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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 12-20, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875607

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the prognostic value of AFP levels in patients who achieved complete response (CR) to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for HCC. @*Materials and Methods@#Between 2005 and 2018, 890 patients with HCC who achieved a CR to TACE were recruited. An AFP responder was defined as a patient who showed elevated levels of AFP (>10 ng/mL) during TACE, but showed normalization or a >50% reduction in AFP levels after achieving a CR. @*Results@#Among the recruited patients, 569 (63.9%) with naïve HCC and 321 (36.1%) with recurrent HCC after complete resection were treated. Before TACE, 305 (34.3%) patients had multiple tumors, 219 (24.6%) had a maximal tumor size >3 cm, and 22 (2.5%) had portal vein tumor thrombosis. The median AFP level after achieving a CR was 6.36 ng/mL. After a CR, 473 (53.1%) patients experienced recurrence, and 417 (46.9%) died [median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of 16.3 and 62.8 months, respectively]. High AFP levels at CR (>20 ng/mL) were independently associated with a shorter PFS [hazard ratio (HR)=1.403] and OS (HR=1.284), together with tumor multiplicity at TACE (HR=1.518 and 1.666, respectively). AFP non-responders at CR (76.2%, n=359 of 471) showed a shorter PFS (median 10.5 months vs. 15.5 months, HR=1.375) and OS (median 41.4 months vs. 61.8 months, HR=1.424) than AFP responders (all p=0.001). @*Conclusion@#High AFP levels and AFP non-responders were independently associated with poor outcomes after TACE. AFP holds clinical implications for detailed risk stratification upon achieving a CR after TACE.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874770

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks emerged at two universityaffiliated hospitals in Seoul (hospital A) and Uijeongbu City (hospital S) in the metropolitan Seoul area in March 2020. The aim of this study was to investigate epidemiological links between the outbreaks using whole genome sequencing (WGS) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). @*Methods@#Fifteen patients were enrolled in the study, including four non-outbreak (A1–A4) and three outbreak cases (A5–A7) in hospital A and eight cases (S1–S8) in hospital S. Patients' hospital stays, COVID-19 symptoms, and transfer history were reviewed. RNA samples were submitted for WGS and genome-wide single nucleotide variants and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed. @*Results@#The index patient (A5) in hospital A was transferred from hospital S on 26 March.Patients A6 and A7 were the family caregiver and sister, respectively, of the patient who shared a room with A5 for 4 days. Prior to transfer, A5 was at the next bed to S8 in the emergency room on 25 March. Patient S6, a professional caregiver, took care of the patient in the room next to S8's room for 5 days until 22 March and then S5 for another 3 days.WGS revealed that SARS-CoV-2 in A2, A3, and A4 belong to clades V/B.2, S/A, and G/B.1, respectively, whereas that of A5–A7 and S1-S5 are of the V/B.2.1 clade and closely clustered. In particular, SARS-CoV-2 in patients A5 and S5 showed perfect identity. @*Conclusion@#WGS is a useful tool to understand epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2. It is the first study to elucidate the role of patient transfer and caregivers as links of nosocomial outbreaks of COVID-19 in multiple hospitals.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899880

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission among non-close contacts is not infrequent. We evaluated the proportion and circumstances of individuals to whom SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted without close contact with the index patient in a nosocomial outbreak in a tertiary care hospital in Korea. From March 2020 to March 2021, there were 36 secondary cases from 14 SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Of the 36 secondary cases, 26 (72%) had been classified as close contact and the remaining 10 (28%) were classified as non-close contact. Of the 10 non-close contact, 4 had short conversations with both individuals masked, 4 shared a space without any conversation with both masked, and the remaining 2 entered the space after the index had left. At least one quarter of SARSCoV-2 transmissions occurred among non-close contacts. The definition of close contact for SARS-CoV-2 exposure based on the mode of droplet transmission should be revised to reflect the airborne nature of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898111

