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1.
Immune Network ; : e16-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835444

ABSTRACT

Receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase (RIPK) 3 is a member of the TNF receptor-I signaling complex and mediates necroptosis, an inflammatory cell death. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an excessive inflammatory disease caused by uncontrolled T cell activation. The current study is aimed to determine whether RIPK3 inhibitor attenuates UC development inhibiting inflammation and necroptosis using experimental colitis mice model. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mice were administered RIPK3 inhibitor (3 mg/ml) 3 times and their tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. RIPK3, mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL), phosphorylated MLKL, IL-17, and CD4 in colitis patient colon tissues were detected using confocal microscopy. Protein levels were measured using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The differentiation of Th17 cells was evaluated using flow cytometry. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines and necroptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from UC patients was decreased markedly by RIPK3 inhibitor treatment. We also observed that the injection of RIPK3 inhibitor improves colitis severity and protects intestinal destruction. RIPK3 inhibitor reduced necroptosis factors and proinflammatory cytokines in the colon and consequently protected colon devastation. The expression of inflammatory mediators in experimental colitis mice splenocytes was decreased significantly by RIPK3 inhibitor treatment. These results suggest that RIPK3 inhibitor ameliorates severity of experimental colitis and reduces inflammation through the inhibition of inflammatory response and necroptosis and support RIPK3-targeting substances for treatment of UC.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune cells express the vitamin (vit) D receptor, and vit D is a potent immune-modulator. A negative correlation between serum vit D levels and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity has been reported. Therefore, we aimed to investigate if the sufficient serum vit D level is helpful to control disease activity in RA patients treated with interleukin (IL)-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab.METHODS: RA patients taking tocilizumab were enrolled, and data were collected retrospectively. Disease activity scores (DAS) 28, serum vit D levels, modified Sharp scores of hand X-ray at the time of tocilizumab initiation, and follow-up data were analysed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated into T-helper (Th) 17 or osteoclasts in the presence of various concentrations of tocilizumab and/or 1,25(OH)₂D. Th17 proportions were analysed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Supernatant cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS: Among 98 RA patients taking tocilizumab, 34 (34.7%) had sufficient serum 25(OH)D levels (≥ 30 ng/mL) when tocilizumab was initiated. At 24 weeks, vit D sufficient patients had greater DAS28 reduction (64.6% ± 15.5% vs. 52.7% ± 20.7%, P = 0.004), and lower disease activity (91.2% vs. 70.3%, P = 0.018) or remission (82.4% vs. 57.8%, P = 0.014). These differences in DAS28 reduction and the proportion of patients with remission persisted at 48 weeks. However, there was no significant difference in hand and wrist erosion progression. In vitro, tocilizumab and 1,25(OH)₂D treatment synergistically suppressed IL-17 production and osteoclastogenesis.CONCLUSION: RA patients treated with IL-6 antibody show a better response when they have sufficient serum vit D. Tocilizumab and 1,25(OH)₂D synergistically suppress IL-17 production and osteoclast differentiation in RA patients.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Cholecalciferol , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Follow-Up Studies , Hand , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Osteoclasts , Retrospective Studies , Vitamin D , Vitamins , Wrist
3.
Immune Network ; : e7-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740207

ABSTRACT

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder that affects mainly salivary and lacrimal glands, but its cause remains largely unknown. Clinical data indicating that SS occurs in a substantial proportion of patients with lupus points to common pathogenic mechanisms underlying the two diseases. To address this idea, we asked whether SS develops in the lupus-prone mouse strain sanroque (SAN). Owing to hyper-activation of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells, female SAN mice developed lupus-like symptoms at approximately 20 wk of age but there were no signs of SS at that time. However, symptoms typical of SS were evident at approximately 40 wk of age, as judged by reduced saliva flow rate, sialadenitis, and IgG deposits in the salivary glands. Increases in serum titers of SS-related autoantibodies and numbers of autoantibody-secreting cells in cervical lymph nodes (LNs) preceded the pathologic manifestations of SS and were accompanied by expansion of Tfh cells and their downstream effector cells. Thus, our results suggest that chronic dysregulation of Tfh cells in salivary gland-draining LNs is sufficient to drive the development of SS in lupus-prone mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Autoantibodies , Autoimmunity , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Lacrimal Apparatus , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Lymph Nodes , Mice , Saliva , Salivary Glands , Sialadenitis
4.
Immune Network ; : e26-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764020

