele burden in our patient is very low (4%) compared to the relatively high (17%–78%) allele frequency of MPL mutations. The low JAK2 mutant burden might be explained by preexisting clonal hematopoiesis before overt signs of MPNs, followed by the acquisition of a second oncogenic mutation of CALR or MPL leading to the MPN phenotype. This highlights that screening for a second driver mutation should be considered in patients with a low JAK2 mutant burden by reporting a 57-year-old Korean man with ET.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785394

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Poor reporting quality in diagnostic accuracy studies hampers an adequate judgment of the validity of the study. The Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (STARD) statement was published to improve the reporting quality of diagnostic accuracy studies. This study aimed to evaluate the adherence of diagnostic accuracy studies published in Annals of Laboratory Medicine (ALM) to STARD 2015 and to identify directions for improvement in the reporting quality of these studies.METHODS: Two independent authors assessed articles published in ALM between 2012–2018 for compliance with 30 STARD 2015 checklist items to identify all eligible diagnostic accuracy studies published during this period. We included 66 diagnostic accuracy studies. A total of the fulfilled STARD items were calculated, and adherence was analyzed on an individual-item basis.RESULTS: The overall mean±SD number of STARD items reported for the included studies was 11.2±2.7. Only five (7.6%) studies adhered to more than 50% of the 30 items. No study satisfied more than 80% of the items. Large variability in adherence to reporting standards was detected across items, ranging from 0% to 100%.CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to STARD 2015 is suboptimal among diagnostic accuracy studies published in ALM. Our study emphasizes the necessity of adherence to STARD to improve the reporting quality of future diagnostic accuracy studies to be published in ALM.


Subject(s)
Checklist , Compliance , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Judgment
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762426

ABSTRACT

This erratum is being published to revise the website address of the Korean Reference Genome Database (KRGDB) and correct two typographical errors in the article.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719473

ABSTRACT

Cytogenetic dosimetry is useful for evaluating the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation based on analysis of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations. We created two types of in vitro dose-response calibration curves for dicentric chromosomes (DC) and translocations (TR) induced by X-ray irradiation, using an electron linear accelerator, which is the most frequently used medical device in radiotherapy. We irradiated samples from four healthy Korean individuals and compared the resultant curves between individuals. Aberration yields were studied in a total of 31,800 and 31,725 metaphases for DC and TR, respectively, obtained from 11 X-ray irradiation dose-points (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Gy). The dose-response relationship followed a linear-quadratic equation, Y=C+αD+βD², with the coefficients C=0.0011 for DC and 0.0015 for TR, α=0.0119 for DC and 0.0048 for TR, and β=0.0617 for DC and 0.0237 for TR. Correlation coefficients between irradiation doses and chromosomal aberrations were 0.971 for DC and 0.6 for TR, indicating a very strong and a moderate correlation, respectively. This is the first study implementing cytogenetic dosimetry following exposure to ionizing X-radiation.


Subject(s)
Calibration , Chromosome Aberrations , Cytogenetics , In Vitro Techniques , Particle Accelerators , Radiation, Ionizing , Radiotherapy
14.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 351-359, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716224

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumors of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues was recently published in a revised fourth edition. The categories of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) have not significantly changed since the 2008 fourth edition of the classification; however, newly discovered mutations including CALR and CSF3R and improved characterizations and standardizations of morphological features of some entities, particularly BCR-ABL1-negative MPNs, have impacted the diagnostic criteria of disease entities, increasing the reliability and reproducibility of diagnoses. The 2017 revised edition attempts to incorporate new clinical, prognostic, morphologic, and genetic data that have emerged since the last edition. This article reviews the major changes in the classification and their rationale for MPN classification within the revised 2017 WHO system.


Subject(s)
Classification , Diagnosis , Global Health , Lymphoid Tissue , Myeloproliferative Disorders , Polycythemia Vera , Primary Myelofibrosis , Thrombocythemia, Essential , World Health Organization
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The identification of genetic abnormalities in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) has gained emphasis because genetics-based risk stratification significantly affects overall survival (OS). We investigated genetic abnormalities using conventional cytogenetics and FISH and analyzed the prognostic significance of the identified additional abnormalities in MM. METHODS: In total, 267 bone marrow samples were collected from February 2006 to November 2013 from patients who were newly diagnosed as having MM in a tertiary-care hospital in Korea. The clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively obtained. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to examine the relationship between clinical/genetic factors and survival outcome, using univariate and multivariate models. RESULTS: Using conventional cytogenetic analysis and FISH, 45% (120/267) and 69% (183/267) patients, respectively, were identified to harbor genetic abnormalities. In the univariate analysis, the following genetic variables were identified to affect OS: abnormal karyotype (P 65 years) (P=0.013) with an HR of 2.505 (95% CI, 1.218–5.151). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the importance of applying a comprehensive approach for detecting genetic abnormalities, which could be closely associated with the prognostic significance of MM.


