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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916893

ABSTRACT

Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are common intracranial vascular malformations and they are generally do not cause clinical complications. In cases showing DVA and hemorrhage, the hemorrhage is usually associated with adjacent cavernous malformations. Very few cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) caused by thrombosis in DVA have been reported in the literature. In this case report, we present an interesting case of a large ICH caused by thrombosis within a DVA with an unusual structure that may have potentiated the thrombosis.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918155

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:Shift work has been known to cause various health problems by making it difficult for humans to adapt to their natural circadian rhythms. In particular, shift workers tend to complain of sleep difficulties associated with work schedules, and sometimes use alcohol as a self-medication to induce sleep. To date, no clear mechanism has been identified regarding the link between shift work and sleep, between shift work and drinking. This study aims to confirm the relationship between shift work and sleep, and to analyze whether the change in sleep caused by shift work causes drinking. @*Methods@#:This study included 11360 people (5704 men and 5656 women) among the Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data in 2014, 2016 and 2018. The work type between 6am-6pm was defined as day work, and other work types were defined as shift work. Using logistic regression analysis, the relationship between shift work and sleep quality, shift work and high risk drinking, drinking amount at 1 time, drinking frequency were an-alyzed. In addition, we analyzed whether sleep mediates the relationship between shift work and drinking using mediated analysis. @*Results@#:Shift work showed a significant negative relationship with sleep quality in men and women (male OR=1.37, 95% CI 1.11-1.70, female OR=1.26, 95% CI=1.05-1.50). There was no significant relationship be-tween shift work and alcohol in the case of men, but in the case of women, there was a significant positive relation-ship between shift work and the number of alcohol consumption (OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.04-1.72). When mediation analysis was conducted, it was found that women's sleep quality partially mediated the relationship between shift work and the frequency of drinking. @*Conclusions@#:The results of this study suggest that shift work causes sleep difficulties, and in the case of women, drinking can be induced through the partial mediating effect of sleep. Considering that women are more likely to choose drinking as a coping method for sleep problems, more active interventions for female shift workers are needed.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915771

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study examines the correlation between fish consumption and the risk of mild cognitive impairment in the elderly living in rural areas. @*Methods@#The Yangpyeong cohort data collected from Yangpyeong in July 2009 and August 2010 was used as the data set. Adults greater than or equal to 60 years who have completed the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-KC) were selected for the study. After excluding participants with less than 500 kcal of energy intake (n = 2), a total of 806 adults were enrolled as the final subjects. Cognitive function was assessed using the MMSE-KC, and dietary intake was collected using the quantitative food frequency questionnaire comprising 106 foods or food groups. @*Results@#The educational level, proportion of people who exercise, fruits and vegetable intake, and energy intake, tended to increase with fish intake among men, while increasing age resulted in decreased fish consumption. Among women, the educational level, proportion of subjects who exercise, proportion of subjects currently taking dietary supplements, fruits and vegetable intake, and energy intake, tended to increase with fish consumption, whereas increasing age showed decreasing fish consumption. Increased fish intake resulted in a higher MMSE-KC score after adjusting for the confounding variables in women (p for trend = 0.016), but no significant trend was observed between fish intake and MMSE-KC score in men. Fish intake was inversely related to the risk of mild cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates in women (Q1 vs. Q4; odds ratio, 0.46 [0.23–0.90]; p for trend = 0.009). @*Conclusion@#This study determined that increased fish consumption is correlated with reduced risk of mild cognitive impairment in the female elderly. Further longitudinal studies with larger samples are required to determine a causal relationship between fish intake and cognitive function.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915470

ABSTRACT

Background@#Regular assessments of clinical performance in gynecologic cancer surgery is important for the safety of patients. We evaluated the effects of quality control (QC) program on the treatment pattern and clinical outcomes of early cervical cancer. @*Methods@#Medical records of cervical cancer patients who received operation in our institution from January 2007 to December 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases were divided into 2 groups, before and after the initiation of QC program, group 1 (2007–2013) and group 2 (2014–2018), based on the operation date. Two groups were compared in clinicopathologic variables, surgical methods, operative details, adjuvant treatments, recurrence and survival. @*Results@#A total of 305 cervical cancer patients were included in the analysis, 210 in group 1 and 95 in group 2. In group 2, minimally invasive surgery (MIS) was more frequently performed (60.0% vs. 76.8%, P = 0.004), especially in earlier stages (stage IA, 72.6% vs. 100.0%; stage IB, 52.2% vs. 69.5%). However, the median tumor size treated by MIS was decreased in stage IB (20 mm vs. 17 mm, P = 0.015). Frequency of adjuvant treatment was also reduced in stage IB (56.5% vs. 37.3%, P = 0.016). Recurrence within 3 years, 3-year disease free survival and overall survival did not show significant difference; however, 3-year recurrence after MIS was significantly reduced in stage IB. @*Conclusion@#QC program enforced stricter patient selection criteria for MIS and positively affected clinical outcomes in cervical cancer patients who underwent surgery. Systemic monitoring should be considered for patient safety.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903439

