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1.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 46-54, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913467

ABSTRACT

Background@#In a previous study, we carried out whole-exome sequencing to identify genetic variants associated with early onset atopic dermatitis (AD) in Koreans and found that collagen VI α6 chain (COL6A6) gene polymorphisms are associated. COL6A6 is one of the chains that makes up the triple helix of collagen VI, and little is known about its role in AD. @*Objective@#To identify how COL6A6 changes in AD and clarify its role. @*Methods@#Immunohistochemical staining for COL6A6 was performed on tissues of AD, other skin diseases, and healthy controls. Human keratinocytes and fibroblasts were exposed to inflammatory cytokines and cultured to evaluate changes in COL6A6 expression. COL6A6 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected into cells to identify the role of COL6A6. @*Results@#Total COL6A6 mRNA was higher in AD than in controls. In AD tissues, COL6A6 mRNA decreased significantly in the epidermis compared to controls, whereas COL6A6 protein was increased in the dermis. In the cultured cells, COL6A6 mRNA was suppressed in the epidermis by interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, whereas COL6A6 protein was induced in the dermis. In the COL6A6 siRNA-transfected keratinocyte, mRNA of FLG, LOR, and CASP14 decreased compared to controls; in contrast, mRNA of MMP1 increased. @*Conclusion@#The reduction of epidermal COL6A6 due to the genetic mutation can cause skin barrier damage and it can contributes to the early onset of AD. COL6A6 is induced by IL-4 and IL-13, and it may play a role in fibrotic remodeling and inflammatory processes, which are major features of AD.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926844

ABSTRACT

In the current years, it has now become necessary to establish standards for micronutrient intake based on scientific evidence. This review discusses issues related to the development of the 2020 Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans (KDRI) for magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu), and future research directions. Following issues were encountered when establishing the KDRI for these minerals. First, characteristics of Korean subjects need to be applied to estimate nutrient requirements. When calculating the estimated average requirement (EAR), the KDRI used the results of balance studies for Mg absorption and factorial analysis for Zn, which is defined as the minimum amount to offset endogenous losses for Zn and Mg. For Cu, a combination of indicators, such as depletion/repletion studies, were applied, wherein all reference values were based on data obtained from other countries. Second, there was a limitation in that it was difficult to determine whether reference values of Mg, Zn, and Cu intakes in the 2020 KDRI were achievable. This might be due to the lack of representative previous studies on intakes of these nutrients, and an insufficient database for Mg, Zn, and Cu contents in foods. This lack of database for mineral content in food poses a problem when evaluating the appropriateness of intake. Third, data was insufficient to assess the adequacy of Mg, Zn, and Cu intakes from supplements when calculating reference values, considering the rise in both demand and intake of mineral supplements. Mg is more likely to be consumed as a multi-nutrient supplement in combination with other minerals than as a single supplement. Moreover, Zn-Cu interactions in the body need to be considered when determining the reference intake values of Zn and Cu. It is recommended to discuss these issues present in the 2020 KDRI development for Mg, Zn, and Cu intakes in a systematic way, and to find relevant solutions.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925995

ABSTRACT

Despite the accuracy of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), rapid antigen tests (RATs) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 are widely used as point-of-care tests. A total of 282 pairs of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Standard Q COVID-19 Ag tests were serially conducted for 68 patients every 3–4 days until their discharge. Through a field evaluation of RATs using direct nasopharyngeal swabs, the sensitivities were 84.6% and 87.3% for E and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes, respectively, for specimens with cycle thresholds (Cts) < 25. The Ct values of E and RdRp genes for 95% detection rates by RATs were 16.9 and 18.1, respectively. The sensitivity of RAT was 48.4% after the onset of symptoms, which was not sufficient. RAT positivity gradually decreased with increased time after symptom onset and had continuously lower sensitivity than NAATs.