ABSTRACT

Since primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoummune disease of B cell hyperactivity and pathologic autoantibody response, follicular helper T (Tfh) cells and follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells are suggested to be key players in pSS. We examined subsets of Tfh and Tfr cells from the blood in pSS patients, and whether these subsets represent disease activity, glandular inflammation, or autoantibody responses in pSS. Circulating Tfh and Tfr cells, along with their specific subsets, were identified from the peripheral blood of 18 pSS patients and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) using flow cytometry analysis. Blood Tfr and Tfh cell ratios were increased in pSS patients compared with HCs. The CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) subset of circulating Tfh cells was increased in pSS patients with high degree of focal lymphocytic sialadenitis; whereas circulating Tfh cells did not differ between pSS patients and HCs. The frequency of CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) Tfh cells was significantly correlated with disease activity scores and differentiated B cells. PD-1 expression on blood Tfh and Tfr cells showed positive correlations with IL-21 in pSS. Increasing trend of blood Tfr cells was observed in pSS patients, and blood Tfr cells (particularly Th1 and Th17 subsets) represented hypergammaglobulinemia in pSS. In summary, circulating CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) Tfh cells indicated disease activity and glandular inflammation in pSS. Circulating Tfr cells, shifted toward Th1 and Th17 subsets, indicated ongoing IgG production in pSS. Subsets of circulating Tfh or Tfr cells could be biomarkers for disease monitoring and patient stratification in pSS.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies , B-Lymphocytes , Biomarkers , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Hypergammaglobulinemia , Immunoglobulin G , Inflammation , Sialadenitis , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716638

ABSTRACT

Transplantation research has focused on cytotoxic T-cell and plasma cell/B-cell-targeted strategies, but little attention has been paid to the role of T helper 17 (Th17) cells in allograft dysfunction. However, accumulating evidence suggests that Th17 cells contribute to the development of acute and chronic allograft injury after transplantation of various organs, including the kidney. This review summarizes recent reports on the role of Th17 cells in kidney transplantation. Means of improving allograft outcomes by targeting the Th17 pathway are also suggested.


Subject(s)
Allografts , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Plasma , T-Lymphocytes , Th17 Cells
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739493

ABSTRACT

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease involving excessive inflammation. Recently, RA associated with a metabolic disorder was revealed to be non-responsive to RA medications. Metformin has been reported to have a therapeutic effect on RA and obesity. The aim of this investigation was to study the therapeutic effect and the underlying mechanism of metformin's action in an experimental model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) associated with obesity. Metformin was administered daily for 13 weeks to mice with CIA that had been fed a high-fat diet. Metformin ameliorated the development of CIA in obese mice by reducing autoantibody expression and joint inflammation. Furthermore, metformin decreased the expression levels of pSTAT3 and pmTOR and had a small normalizing effect on the metabolic profile of obese CIA mice. In addition, metformin increased the production of pAMPK and FGF21. Metformin also induced the differentiation of brown adipose tissue (BAT), which led to a reciprocal balance between T helper (Th) 17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that metformin can dampen the development of CIA in obese mice and reduce metabolic dysfunction by inducing BAT differentiation. Thus, metformin could be a therapeutic candidate for non-responsive RA.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes, Brown , Adipose Tissue, Brown , Animals , Arthritis , Arthritis, Experimental , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Autoimmune Diseases , Diet, High-Fat , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Joints , Metabolome , Metformin , Mice , Mice, Obese , Models, Theoretical , Obesity
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-217324

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Interleukin (IL)-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has pleiotropic effects on multiple target cells and thereby contributes to the development of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. However, the role of IL-17 in the humoral immune response has not been clearly elucidated. METHODS: Mice deficient in IL-17A (IL-17A knockout [KO] mice) and wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice were compared. Distinct B cell (mature/precursor and marginal zone/follicular) and plasma cell populations were compared using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and confocal immunostaining. Immunoglobulin production was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: There was no difference in B cell and plasma cell populations between IL-17A KO and WT mice. However, after T cell-dependent antigen challenge, IL-17A KO mice produced lower levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 than wild-type animals. IL-17A KO mice also showed reduced germinal center (GC) formation and lower expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, the essential enzyme for class switch recombination (CSR). IL-17 had no effect on the proliferation or survival of naïve B cells in in vitro functional studies. However, IL-17 treatment promoted naïve B cell differentiation into plasma cells in synergy with IL-4, although IL-17 alone had no effect. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that IL-17 contributes to the humoral immune response by enhancing GC formation, CSR to IgG1, and plasma cell differentiation in synergy with IL-4.