ABSTRACT

Background@#Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is closely associated with the aging process. However, changes in metabolic conditions and cardiac function that occur in middle aged population remain unclear. We evaluated longitudinal changes in metabolic parameters and cardiac function during a 3-year period in subjects with suspected MetS. @*Methods@#We studied 191 participants with suspected MetS at baseline and after 3 years. Anthropometric parameters, including waist circumference (WC), and metabolic parameters, including fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were measured. Conventional echocardiography with two-dimensional speckle tracking was performed. @*Results@#Mean age was 56.2±4.4 years, and there were 97 women (50.8%). Men had increased WC and triglycerides (TG) (WC 91.2±6.8 cm vs. 84.0±8.0 cm, P<0.001; TG 184.4±116.3 mg/dL vs. 128.2±53.6 mg/dL, P<0.001), and reduced global longitudinal strain (GLS) (–15.4%±2.1% vs. –17.1%±2.0%, P<0.001) compared to women. After 3.4 years, values of WC and TG did not change in men but increased in women (all P<0.05). The absolute value of left ventricular (LV) GLS did not change in men but was reduced in women (P=0.011). Change in TG was independently associated with worsening of LV GLS only in women (standardized β, –0.309; 95% confidence interval, –0.130 to –0.009; P=0.025). @*Conclusion@#In middle aged population, a vulnerable period for metabolic disturbance, cardiac remodeling tended to progress, which was prominent in women. Progression of adiposity and dyslipidemia after menopause may accelerate subclinical cardiac remodeling in middle-aged women. Lifestyle modification and medical interventions may help prevent further cardiac dysfunction in these subjects.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896720

ABSTRACT

Background@#Fecal microbiota transplantation against gut colonization using a multidrugresistant organism is a technique used to treat infections through normalizing the gut microbiota via fecal microbiota transplantation in patients with confirmed colonization by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) based on a fecal culture test within the past one week. In this study, we aimed to determinethe safety and effectiveness of this technique. @*Methods@#The safety and effectiveness were assessed via a systematic review. A literature search was conducted using five Korean databases, such as KoreaMed, and international databases, including Ovid-MEDLINE, Ovid-EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. @*Results@#Main results are described here. From the studies retrieved using the aforementioned search strategy, the remaining 581 studies were screened using the inclusion and exclusion criteria, resulting in the selection of nine studies for further consideration. In terms of safety, many studies reported deaths and adverse reactions associated with different causes. Fewer studies reported the rate of colonization; however, the effect of colony rate was inconsistent when compared to no treatment group. Additionally, none of the studies assessed the recurrence rate, a decrease in the prevalence of diseases related to infection by multidrugresistant bacteria, and the quality of life. @*Conclusion@#Fecal bacterial colonization for the decolonization of intestinal multidrugresistant bacteria was evaluated using a technique that requires further research as there is insufficient literature evidence to validate its safety and efficacy in treating infections through normalizing the intestinal flora of patients with confirmed colonization by CRE or VRE.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896719

ABSTRACT

Background@#Rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) is desirable to guide antimicrobial therapy and infection control. The NG-Test Carba5 (Carba5;NG Biotech, France) rapid multiplex lateral flow immunoassay and BD MAX Check-Points CPO Assay (CPO; BD Diagnostic Systems, USA) fully automated real-time PCR assay were evaluated for the detection of KPC, NDM, VIM, IMP, and OXA-48-like group in a culture colony compared to genotyping using conventional PCR. @*Methods@#Among the clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) collected from 2013 to 2019, up to 20 isolates for each carbapenemase type, and approximately 60 carbapenemase-negative CRE were enrolled. Genotyping of carbapenemases were performed using single-target PCR for KPC, NDM, and OXA-48-like group and the multiplex PCR for VIM, IMP, GIM, SIM, and SPM. All isolates were tested with Carba5 and CPO. The discrepant results were resolved by single-target specific conventional PCR or GeneXpert Carba-R Assay (Carba-R; Cepheid, USA). @*Results@#Of 147 CREs, 82 were CPE (55.8%) including 20 KPC, 22 NDM, 17 VIM, three IMP, and 13 OXA-48-like group, and seven double carbapenemase-positive (three KPC/VIM, two NDM/ VIM, one KPC/NDM, and one NDM/OXA-48-like group) isolates. Carba5 and CPO detected all CPE correctly along with two more IMP-producing CPE. The sensitivity and specificity of both kits were equally 100% and 97%. Two false IMP-positives were confirmed IMP-positive with Carba-R and IMP-specific single-target PCR. @*Conclusion@#Carba5 and CPO reliably detect and differentiate five common carbapenemases in cultured colonies. Carba5, faster and simpler, is preferred as a spot test.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915303