4.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 110-117, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925453

ABSTRACT

Background@#Airborne particulate matter (PM), a widespread air contaminant, is a complex mixture of solids and aerosols composed of particles suspended in the air. PM is associated with inflammatory responses and may worsen inflammatory skin diseases. However, the mechanisms through which PM affects atopic dermatitis (AD) remain unclear. @*Objective@#To establish an In Vitro model that more accurately mimics AD using human keratinocyte (HaCaT), dermal fibroblast (HDF), and mast cell (HMC-1) and using this model to investigate the mechanism through which PMs affect AD. @*Methods@#An AD-like In Vitro model was established by seeding HaCaT, HDF, and HMC-1 cells with recombinant human interleukin (IL)-1α and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid.We confirmed the effect of PM on the inflammatory cytokine expression of a triple-cell culture model. SRM 1649b Urban Dust, which is mainly composed of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, was used as the reference PM. The effects of PM on the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines and skin barrier markers were assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Inflammatory cytokine levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. @*Results@#Interactions between various skin cell types were evaluated using a co-culture system. PM treatment increased mRNA and protein levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1α, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-4, and IL-1β and decreased the expression of the skin barrier markers filaggrin and loricrin. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that an In Vitro triple-cell culture model using HaCaT, HDF, and HMC-1 cells may be reliable for obtaining more physiological, functional, and reproducible data on AD and skin barriers.

5.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 118-124, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925452

ABSTRACT

Background@#Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease triggered by diverse factors. Microbes are one of the crucial risk factors for AD development or exacerbation. However, the effect of a fungal burden on AD has been overlooked compared to bacteria. @*Objective@#This study aimed to comparatively analyze cutaneous fungal distribution between AD patients and healthy individuals by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis. @*Methods@#Skin samples of AD outpatients and healthy individuals collected at the ChungAng University were analyzed. Representative AD-associated fungal genera, Candida, dermatophytes, and Malassezia, were analyzed using specific primer and amplification methods. Amplicons were sequenced, and the fungal distribution of both groups were compared. @*Results@#Totally, 211 patients and 23 healthy individuals were studied. Of the 211 patients, 10.90% (23/211) had Candida species, whereas 0% (0/23) healthy individuals showed its presence. The most frequently detected species in patients was Candida albicans (5.21%) followed by Candida parapsilosis (3.79%). For dermatophytes, 1.42% (3/211) of patients showed positive results, whereas 0% (0/23) healthy individuals showed positive results. Malassezia species were identified in 20.85% (44/211) and 8.70% (2/23) in patients and healthy individuals, respectively. Malassezia restricta was the most frequently identified species in the AD patient group, and the only species found in the healthy control group. @*Conclusion@#The distribution of Candida spp., dermatophytes, and Malassezia spp. are altered with AD development.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918919

ABSTRACT

Background@#To determine the effects of Jerusalem Artichoke extract (JAE) and inulin on blood glucose levels and insulin secretion in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. @*Methods@#Thirty four mice were divided into a normal control group and three experimental groups: diabetic control, JAE, and inulin. STZ (50 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally to induce diabetes in the three experimental groups. The JAE and inulin groups were fed 10 g/kg JAE or fed 1 g/kg inulin, respectively, for 6 weeks. Fasting glucose was checked weekly. After 6 weeks, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed, and the insulin level was checked. @*Results@#Four mice from the JAE group (n = 9) died and autopsies revealed inflammation and ulceration of skin lesions on the chest areas. Fasting glucose levels were not decreased in the inulin or JAE group relative to diabetic control group. In the OGTT at 60 minutes and 120 minutes, the serum glucose levels were significantly higher in the inulin group (572.6 ± 52.0 mg/dL and 555.8 ± 72.9 mg/dL, respectively) than in diabetic control group (484.3 ± 81.6 mg/dL and 467.3 ± 111.1 mg/dL, respectively). Insulin levels were not increased in the inulin group relative to the diabetic control group. @*Conclusion@#These results indicate that JAE and inulin might not be useful therapeutic strategies for diabetes mellitus and indiscreet intake of Jerusalem Artichoke could exacerbate to diabetes.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914092