Subject(s)
Abnormal Karyotype , Aneuploidy , Bone Marrow , Cytogenetic Analysis , Cytogenetics , Humans , Korea , Multiple Myeloma , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: False-positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) results in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) for colorectal cancer may lead to unnecessary procedures, such as colonoscopies, increasing the medical costs. We estimated reductions in the cost of National Health Insurance according to the accreditation status of screening facilities participating in the NCSP for colorectal cancer. METHODS: We used data collected between 2007 and 2010 from NCSP and the Korea Central Cancer Registry to identify patients with colorectal cancer. We also ascertained the history of the accreditation of each facility by the Korean Laboratory Accreditation Program (KLAP). Budget impact was defined as a reduction in medical costs achieved when the false-positive rate of the non-accredited facilities decreased relative to that of the accredited facilities. RESULTS: A total of 3,285 screening facilities participated in the NCSP. Of these, 196 were accredited by the KLAP. The false-positive rate of the accredited facilities was 2.47%, and that of the non-accredited facilities was 6.83%. Medical costs were estimated to be reduced by approximately 19 million US dollars (USD), and the cost of detecting one case of colorectal cancer was estimated to decrease from 9,212 USD to 7,332 USD if the false-positive rate of non-accredited facilities were decreased to that of the accredited facilities. Clinics were estimated to have the largest associated cost reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Quality assurance in clinical laboratories could lower false-positive rates and prevent the use of unnecessary procedures, ensuring patient safety and increasing the cost-effectiveness of FIT screening in the NCSP for colorectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Accreditation , Budgets , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Korea , Mass Screening , National Health Programs , Patient Safety , Quality Improvement , Unnecessary Procedures
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Without standardization of medical laboratory's testing practices, there is an increase in false diagnoses when relying on test results. However, the effect of test standardization is difficult to assess numerically. This study's purpose is to quantify the effect of the standardization level of a laboratory on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). METHODS: Laboratories were classified into three levels: ‘highly-standardized laboratory,’‘basically-standardized laboratory,’ and ‘non-standardized laboratory.’ Based on the results of Korean External Quality Assessment Scheme (KEQAS), the cutoff values for diagnosis of DM and IFG were recalculated, given false positive and false negative rates. RESULTS: The prevalence of DM and IFG in the population as a whole was estimated using the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) database. When the prevalence of DM from KNHANES was 11.88% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.59%–13.17%), the proportion with a systematic false error ranged from 10.91% (95% CI, 9.65%–12.17%) to 13.09% (95% CI, 11.74%–14.45%). The prevalence of IFG varied from 13.59% (95% CI, 12.25%–14.91%) to 40.49% (95% CI, 38.54%–42.43%), in contrast to 24.58% (95% CI, 22.85%–26.31%) of the reference value. The prevalence of DM and IFG tended to be over- and under-estimated more as the laboratory standardization level became lower, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study proved that standardization of clinical laboratory tests is an important factor affecting the prevalence estimation of national disease statistics based on the simulation using KNHANES data.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Fasting , Glucose , Korea , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Reference Values
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224342

ABSTRACT

The demand for rapid and broad clinical toxicology screens is on the rise. Recently, a new rapid toxicology screening test, the Triage TOX Drug Screen (Alere Inc., USA), which can simultaneously detect 11 drugs of abuse and therapeutic drugs with an instrument-read cartridge, was developed. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of this new on-site immunoassay using 105 urine specimens; the results were compared with those obtained by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-TMS). Precision was evaluated according to the CLSI EP12-A2 for analyte concentrations near the cutoff, including C₅₀ and±30% of C₅₀, for each drug using standard materials. The C₅₀ specimens yielded 35–65% positive results and the ±30% concentration range of all evaluated drugs encompassed the C₅–C₉₅ interval. The overall percent agreement of the Triage TOX Drug Screen was 92.4–100% compared with UPLC-TMS; however, the Triage TOX Drug Screen results showed some discordant cases including acetaminophen, amphetamine, benzodiazepine, opiates, and tricyclic antidepressants. The overall performance of the Triage TOX Drug Screen assay was comparable to that of UPLC-TMS for screening of drug intoxication in hospitals. This assay could constitute a useful screening method for drugs of abuse and therapeutic drugs in urine.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Amphetamine , Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic , Benzodiazepines , Chromatography, Liquid , Immunoassay , Mass Screening , Methods , Illicit Drugs , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Toxicology , Triage
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224341

ABSTRACT

Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) has been suggested as a useful new biomarker of lung cancer; however, few relevant large-scale studies have been published. In this study, we evaluated the utility of serum HE4 for lung cancer detection. HE4 levels were measured in serum samples from 100 lung cancer patients, 57 patients with benign lung diseases, and 274 healthy controls by using a chemiluminescent immunoassay, and variations in HE4 levels were analyzed by clinical status such as lung cancer, benign lung disease, and healthy condition, Tumor, Lymph Nodes, Metastasis (TNM) stage, tumor score, and histological cancer type. Lung cancer patients had significantly higher serum HE4 levels than patients with benign lung diseases and healthy controls (P<0.0001). The area under the ROC curve for HE4 was 0.84 (95% confidence interval, 0.78–0.89; P<0.0001) between lung cancer patients and healthy controls. Serum HE4 levels were significantly higher in patients with advanced disease (according to TNM stage) than in healthy controls (P<0.0001). HE4 levels were significantly elevated in patients with tumors of all types, those of different histological subgroups, and those with the smallest tumors (P=0.002). This report supports the potential of serum HE4 as an ancillary diagnostic marker for lung cancer detection.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor , Epididymal Secretory Proteins , Humans , Immunoassay , Lung Diseases , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Lymph Nodes , Male , Neoplasm Metastasis , ROC Curve
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