ABSTRACT

To determine the extent of environmental contamination and the effect of disinfection around patients with carbapenemresistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements and microbial culture tests. Methods: The subjects of this study were 10 patients hospitalized in a single room due to CRE from April 13 to 21, 2021. One hundred and sixty samples were collected using cotton swabs from the patients’ environment including the surface and drain of sinks and toilet seats before and after disinfection of the room after discharge. Twenty-one samples were collected from the nurses’ personal digital assistants (PDAs), keyboards, and computer mice before disinfection. The relative light units (RLUs) and CRE colony-forming units (CFU) of 181 samples were measured using ATP test equipment and chrome agar plates, respectively. Results: The highest RLUs were measured at the sink drains before and after disinfection. Four CRE samples from the sink drains (2), sink surface (1), and toilet bowl (1) before disinfection were cultured. Based on the failure criteria ( ≥ 250 RLU/cm2 and ≥ 1 CFU/100 cm2 ), 90 % and 50 % of the samples from the drain exceeded the failure criteria before and after disinfection, respectively. In the culture tests, CRE was not detected after disinfection. Conclusion: According to the RLU and CFU measurements of drain samples, disinfection was not effective. Thus, improvements in the disinfection methods of drains, as well as more efficient and systematic environmental decontamination and disinfection evaluation tools, are needed to accurately evaluate the effectiveness of disinfection in various places.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889016

ABSTRACT

Background@#Fecal microbiota transplantation against gut colonization using a multidrugresistant organism is a technique used to treat infections through normalizing the gut microbiota via fecal microbiota transplantation in patients with confirmed colonization by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) based on a fecal culture test within the past one week. In this study, we aimed to determinethe safety and effectiveness of this technique. @*Methods@#The safety and effectiveness were assessed via a systematic review. A literature search was conducted using five Korean databases, such as KoreaMed, and international databases, including Ovid-MEDLINE, Ovid-EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. @*Results@#Main results are described here. From the studies retrieved using the aforementioned search strategy, the remaining 581 studies were screened using the inclusion and exclusion criteria, resulting in the selection of nine studies for further consideration. In terms of safety, many studies reported deaths and adverse reactions associated with different causes. Fewer studies reported the rate of colonization; however, the effect of colony rate was inconsistent when compared to no treatment group. Additionally, none of the studies assessed the recurrence rate, a decrease in the prevalence of diseases related to infection by multidrugresistant bacteria, and the quality of life. @*Conclusion@#Fecal bacterial colonization for the decolonization of intestinal multidrugresistant bacteria was evaluated using a technique that requires further research as there is insufficient literature evidence to validate its safety and efficacy in treating infections through normalizing the intestinal flora of patients with confirmed colonization by CRE or VRE.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889015

ABSTRACT

Background@#Rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) is desirable to guide antimicrobial therapy and infection control. The NG-Test Carba5 (Carba5;NG Biotech, France) rapid multiplex lateral flow immunoassay and BD MAX Check-Points CPO Assay (CPO; BD Diagnostic Systems, USA) fully automated real-time PCR assay were evaluated for the detection of KPC, NDM, VIM, IMP, and OXA-48-like group in a culture colony compared to genotyping using conventional PCR. @*Methods@#Among the clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) collected from 2013 to 2019, up to 20 isolates for each carbapenemase type, and approximately 60 carbapenemase-negative CRE were enrolled. Genotyping of carbapenemases were performed using single-target PCR for KPC, NDM, and OXA-48-like group and the multiplex PCR for VIM, IMP, GIM, SIM, and SPM. All isolates were tested with Carba5 and CPO. The discrepant results were resolved by single-target specific conventional PCR or GeneXpert Carba-R Assay (Carba-R; Cepheid, USA). @*Results@#Of 147 CREs, 82 were CPE (55.8%) including 20 KPC, 22 NDM, 17 VIM, three IMP, and 13 OXA-48-like group, and seven double carbapenemase-positive (three KPC/VIM, two NDM/ VIM, one KPC/NDM, and one NDM/OXA-48-like group) isolates. Carba5 and CPO detected all CPE correctly along with two more IMP-producing CPE. The sensitivity and specificity of both kits were equally 100% and 97%. Two false IMP-positives were confirmed IMP-positive with Carba-R and IMP-specific single-target PCR. @*Conclusion@#Carba5 and CPO reliably detect and differentiate five common carbapenemases in cultured colonies. Carba5, faster and simpler, is preferred as a spot test.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892176

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission among non-close contacts is not infrequent. We evaluated the proportion and circumstances of individuals to whom SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted without close contact with the index patient in a nosocomial outbreak in a tertiary care hospital in Korea. From March 2020 to March 2021, there were 36 secondary cases from 14 SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Of the 36 secondary cases, 26 (72%) had been classified as close contact and the remaining 10 (28%) were classified as non-close contact. Of the 10 non-close contact, 4 had short conversations with both individuals masked, 4 shared a space without any conversation with both masked, and the remaining 2 entered the space after the index had left. At least one quarter of SARSCoV-2 transmissions occurred among non-close contacts. The definition of close contact for SARS-CoV-2 exposure based on the mode of droplet transmission should be revised to reflect the airborne nature of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890407