ABSTRACT

Background@#The purpose of this study was to introduce a screening system for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), to evaluate the overall orthopedic management in hip fracture patients during the COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea, and to compare the surgical results in hip fracture patients during the COVID-19 pandemic with those of the previous year. @*Methods@#Hip fracture patients who visited emergency rooms were screened at the screening clinics before admission. The medical management was carried out with the medical staff wearing surgical masks, meticulous hand hygiene observed, and a minimum distance of 2 m between patients maintained. The demographics, operative parameters, and surgical results of patients treated during the pandemic were compared with those from the previous year. @*Results@#From January 2020 to July 21, 2020, 119 patients with hip fractures (33 men and 86 women) were admitted to our institution for surgical treatment. Five patients showed symptoms of pneumonia, but no patient was positive for COVID-19. The mortality rate during the study period was 4.2%, and none of the patients died due to COVID-19. The interval between admission and surgery and the length of hospital stay were significantly shorter (p = 0.008, p = 0.002) and the proportion of spinal anesthesia was greater in hip fracture patients during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to those from the previous year (p = 0.011). @*Conclusions@#The COVID-19 screening system for hip fracture patients has proven to be effective in preventing intrahospital spread of the disease. Hip fracture surgery performed during the COVID-19 pandemic has shown comparable results without any COVID-19 infection and COVID-19-related mortality.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913556

ABSTRACT

Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a rare subtype of squamous cell carcinoma that commonly occurs in the oral cavity. However, VC of the facial skin is relatively rare. We report a case of a 91-year-old woman with VC of the facial skin in the left zygoma area. She was diagnosed with actinic keratosis (4 × 3 cm) of the same site approximately 12 years previously, but declined further treatment. The mass was excised with a minimum of 0.4 cm from gross margins with the result of free from tumor of all margins by frozen section, allowing for primary closure after skin undermining. Basal resection was performed in the preplatysmal plane. The diagnosis of VC was confirmed by histopathological examination. Postoperatively, the wound healed without incident and with no signs of facial nerve injury. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of VC of facial skin arising from actinic keratosis.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913382

ABSTRACT

The current reference standard for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the molecular detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several rapid antigen tests (RATs) have been developed for the rapid and inexpensive detection of SARS-CoV-2, which can be used at the point-of-care. Although RATs have lower SARS-CoV-2 detection sensitivity than molecular tests, the development of a more cost-effective highthroughput test system that offers a rapid turnaround time is vital for curtailing the spread of SARS-CoV-2. However, because of the growing concern over the substantial risk of false negative results, RATs should be used in conjunction with molecular tests and therefore, an appropriate test algorithm should be developed to achieve this purpose.

10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875069

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We report a case of post-pterygium excisional Pseudallescheria boydii (P. boydii) necrotizing scleritis successfully treated with multi-antifungal agents.Case summary: A 73-year-old female with a history of pterygium excision 6 years prior was referred to our institute because of worsening scleritis in the left eye during high-dose, 2-week steroid treatment. On the initial visit, an oval ulcer was observed in the temporal sclera adjacent to the limbus. All steroids were stopped and 1% voriconazole, 5% natamycin, 2.5% vancomycin, and 5% ceftazidime eyedrops were applied every hour and oral voriconazole 200 mg prescribed once a day, but the scleral necrosis continued to worsen. On day 10, the filamentous fungus P. boydii was isolated; 0.5% caspofungin eyedrops were added and the topical voriconazole concentration increased to 2%. Six weeks later, despite epithelization over the scleral necrosis, choroidal detachment developed. The antifungal treatment was continued and a dispersive, ophthalmic viscosurgical device inserted in the anterior chamber. At 14 weeks of treatment, the scleral necrosis was completely epithelialized and the choroidal detachment had disappeared. @*Conclusions@#When encountering a case of P. boydii-caused necrotizing scleritis developing after pterygium excision surgery, long-term intensive treatment with several antifungal agents must be considered.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874183