ABSTRACT

Lymphomas that originate from the female genital tract are very rare. Primary cervical lymphoma only accounts for less than 1% of all extra-nodal lymphomas. Clinical manifestations of primary cervical lymphoma can be nonspecific, vaginal bleeding being the most common symptom, and this makes timely diagnosis often difficult. Prognosis and optimal treatment have yet been established due to the rarity of the disease. In this article, a rare case of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of cervix is reported with a review of the available literature.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900035

ABSTRACT

Background@#To assess the rate of germline BRCA gene tests in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients and uptake of post-test risk management strategies in BRCA1/2-mutated patients. @*Methods@#Institutional databases were searched to identify patients who were diagnosed with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer (EOC) between 2009 and 2019 in two academic hospitals. Retrospective review on medical records was performed to collect clinico-pathologic variables, including performance of germline BRCA gene test and its results, as well as conduct of breast cancer screening tests and cascade testing. If annual mammography +/− breast ultrasonography was performed, it was considered that regular breast cancer surveillance was done. @*Results@#A total of 840 women with EOC were identified during the study period. Of these, 454 patients (54.0%) received BRCA gene testing and 106 patients (106/454, 23.3%) were positive for BRCA1/2 mutations. The rate of BRCA tests has markedly increased from 25.8% in 2009-2012 to 62.7% in 2017-2019. Among the 93 patients with BRCA1/2 mutation without previous personal breast cancer history, 20 patients (21.5%) received annual mammography with or without breast ultrasonography for regular surveillance. Among the 106 BRCA1/2-mutated EOC patients, cascade testing on family members was performed only in 13 patients (12.3%). @*Conclusion@#Although BRCA1/2 gene tests have been substantially expanded, the uptake of post-test risk management strategies, including breast cancer screening for BRCA1/2-mutated patients and cascade testing for family members, has remained low. Strategies to increase its uptake and education about the importance of post-test risk managements are needed.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898197

ABSTRACT

Since the first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), ongoing efforts have been made to discover an efficacious vaccine against COVID-19 to combat the pandemic. In most countries, both mRNA and DNA vaccines have been administered, and their side effects have also been reported. The clinical course of COVID-19 and the effects of vaccination against COVID-19 are both influenced by patients’ health status and involve a systemic physiological response. In view of the systemic function of endocrine hormones, endocrine disorders themselves and the therapeutics used to treat them can influence the outcomes of vaccination for COVID-19. However, there are very limited data to support the development of clinical guidelines for patients with specific medical backgrounds based on large clinical trials. In the current severe circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic, position statements made by clinical specialists are essential to provide appropriate recommendations based on both medical evidence and clinical experiences. As endocrinologists, we would like to present the medical background of COVID-19 vaccination, as well as precautions to prevent the side effects of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with specific endocrine disorders, including adrenal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, autoimmune thyroid disease, hypogonadism, and pituitary disorders.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898196

ABSTRACT

Background@#Based on recent evidence on the importance of the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality, we analyzed whether these factors could additively predict such mortality. @*Methods@#This multicenter observational study included 1,019 adult inpatients admitted to university hospitals in Daegu. The demographic and laboratory findings, mortality, prevalence of severe disease, and duration of quarantine were compared between patients with and without DM and/or a high FIB-4 index. The mortality risk and corresponding hazard ratio (HR) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models. @*Results@#The patients with DM (n=217) exhibited significantly higher FIB-4 index and mortality compared to those without DM. Although DM (HR, 2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63 to 4.33) and a high FIB-4 index (HR, 4.20; 95% CI, 2.21 to 7.99) were separately identified as risk factors for COVID-19 mortality, the patients with both DM and high FIB-4 index had a significantly higher mortality (HR, 9.54; 95% CI, 4.11 to 22.15). Higher FIB-4 indices were associated with higher mortality regardless of DM. A high FIB-4 index with DM was more significantly associated with a severe clinical course with mortality (odds ratio, 11.24; 95% CI, 5.90 to 21.41) than a low FIB-4 index without DM, followed by a high FIB-4 index alone and DM alone. The duration of quarantine and hospital stay also tended to be longer in those with both DM and high FIB-4 index. @*Conclusion@#Both DM and high FIB-4 index are independent and additive risk factors for COVID-19 mortality.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898174