ABSTRACT

Background@#Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is closely associated with the aging process. However, changes in metabolic conditions and cardiac function that occur in middle aged population remain unclear. We evaluated longitudinal changes in metabolic parameters and cardiac function during a 3-year period in subjects with suspected MetS. @*Methods@#We studied 191 participants with suspected MetS at baseline and after 3 years. Anthropometric parameters, including waist circumference (WC), and metabolic parameters, including fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were measured. Conventional echocardiography with two-dimensional speckle tracking was performed. @*Results@#Mean age was 56.2±4.4 years, and there were 97 women (50.8%). Men had increased WC and triglycerides (TG) (WC 91.2±6.8 cm vs. 84.0±8.0 cm, P<0.001; TG 184.4±116.3 mg/dL vs. 128.2±53.6 mg/dL, P<0.001), and reduced global longitudinal strain (GLS) (–15.4%±2.1% vs. –17.1%±2.0%, P<0.001) compared to women. After 3.4 years, values of WC and TG did not change in men but increased in women (all P<0.05). The absolute value of left ventricular (LV) GLS did not change in men but was reduced in women (P=0.011). Change in TG was independently associated with worsening of LV GLS only in women (standardized β, –0.309; 95% confidence interval, –0.130 to –0.009; P=0.025). @*Conclusion@#In middle aged population, a vulnerable period for metabolic disturbance, cardiac remodeling tended to progress, which was prominent in women. Progression of adiposity and dyslipidemia after menopause may accelerate subclinical cardiac remodeling in middle-aged women. Lifestyle modification and medical interventions may help prevent further cardiac dysfunction in these subjects.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896960

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with major portal vein tumor thrombosis (mPVTT) complications were generally characterized by extremely poor prognoses. The aim of this study was to explore the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT imaging in predicting HCC complicated by mPVTT. @*Methods@#Five hundred one HCC patients received surgery in our hospital during November 2008 to December 2014, among which 32 patients (6.4%) were diagnosed as HCC complicated by mPVTT. Six cases were excluded for reasons of complex medical conditions, including 2 cases of salvage liver transplantation, 2 cases of re-resection, 1 case of mPVTT combined with inferior vina cava tumor thrombosis, and 1 case of residual portal vein tumor thrombosis. Ultimately, 26 cases were enrolled in this study. The maximal tumor standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was identified as a predictive factor and detected. The univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) of HCC patients complicated by mPVTT. @*Results@#Our results showed that the median OS was 16 months. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative OS was 55.6%, 31.7%, and 31.7%, respectively. The multivariate regression analysis revealed that SUVmax ≥ 4.65 was the only independent risk factor for RFS and OS. @*Conclusion@#SUVmax was an independent predictor for RFS and OS of patients suffering from both HCC and mPVTT. L ow SUVmax could serve as an effective factor for selecting candidates with low recurrence risks and for helping with improving patient survival after surgical resection.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896715

ABSTRACT

Background@#Inconclusive SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) test results, which are positive for one or more target genes but not all, are problematic in clinical laboratories. In this study, we aimed to investigate the cause and clinical relevance of such inconclusive results. @*Methods@#rRT-PCR was performed using the Allplex 2019-nCoV assay kit (Seegene Inc., Korea) targeting the following three genes: E, RdRp, and N. For all inconclusive test results reported from March to June 2020, the frequency per kit, lot number, specimen type, cycle threshold (Ct) and peak values of the amplification curves, positive target genes, and results of repeated or consecutive tests were analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 43,268 tests were conducted, of which 93 (0.21%) were inconclusive—49 from 11 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and 44 from non-COVID-19 patients.In COVID-19 patients, the results were inconclusive 11.9 ± 4.7 days after diagnosis and were negative 8.8 ± 5.5 days after the inconclusive results were reported. However, in nonCOVID-19 patients, they were all negative upon retest and 81.8% of them were identified to have yielded in 2 out of 8 lots. The most frequently positive target genes were N (55.4%) in COVID-19 and RdRp (61.2%) in non-COVID-19 patients, respectively. No difference was observed in the Ct or peak values of the amplification curves for inconclusive samples between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cases. @*Conclusion@#Inconclusive test results should be reported neither positive nor negative. Such results can be reported as inconclusive without retesting in COVID-19 patients; however, they should certainly be confirmed by a retest in non-COVID-19 patients or newly diagnosed cases.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889256