ABSTRACT

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is an easily accessible and valuable tool in clinical microbiology, which can be used for identifying novel and rare species. We isolated grampositive cocci from the blood of a pediatric patient, which could not be phenotypically identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) (BioMérieux, Marcy-l’Étoile, France). We could not identify the isolate to the species level using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing. WGS was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA); however, the subsequent genomic sequence database search using the TrueBac ID-Genome system (ChunLab, Inc., Seoul, Korea) did not yield any hits with an average nucleotide identity value > 95.0%, which is the cut-off for species-level identification. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the isolate belonged to a new Arsenicicoccus species, forming a subcluster with Arsenicicoccus bolidensis. Our data demonstrate that WGS allows a more accurate annotation of microbial genomes than other clinical microbiology tools, such as MALDITOF MS and 16S rRNA sequencing. This is the first report of the isolation of a novelArsenicicoccus species from a clinical sample.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874152

ABSTRACT

Background@#Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains were first detected in hospitals in Korea between the late 2000s and early 2010s.However, there is limited information regarding the prevalence of CA-MRSA strains among hospital isolates and their phenotypic changes over the last decade. We investigated the prevalence trend of CA-MRSA strains isolated from different clinical specimens and their phenotypic changes between September 2009 and September 2019. @*Methods@#CA-MRSA strains were phenotypically identified by confirming their resistance to penicillin (PCN) and oxacillin (OXA) and evaluating their susceptibility to trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, rifampin, fusidic acid, tetracycline, and at least one of the following four antimicrobials: clindamycin (CLI), erythromycin (ERY), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and gentamicin (GEN). A CA-MRSA strain that exhibited resistance to ERY, CLI, CIP, or GEN was classified as having resistance pattern I, II, III, or IV, respectively, regardless of its resistance to other antimicrobial agents. @*Results@#Of the 8,278 MRSA isolates identified in specimens obtained two days after admission, 1,385 (16.73%) were CA-MRSA strains. The prevalence of CA-MRSA strains increased from 12.2% to 26.6% (3.21% per period, P = 0.05). Resistance type analysis revealed an increasing trend in the prevalence of PCN/OXA-resistant (1.84%; P = 0.049) and PCN/OXA/ERY/CLI/CIP-resistant (0.98%; P = 0.04) CA-MRSA strains and in resistance pattern III strains (2.08%; P = 0.004). @*Conclusions@#The prevalence of CA-MRSA strains in Korea has increased significantly over the last decade, and CA-MRSA strains have gained phenotypic diversity beyond PCN/OXAresistance, including antimicrobial resistance to non-β-lactams, especially CIP.

13.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 116-121, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874105

ABSTRACT

Background@#Recent studies have revealed that particulate matter induces inflammation, oxidative stress, and several skin diseases. Experimental results have also shown that negative air ions are highly effective in removing particulate matter-induced inflammation. @*Objective@#The present study aimed to investigate whether negative air ions can inhibit inflammatory responses and reduce oxidative stress in HaCaT cells exposed to particulate matters. @*Methods@#HaCaT cells were treated with particulate matter in the presence or absence of negative air ions and the viability was evaluated by the MTT assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was quantified by the dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay. The expression of genes and proteins was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Levels of inflammatory cytokines were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. @*Results@#Negative air ions were observed to downregulate the mRNA and protein levels of particulate matter-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in HaCaT cells. In addition, negative air ion treatment suppressed particulate matter-induced intracellular ROS generation, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and activator protein 1 (c-Fos and c-Jun) activation. @*Conclusion@#Our findings indicate that negative air ions exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in HaCaT cells exposed to particulate matter. Therefore, negative air ions can be used for the prevention and treatment of particulate matter-related inflammatory skin diseases.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836002

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study aims to compare attitude toward suicide among the elderly with suicide attempt, suicide ideation, and without suicide ideation and attempt. @*Methods@#We recruited study groups according to suicide risk. Suicide attempt/ideation group were recruited from Busan Regional Suicide Prevention Center. Control group was recruited from general population. Suicide attempt group was those who attempted suicide within 6 months prior to study participation. Suicide ideation group was those who had suicide ideation within 6 months prior to study participation but did not have lifetime history of suicide attempt. Control group was those who did not have either lifetime history of suicide ideation and attempt. Attitude toward suicide was evaluated by Korean version of Attitude Toward Suicide-20 (ATTS-20) Questionnaire. @*Results@#Total of 141 elderly people aged over 60 were recruited. Four subscale scores of ATTS-20 (permissiveness and nonintervention; preventability and incomprehensibility; universality; unpredictability) were significantly lower in the suicide attempt group than suicide ideation and control group. @*Conclusion@#The results of present study suggest that the elderly who had history of suicide attempt are more permissive toward and have lack of comprehension of suicide. These results can be useful to develop effective suicide intervention and prevention strategy for the elderly.