Subject(s)
Animals , B-Lymphocytes , Cell Differentiation , Cytidine Deaminase , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Germinal Center , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukins , Mice , Plasma Cells , Recombination, Genetic
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-654664

ABSTRACT

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with chronic and excessive inflammation. Upregulation of interleukin (IL)-17 is involved in the pathogenesis of RA. STX0119 is a specific inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as a potential target for the treatment of RA. STAT3 is a member of DNA-binding molecules that regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of RA. The objective of this study was to determine whether STX0119 could inhibit STAT3 and IL-17. We demonstrated that STX0119 decreased T helper (Th) 17 differentiation and IL-17 expression in vitro. STX0119 also improved the severity of zymosan induced arthritis and reduced joint inflammation. STX0119 reduced the proliferation of Th17 and phosphorylated STAT3 expression while increasing Treg differentiation and phosphorylated STAT5 expression. Moreover, STX0119 decreased the expression of IL-6 and -17 but not IL-10. These findings suggest that STX0119 can be used to treat autoimmune RA through inhibiting the activation of STAT3.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthritis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Autoimmune Diseases , Cytokines , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Joints , Mice , STAT3 Transcription Factor , Up-Regulation , Zymosan
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-646879

ABSTRACT

Healthy and high quality of life has become the main issue with increasing human life span. Many biological treatments for osteoarthritis of the knee have been tried with limited success. We compared data from 7 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty and 46 patients who underwent autologous bone-marrow mesenchymal cell induced chondrogenesis (MCIC) for osteoarthritis of grade IV of the Kellgren-Lawrence classification and grade IV of modified Outerbridge classification from 50 to 65 years of age. Clinical evaluation of the 2 groups showed significant improvement in the mean telephone Knee Society Scoring system (tKSS)-A (pain) and tKSS-B (function) scores throughout the postoperative follow-up period. There was no difference in the patients' satisfaction between the 2 groups. MCIC is a treatment option at least for delaying disease progression of osteoarthritis of the knee.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Bone Marrow , Chondrogenesis , Classification , Disease Progression , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Knee , Osteoarthritis , Osteoarthritis, Knee , Quality of Life , Telephone
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sirolimus (SRL) is a promising immunosuppressant replacingcalcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). This study was performed to evaluate the safetyand immunologic benefits of conversion to SRL in stable kidney transplant (KT)recipients exposed to CNIs for long periods. METHODS: Fourteen CNI-treated KT recipients with stable renal function for morethan 10 years were included. Either 2 or 3 mg per day of SRL was administeredwhile CNIs were reduced by half starting on day 1, and then stopped 2 weeks afterSRL introduction. The safety of SRL conversion was assessed considering thegraft function, acute rejection, and graft loss. Immunologic alterations were measuredvia serial changes of T cell and B cell subsets after SRL conversion. Adverseeffects of SRL conversion were also evaluated. RESULTS: Conversion to SRL was successful in nine patients (64.2%). Conversionto SRL preserved graft function as compared to the baseline value (p = 0.115). Noacute rejection or allograft loss was observed during the follow-up period. Immunemonitoring of T and B cells revealed a regulatory T cells increase after SRL conversion (p = 0.028). Most adverse events developed within 6 weeks after SRLconversion, and oral mucositis was the main cause of SRL withdrawal. CONCLUSIONS: Conversion to SRL can be safe and has immunologic benefits in KTrecipients with long-term CNI exposure. Close monitoring of mucocutaneous adverseevents is, however, required in the early period after SRL conversion.


Subject(s)
Allografts , B-Lymphocyte Subsets , B-Lymphocytes , Calcineurin , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Kidney , Sirolimus , Stomatitis , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Transplantation , Transplants
11.
Immune Network ; : 45-53, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192385