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898119

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898117

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the association between hepatic steatosis burden and albuminuria in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). @*Methods@#We recruited 100 patients with both T2DM and NAFLD, but without chronic kidney disease. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥30 mg/g. Transient elastography was performed, and the steatosis burden was quantified by controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) with significant steatosis defined as CAP >302 dB/m. @*Results@#The prevalence of significant steatosis and albuminuria was 56.0% and 21.0%, respectively. Subjects with significant steatosis were significantly younger and had a significantly shorter duration of T2DM, greater waist circumference, and higher body mass index, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, than subjects without severe NAFLD (all P<0.05). Albuminuria was higher in patients with significant steatosis than in patients without significant steatosis (32.1% vs. 6.8%, P=0.002). Urinary ACR showed a correlation with CAP (r=0.331, P=0.001), and multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant association between a high degree of albuminuria and high CAP value (r=0.321, P=0.001). Additionally, multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated the independent association between urinary ACR and significant steatosis after adjustment for confounding factors including age, body mass index, duration of T2DM, low density lipoprotein level, and renin-angiotensin system blocker use (odds ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 2.71; P=0.001). @*Conclusion@#T2DM patients with NAFLD had a higher prevalence of albuminuria, which correlated with their steatosis burden.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895735

ABSTRACT

Lymphomas that originate from the female genital tract are very rare. Primary cervical lymphoma only accounts for less than 1% of all extra-nodal lymphomas. Clinical manifestations of primary cervical lymphoma can be nonspecific, vaginal bleeding being the most common symptom, and this makes timely diagnosis often difficult. Prognosis and optimal treatment have yet been established due to the rarity of the disease. In this article, a rare case of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of cervix is reported with a review of the available literature.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892331

ABSTRACT

Background@#To assess the rate of germline BRCA gene tests in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients and uptake of post-test risk management strategies in BRCA1/2-mutated patients. @*Methods@#Institutional databases were searched to identify patients who were diagnosed with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer (EOC) between 2009 and 2019 in two academic hospitals. Retrospective review on medical records was performed to collect clinico-pathologic variables, including performance of germline BRCA gene test and its results, as well as conduct of breast cancer screening tests and cascade testing. If annual mammography +/− breast ultrasonography was performed, it was considered that regular breast cancer surveillance was done. @*Results@#A total of 840 women with EOC were identified during the study period. Of these, 454 patients (54.0%) received BRCA gene testing and 106 patients (106/454, 23.3%) were positive for BRCA1/2 mutations. The rate of BRCA tests has markedly increased from 25.8% in 2009-2012 to 62.7% in 2017-2019. Among the 93 patients with BRCA1/2 mutation without previous personal breast cancer history, 20 patients (21.5%) received annual mammography with or without breast ultrasonography for regular surveillance. Among the 106 BRCA1/2-mutated EOC patients, cascade testing on family members was performed only in 13 patients (12.3%). @*Conclusion@#Although BRCA1/2 gene tests have been substantially expanded, the uptake of post-test risk management strategies, including breast cancer screening for BRCA1/2-mutated patients and cascade testing for family members, has remained low. Strategies to increase its uptake and education about the importance of post-test risk managements are needed.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890493

ABSTRACT

Since the first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), ongoing efforts have been made to discover an efficacious vaccine against COVID-19 to combat the pandemic. In most countries, both mRNA and DNA vaccines have been administered, and their side effects have also been reported. The clinical course of COVID-19 and the effects of vaccination against COVID-19 are both influenced by patients’ health status and involve a systemic physiological response. In view of the systemic function of endocrine hormones, endocrine disorders themselves and the therapeutics used to treat them can influence the outcomes of vaccination for COVID-19. However, there are very limited data to support the development of clinical guidelines for patients with specific medical backgrounds based on large clinical trials. In the current severe circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic, position statements made by clinical specialists are essential to provide appropriate recommendations based on both medical evidence and clinical experiences. As endocrinologists, we would like to present the medical background of COVID-19 vaccination, as well as precautions to prevent the side effects of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with specific endocrine disorders, including adrenal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, autoimmune thyroid disease, hypogonadism, and pituitary disorders.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890492