15.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 236-240, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832164

ABSTRACT

This is a case report of successful endoscopic resection (ER) of a bleeding duodenal lipoma. An 85-year-old woman who was diagnosed with asymptomatic subepithelial tumor of the duodenum 3 years ago visited the emergency room with hematemesis and was admitted to our hospital. Emergent esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed bleeding from an ulcer on the superior aspect of a subepithelial tumor measuring about 20 mm in diameter, at the superior duodenal angle. The ulcer was in the active stage (A1), with a visible vessel. The bleeding was controlled by ER of the tumor using a snare. The final pathological diagnosis was duodenal lipoma with mucosal ulceration. The patient showed no signs of bleeding for 10 days after the procedure; subsequently, she was discharged and followed up for regular checkups.

16.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 197-205, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831450

ABSTRACT

Background@#Early-onset and severe atopic dermatitis (AD) in patients increase the probability of the development of allergic rhinitis or asthma. Treatment and prevention strategies in infants and young children with AD are targeted toward treating the symptoms, restoring skin barrier functions, and reducing the absorption of environmental allergens in an attempt to attenuate or block the onset of asthma and food allergy. @*Objective@#Given that the initiating events in AD remain poorly understood, identifying those at risk and implementing strategies to prevent AD is necessary. @*Methods@#Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in a 43 control group and a disease group with 20 AD patients without atopic march (AM) and 20 with AM. Sanger sequencing was carried out to validate found variants in cohorts. @*Results@#DOCK8, IL17RA, and KLK12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified by WES as missense mutations: c.1289C> A, p.P97T (rs529208); c.1685C>A, p.P562G (rs12484684); and c.457+27>C, rs3745540, respectively. A case-control study show that total immunoglobulin E (IgE) level was significantly increased in the AA genotype of DOCK8 compared to the CA genotype in allergic patients. The rs12484684 of IL17RA increased risk of adult-onset AD (odds ratio: 1.63) compared to the control for (A) allele frequency. AD and AM Patients with the IL17RA CA genotype also had elevated IgE levels. rs3745540 of KLK12 was associated with AD in dominant model (odds ratio: 2.86). @*Conclusion@#DOCK8 (rs529208), IL17RA (rs12484684), and KLK12 (rs3745540), were identified using a new WES filtering method. the result suggests that polymorphism of DOCK8 and IL17RA might be related to increase the total IgE level.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739119

ABSTRACT

We investigated the usefulness of age-specific cutoffs for screening of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Korean outpatients, using the automated urine analyzer UF-1000i (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan). We retrospectively reviewed outpatient medical records. Urine samples of 7,443 outpatients from January 2010 to December 2017 were analyzed using urine culture and UF-1000i. ROC curves were calculated for each UF-1000i parameter based on the culture results. There were 1,398 culture positive samples, 5,774 culture negative samples, and 271 contaminated samples. UF-1000i had an area under the curve of ≥0.9 in outpatients >15 years. The appropriate cutoffs, which are the sum of bacterial (B-A-C) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, were 297.10/µL (15–24 years), 395.65/µL (25–44 years), 135.65/µL (45–64 years), 67.95/µL (65–74 years), and 96.5/µL (≥75 years). B-A-C and WBC counts differed among the three most frequently identified bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis). The UF-1000i system is useful for applying age-specific cutoffs to screen for UTIs, thereby preventing antibiotic abuse and reducing antibiotic resistance. Future studies can explore how its B-A-C and WBC counts can facilitate selection of empirical antibiotics by distinguishing between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteria , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Enterococcus , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Leukocytes , Mass Screening , Medical Records , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764844