ABSTRACT

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by a progressive loss of cartilage. And, increased oxidative stress plays a relevant role in the pathogenesis of OA. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a used drug for liver diseases known for its free radical-scavenging property. The objectives of this study were to investigate the in vivo effects of UDCA on pain severity and cartilage degeneration using an experimental OA model and to explore its mode of actions. OA was induced in rats by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) to the knee. Oral administration UDCA was initiated on the day of MIA injection. Limb nociception was assessed by measuring the paw withdrawal latency and threshold. Samples were analyzed macroscopically and histologically. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, nitrotyrosine and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in knee joints. UDCA showed an antinociceptive property and attenuated cartilage degeneration. OA rats given oral UDCA significantly exhibited a decreased number of osteoclasts in subchondral bone legion compared with the vehicle-treated OA group. UDCA reduced the expression of IL-1beta, IL-6, nitrotyrosine and iNOS in articular cartilage. UDCA treatment significantly attenuated the mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), -13, and ADAMTS5 in IL-1beta-stimulated human OA chondrocytes. These results show the inhibitory effects of UDCA on pain production and cartilage degeneration in experimentally induced OA. The chondroprotective properties of UDCA were achieved by suppressing oxidative damage and inhibiting catabolic factors that are implicated in the pathogenesis of cartilage damage in OA.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Cartilage , Cartilage, Articular , Chondrocytes , Extremities , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Injections, Intra-Articular , Interleukin-1beta , Interleukin-6 , Joint Diseases , Knee , Knee Joint , Liver Diseases , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Nociception , Osteoarthritis , Osteoclasts , Oxidative Stress , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Ursodeoxycholic Acid
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223714

ABSTRACT

Interleukin (IL)-27 is a novel cytokine of the IL-6/IL-12 family that has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and has a pivotal role as both a pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine. We investigated the in vivo effects of IL-27 on arthritis severity in a murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model and its mechanism of action regarding control of regulatory T (Tregs) and IL-17-producing T helper 17 (Th17) cells. IL-27-Fc-treated CIA mice showed a lower severity of arthritis. IL-17 expression in the spleens was significantly decreased in IL-27-Fc-treated CIA mice compared with that in the CIA model. The Th17 population was decreased in the spleens of IL-27-Fc-treated CIA mice, whereas the CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg population increased. In vitro studies revealed that IL-27 inhibited IL-17 production in murine CD4+ T cells, and the effect was associated with retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gammaT and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 inhibition. In contrast, fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) and IL-10 were profoundly augmented by IL-27 treatment. Regarding the suppressive capacity of Treg cells, the proportions of CTLA-4+ (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4), PD-1+ (programmed cell death protein 1) and GITR+ (glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor) Tregs increased in the spleens of IL-27-Fc-treated CIA mice. Furthermore, in vitro differentiated Treg cells with IL-27 exerted a more suppressive capacity on T-cell proliferation. We found that IL-27 acts as a reciprocal regulator of the Th17 and Treg populations in CD4+ cells isolated from healthy human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), as well as from humans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) PBMCs. Our study suggests that IL-27 has the potential to ameliorate overwhelming inflammation in patients with RA through a reciprocal regulation of Th17 and Treg cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthritis, Experimental/drug therapy , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Interleukins/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Inbred DBA , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology
13.
Gut and Liver ; : 282-289, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the gastroprotective effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPEs) against nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to the normal control, indomethacin, low-dose GSPE, high-dose GSPE and misoprostol groups. All groups except the normal control group received pretreatment drugs for 6 consecutive days. On the 5th and 6th day, indomethacin was administered orally to all groups except for normal control group. The microscopic features of injury were analyzed. The levels of gastric mucosal glutathione, gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and proinflammatory cytokines were investigated. RESULTS: The total areas of ulceration in the GSPE and misoprostol groups were significantly decreased compared with the indomethacin group (p<0.05). However, a difference in ulcer formation among the drug treatment groups was not observed. Meanwhile, the glutathione levels in the high-dose GSPE group were higher than those of both the indomethacin and misoprostol groups (p<0.05) and were similar to those of the normal control group. Additionally, there was no difference among the groups in the levels of gastric mucosal PGE2 and proinflammatory cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose GSPE has a strong protective effect against NSAID-induced gastric mucosal injury, which may be associated with the antioxidant effects of GSPE.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants , Cytokines , Dinoprostone , Glutathione , Grape Seed Extract , Indomethacin , Misoprostol , Proanthocyanidins , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Seeds , Ulcer , Vitis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-147328