ABSTRACT

Background@#Based on recent evidence on the importance of the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality, we analyzed whether these factors could additively predict such mortality. @*Methods@#This multicenter observational study included 1,019 adult inpatients admitted to university hospitals in Daegu. The demographic and laboratory findings, mortality, prevalence of severe disease, and duration of quarantine were compared between patients with and without DM and/or a high FIB-4 index. The mortality risk and corresponding hazard ratio (HR) were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models. @*Results@#The patients with DM (n=217) exhibited significantly higher FIB-4 index and mortality compared to those without DM. Although DM (HR, 2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63 to 4.33) and a high FIB-4 index (HR, 4.20; 95% CI, 2.21 to 7.99) were separately identified as risk factors for COVID-19 mortality, the patients with both DM and high FIB-4 index had a significantly higher mortality (HR, 9.54; 95% CI, 4.11 to 22.15). Higher FIB-4 indices were associated with higher mortality regardless of DM. A high FIB-4 index with DM was more significantly associated with a severe clinical course with mortality (odds ratio, 11.24; 95% CI, 5.90 to 21.41) than a low FIB-4 index without DM, followed by a high FIB-4 index alone and DM alone. The duration of quarantine and hospital stay also tended to be longer in those with both DM and high FIB-4 index. @*Conclusion@#Both DM and high FIB-4 index are independent and additive risk factors for COVID-19 mortality.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890470

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890415

ABSTRACT

BackgroundOnly few studies have shown the efficacy and safety of glucose-control strategies using the quadruple drug combination. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of the quadruple combination therapy with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).MethodsFrom March 2014 to December 2018, data of patients with T2DM, who were treated with quadruple hypoglycemic medications for over 12 months in 11 hospitals in South Korea, were reviewed retrospectively. We compared glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels before and 12 months after quadruple treatment with OHAs. The safety, maintenance rate, and therapeutic patterns after failure of the quadruple therapy were also evaluated.ResultsIn total, 357 patients were enrolled for quadruple OHA therapy, and the baseline HbA1c level was 9.0%±1.3% (74.9±14.1 mmol/mol). After 12 months, 270 patients (75.6%) adhered to the quadruple therapy and HbA1c was significantly reduced from 8.9%±1.2% to 7.8%±1.3% (mean change, −1.1%±1.2%; PPConclusionThis study shows the therapeutic efficacy of the quadruple OHA regimen T2DM and demonstrates that it can be an option for the management of T2DM patients who cannot use insulin or reject injectable therapy.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890413

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the association between hepatic steatosis burden and albuminuria in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). @*Methods@#We recruited 100 patients with both T2DM and NAFLD, but without chronic kidney disease. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥30 mg/g. Transient elastography was performed, and the steatosis burden was quantified by controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) with significant steatosis defined as CAP >302 dB/m. @*Results@#The prevalence of significant steatosis and albuminuria was 56.0% and 21.0%, respectively. Subjects with significant steatosis were significantly younger and had a significantly shorter duration of T2DM, greater waist circumference, and higher body mass index, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, than subjects without severe NAFLD (all P<0.05). Albuminuria was higher in patients with significant steatosis than in patients without significant steatosis (32.1% vs. 6.8%, P=0.002). Urinary ACR showed a correlation with CAP (r=0.331, P=0.001), and multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant association between a high degree of albuminuria and high CAP value (r=0.321, P=0.001). Additionally, multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated the independent association between urinary ACR and significant steatosis after adjustment for confounding factors including age, body mass index, duration of T2DM, low density lipoprotein level, and renin-angiotensin system blocker use (odds ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 2.71; P=0.001). @*Conclusion@#T2DM patients with NAFLD had a higher prevalence of albuminuria, which correlated with their steatosis burden.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875570

ABSTRACT

Cushing syndrome (CS) is rare in pregnancy, and few cases have been reported to date. Women with untreated CS rarely become pregnant because of the ovulatory dysfunction induced by hypercortisolism. It is difficult to diagnose CS in pregnancy because of its very low incidence, the overlap between the clinical signs of hypercortisolism and the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy and the changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity that occur during pregnancy and limit the value of standard diagnostic testing. However, CS in pregnancy is associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes; therefore, its early diagnosis and treatment are important. Here, we report two patients with CS that was not diagnosed during pregnancy, in whom maternal and fetal morbidity developed because of hypercortisolism.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874525

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the impact of social distancing due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We retrospectively analyzed the change in glycosylated hemoglobin level (ΔHbA1c) in people with T2DM who undertook social distancing because of COVID-19. We compared the ΔHbA1c between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cohorts that were enrolled at the same time of year. The ΔHbA1c of the COVID-19 cohort was significantly higher than that of two non-COVID-19 cohorts. Subgroup analysis according to age and baseline HbA1c level showed that social distancing significantly increased the mean HbA1c level of participants of <50 years. The ΔHbA1c of participants of <50 years and with HbA1c <7.0% in the COVID-19 cohort showed larger changes than other subgroups. In adjusted model, adjusted ΔHbA1c levels in the COVID-19 cohort remained significantly higher than those in the two other cohorts. Social distancing negatively impacts blood glucose control in people with T2DM, especially those who are younger and have good blood glucose control.

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