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate differences between the elderly living alone and those living with others in frustrated interpersonal needs and life satisfaction. Also, we explore the effects of frustrated interpersonal needs on life satisfaction in the elderly living alone. METHODS: The participants include 572 elderly people aged over 60 in Busan, Korea. Life satisfaction were evaluated by the Life Satisfaction Self-Rating Scale (LSRS) and frustrated interpersonal needs were measured by the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire-Revised (INQ-R). RESULTS: The overall LSRS scores were significantly lower in the elderly living alone (106.2±20.1) than living with others (115.3±13.9, p<0.001). The total INQ-R score was significantly lower in the elderly living alone (73.8±12.1) than those living with others (76.9±12.0, p<0.05). As a result of multiple regression analysis, we came to know that frustrated interpersonal needs were factors affecting life satisfaction in living alone group. CONCLUSION: The results of present study suggest that the elderly living alone are more likely to have poor life satisfaction and frustrated interpersonal needs. Also, frustrated interpersonal needs are related to life satisfaction. Thus, it is necessary to establish the social support system such as social isolation prevention and interpersonal relationship development.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Korea , Social Isolation
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) is the phenomenon wherein patients exhibit normal platelet activity in laboratory testing despite adequate adherence to anti-platelet treatment. We investigated the detection rates of Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA)-100 (Dade Behring AG, Düdingen, Switzerland) for drug-induced platelet dysfunction and analyzed potential contributors to HTPR with practical PFA-100 data over six years. METHODS: We used data from 6,957 patients who underwent PFA-100 testing after receiving aspirin, clopidogrel, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Of these, 6,163 patients were tested with only the collagen/epinephrine cartridge (Col/EPI) of PFA-100; 794 were tested with both Col/EPI and the collagen/ADP cartridge (Col/ADP). We calculated PFA-100 closure time (CT) for each drug and compared the clinical and laboratory characteristics of the patients with prolonged CTs and normal CTs (i.e., HTPR). RESULTS: In Col/EPI, 73.2% (365/499), 72.6% (390/537), and 55.3% (3,442/6,228) patients showed prolonged CTs for aspirin, clopidogrel, and NSAIDs, respectively. In Col/ADP, prolonged CTs were observed in 37.4% (34/91), 43.2% (35/81), and 29.6% (200/676) of patients receiving aspirin, clopidogrel, and NSAIDs, respectively. Of the patients tested with both cartridges, 88.9% (48/54), 95.3% (41/43), and 89.0% (577/648) of the patients receiving aspirin, clopidogrel, and NSAIDs had prolonged CTs, and 10.0% (79/794) showed normal CTs regardless of drugs. For clopidogrel users (both cartridges), there were more patients with malignancies in the normal CT than prolonged CT group. CONCLUSIONS: PFA-100 is not sufficiently effective for laboratory screening of drug-induced platelet dysfunction. Malignancy may contribute to clopidogrel-related HTPR in PFA-100.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Aspirin , Blood Platelets , Humans , Mass Screening
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719335

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to obtain data for the development of an effective fall risk assessment tool for pediatric inpatients through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic test accuracy of existing scales. METHODS: A literature search using Medline, Science Direct, CINAHL, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was performed between March 1 and 31, 2018. Of 890 identified papers, 10 were selected for review. Nine were used in the meta-analysis. Stata version 14.0 was used to create forest plots of sensitivity and specificity. A summary receiver operating characteristic curve was used to compare all diagnostic test accuracies. RESULTS: Four studies used the Humpty Dumpty Falls Scale. The most common items included the patient's diagnoses, use of sedative medications, and mobility. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the nine studies were .79 and .36, respectively. CONCLUSION: Considering the low specificity of the pediatric fall risk assessment scales currently available, there is a need to subdivide scoring categories and to minimize items that are evaluated using nurses' subjective judgment alone. Fall risk assessment scales should be incorporated into the electronic medical record system and an automated scoring system should be developed.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Electronic Health Records , Forests , Humans , Inpatients , Judgment , Pediatrics , Risk Assessment , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Weights and Measures
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