ABSTRACT

Myeloid-related protein (MRP)8/MRP14 is an endogenous Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligand and is abundant in synovial fluid (SF) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Belonging to damage-associated molecular patterns, it amplifies proinflammatory mediators and facilitates a wide range of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Interleukin (IL)-17-producing T-helper (Th)17 cells have a crucial role in RA pathogenesis, and IL-6 is the key factor promoting Th17 differentiation. We investigated whether the level of MRP8/MRP14 is positively associated with IL-6 and IL-17 levels in RA SF and found that MRP8/MRP14 level had a significant correlation with IL-6 and IL-17 levels in RA SF. We also observed that MRP8-induced IL-17 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells but MRP14 did not. Upon stimulation with MRP8, IL-6 production was enhanced by RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and was further elevated by coculturing RA FLS with activated CD4+ T cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that MRP8-activated IL-6 production by RA FLS promoted differentiation of Th17 cells using the coculture system consisting of CD4+ T cells and RA FLS. In addition, IL-6 blockade attenuated Th17 polarization of CD4+ T cells in the cocultures. Inhibitor studies revealed that MRP8 increased IL-6 production in RA FLS via TLR4/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Our results show that MRP8 has a crucial role in stimulating IL-6 expression by RA FLS, and subsequently promotes Th17 differentiation in RA, suggesting that neutralizing MRP8 level in RA synovium may be an effective therapeutic strategy in RA treatment.


Subject(s)
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/pathology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Calgranulin B/metabolism , Cell Differentiation/immunology , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Middle Aged , Signal Transduction/immunology , Synovial Fluid/cytology , Synovial Membrane/metabolism , Th17 Cells/pathology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Up-Regulation
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50815

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Methotrexate is the first-line drug in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) exhibiting higher efficacy and better tolerability than most other DMARDs. To have a better understanding of the anti-arthritic mechanism of methotrexate, we investigated the effect of methotrexate on suppressing the autoimmune inflammatory and destructive arthritis in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. METHODS: The effects of methotrexate on joint inflammation were assessed by clinical scoring and histologic analysis. Levels of cytokines and autoreactive antibodies were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The population of TH17 and Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and phosphorylation of their critical transcription activators, STAT3 and STAT5, were examined by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: Treatment with methotrexate significantly alleviated joint inflammation and cartilage destruction in CIA. Serum levels of total immunoglobulins G, G1, G2a specific to type II collagen were also reduced considerably in methotrexate-treated mice. The drug inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-17 in arthritic joints ex vivo as well as by splenocytes in vitro. Moreover, methotrexate treatment resulted in reciprocal modulation of TH17 cells and Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in spleen tissues, in which TH17 cells were decreased and Treg cells in number were increased. Subsequent analysis of CD4+T cells showed that phosphorylation of STAT3 was decreased whereas phosphorylation of STAT5 was increased in methotrexate-treated mice. CONCLUSION: Methotrexate treatment effectively suppressed autoimmune arthritis and restored homeostasis of the immune system by reciprocal regulation of TH17 and Treg cells in a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis , Arthritis, Experimental , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Cartilage , Collagen Type II , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flow Cytometry , Homeostasis , Immune System , Immunoglobulins , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-6 , Joints , Methotrexate , Mice , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Phosphorylation , Spleen , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Th17 Cells , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
16.
Hanyang Medical Reviews ; : 137-137, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86599

ABSTRACT

This erratum is being published to correct of author name.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119839

ABSTRACT

White fat cells secrete adipokines that induce inflammation and obesity has been reported to be characterized by high serum levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a prototype of inflammatory arthritis, but the relationship between RA and obesity is controversial. We made an obese inflammatory arthritis model: obese collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). C57BL/6 mice were fed a 60-kcal high fat diet (HFD) from the age of 4 weeks and they were immunized twice with type II collagen (CII). After immunization, the obese CIA mice showed higher arthritis index scores and histology scores and a more increased incidence of developing arthritis than did the lean CIA mice. After treatment with CII, mixed lymphocyte reaction also showed CII-specific response more intensely in the obese CIA mice than lean CIA. The anti-CII IgG and anti-CII IgG2a levels in the sera of the obese CIA mice were higher than those of the lean CIA mice. The number of Th17 cells was higher and the IL-17 mRNA expression of the splenocytes in the obese CIA mice was higher than that of the lean CIA mice. Obese CIA mice also showed high IL-17 expression on synovium in immunohistochemistry. Although obesity may not play a pathogenic role in initiating arthritis, it could play an important role in amplifying the inflammation of arthritis through the Th1/Th17 response. The obese CIA murine model will be an important tool when we investigate the effect of several therapeutic target molecules to treat RA.


Subject(s)
Adipokines/immunology , Animals , Arthritis, Experimental/genetics , Cell Differentiation/genetics , Collagen Type II/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression , Humans , Inflammation/chemically induced , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-6/blood , Joints/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity/genetics , Th17 Cells/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149759

ABSTRACT

IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells (Th17) play important functions in autoimmune diseases and allograft rejection of solid organs. We examined the effects of IL 17 and its mechanism of action on arthritis in a murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model using bone marrow transplantation (BMT) system. DBA/1J mice were administered a lethal radiation dose and then rescued with bone marrow derived from either wild-type (WT) or IL-17-/- mice on C57BL/6 background mice. CIA was induced after the bone marrow transplant, and disease progression was characterized. DBA/1J mice with CIA that received IL-17-/- donor bone marrow showed potently inhibited development and severity of clinical arthritis as compared with CIA mice that received WT bone marrow. Reduced secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6, and collagen-specific T cell responses were observed in mice that received IL-17-/- bone marrow. IL-17 blockade also inhibited effector T cell proliferation by reciprocally regulating the Treg/Th17 ratio. IL-17 blockade prevented joint destruction in mice with CIA. These findings suggest that CIA with BMT is a viable method of immunological manipulation and that IL-17 deficiency suppresses severe joint destruction and inflammation in CIA mice. There may be clinical benefits in blocking IL-17 and BMT in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Differentiation/metabolism , Arthritis, Experimental/pathology , Bone Marrow Transplantation , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Collagen Type II , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-17/deficiency , Joints/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Inbred DBA , Mice, Knockout , Osteoclasts/metabolism , Signal Transduction , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Transplantation, Homologous
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192556

ABSTRACT

Most of the previous studies on immune dysregulation in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have focused on T cell immunity. We investigated B cell subpopulations in ESRD patients and the effect of hemodialysis (HD) on B cell-associated immune profiles in these patients. Forty-four ESRD [maintenance HD patients (n = 27) and pre-dialysis patients (n = 17)] and 27 healthy volunteers were included in this study. We determined the percentage of B cell subtypes, such as mature and immature B cells, memory B cells, and interleukin (IL)-10+ cells, as well as B cell-producing cytokines (IL-10, IL-4 and IL-21) by florescent activated cell sorting (FACS). B cell-associated gene expression was examined using real-time PCR and B cell producing cytokines (IL-10, IL-4 and IL-21) were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The percentage of total B cells and mature B cells did not differ significantly among the three groups. The percentages of memory B cells were significantly higher in the pre-dialysis group than in the HD group (P 0.05) between the two subgroups within the ESRD group, but the serum IL-10 concentration was significantly lower in the pre-dialysis group (P < 0.01). The results of this study demonstrate significantly altered B cell-associated immunity. Specifically, an imbalance of immature and memory B cells in ESRD patients was observed, with this finding predominating in pre-dialysis patients.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adult , Antigens, CD19/metabolism , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210397

ABSTRACT

Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a key negative regulator of immune responses and has been implicated in tumor tolerance, autoimmune disease and asthma. IDO was detected in the joint synovial tissue in the inflammatory microenvironment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but IDO expression in joint synovial tissue is not sufficient to overcome the inflamed synovial environment. This study aimed to unravel the mechanisms involving the failure to activate tolerogenic IDO in the inflamed joint. We demonstrate that both poly (I:C) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induce expression of IDO in synovial fibroblasts. However, inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17, TNF-alpha, IL-12, IL-23 and IL-16 did not induce IDO expression. Poly (I:C) appeared to induce higher IDO expression than did LPS. Surprisingly, toll-like receptor (TLR)4-mediated IDO expression was upregulated after depletion of myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) in synovial fibroblasts using small interfering RNA (siRNA). IDO, TLR3 and TLR4 were highly expressed in synovial tissue of RA patients compared with that of osteoarthritis patients. In addition, RA patients with severe disease activity had higher levels of expression of IDO, TLR3 and TLR4 in the synovium than patients with mild disease activity. These data suggest that upregulation of IDO expression in synovial fibroblasts involves TLR3 and TLR4 activation by microbial constituents. We showed that the mechanisms responsible for IDO regulation primarily involve MyD88 signaling in synovial fibroblasts, as demonstrated by siRNA-mediated knockdown of MyD88.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/genetics , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Cells, Cultured , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/genetics , Interleukin-12/pharmacology , Interleukin-16/pharmacology , Interleukin-17/pharmacology , Interleukin-23/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/genetics , Poly I-C/pharmacology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Synovial Membrane/cytology , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology
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