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with major portal vein tumor thrombosis (mPVTT) complications were generally characterized by extremely poor prognoses. The aim of this study was to explore the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT imaging in predicting HCC complicated by mPVTT. @*Methods@#Five hundred one HCC patients received surgery in our hospital during November 2008 to December 2014, among which 32 patients (6.4%) were diagnosed as HCC complicated by mPVTT. Six cases were excluded for reasons of complex medical conditions, including 2 cases of salvage liver transplantation, 2 cases of re-resection, 1 case of mPVTT combined with inferior vina cava tumor thrombosis, and 1 case of residual portal vein tumor thrombosis. Ultimately, 26 cases were enrolled in this study. The maximal tumor standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was identified as a predictive factor and detected. The univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) of HCC patients complicated by mPVTT. @*Results@#Our results showed that the median OS was 16 months. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative OS was 55.6%, 31.7%, and 31.7%, respectively. The multivariate regression analysis revealed that SUVmax ≥ 4.65 was the only independent risk factor for RFS and OS. @*Conclusion@#SUVmax was an independent predictor for RFS and OS of patients suffering from both HCC and mPVTT. L ow SUVmax could serve as an effective factor for selecting candidates with low recurrence risks and for helping with improving patient survival after surgical resection.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889011

ABSTRACT

Background@#Inconclusive SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) test results, which are positive for one or more target genes but not all, are problematic in clinical laboratories. In this study, we aimed to investigate the cause and clinical relevance of such inconclusive results. @*Methods@#rRT-PCR was performed using the Allplex 2019-nCoV assay kit (Seegene Inc., Korea) targeting the following three genes: E, RdRp, and N. For all inconclusive test results reported from March to June 2020, the frequency per kit, lot number, specimen type, cycle threshold (Ct) and peak values of the amplification curves, positive target genes, and results of repeated or consecutive tests were analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 43,268 tests were conducted, of which 93 (0.21%) were inconclusive—49 from 11 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and 44 from non-COVID-19 patients.In COVID-19 patients, the results were inconclusive 11.9 ± 4.7 days after diagnosis and were negative 8.8 ± 5.5 days after the inconclusive results were reported. However, in nonCOVID-19 patients, they were all negative upon retest and 81.8% of them were identified to have yielded in 2 out of 8 lots. The most frequently positive target genes were N (55.4%) in COVID-19 and RdRp (61.2%) in non-COVID-19 patients, respectively. No difference was observed in the Ct or peak values of the amplification curves for inconclusive samples between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cases. @*Conclusion@#Inconclusive test results should be reported neither positive nor negative. Such results can be reported as inconclusive without retesting in COVID-19 patients; however, they should certainly be confirmed by a retest in non-COVID-19 patients or newly diagnosed cases.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836380

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study determined whether the sonication of explants could improve the detection of bacteria and influence the optimal antibiotics treatment. @*Materials and Methods@#This retrospective study included the patients who underwent implant removal surgery followed by sonication culture as well as tissue culture in order to diagnose implant-related infection. A total of 37 consecutive patients with 41 cases were included. The patients’ demographic data, use of preoperative antibiotics, type of implants, change of antibiotics following the culture results, and recurrence of infection were all reviewed. @*Results@#Among 41 cases, 20 cases met the diagnostic requirements for implant-related infection as defined by musculoskeletal infection society criteria, while the other 21 cases had explant sonication to exclude indolent infection or residual infection. The latter showed negative results on the both explant cultures and tissue cultures. Among the 20 cases that met the requirements for implant-related infection, 19 cases (95.0%) were identified by any cultures. Of the 19 cases with positive culture results, 2 cases (10.5%) showed positive results only on sonication cultures, and one case (5.3%) showed positive results only on tissue culture. In 1 case of culture negative implant-related infection, a drain sinus was present preoperatively, but the cultures were negative according to both methods. The culture results made postoperative antibiotics change in 12 cases among the 19 culture (+) cases. Antibiotics changes were based on the tissue culture in 2 cases, 2 cases were based on the sonication culture, and the remaining 8 cases were based on both cultures. @*Conclusion@#The sonication culture improved the diagnosis of implant-related infection combined with conventional tissue culture and helped to determine administering the proper antibiotics.

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834266

ABSTRACT

Background@#Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are highly drug-resistant pathogens. Screening the contacts of newly-identified CPE patients is crucial for nosocomial transmission control. We evaluated the acquisition rate of CPE in close contacts as a function of CPE genotype. @*Materials and Methods@#This study was conducted in Asan Medical Center, a 2,700-bed, tertiary teaching hospital in Seoul, Korea, between November 2010 and October 2017. Index cases were defined as patients with positive tests for CPE from any infected or colonized site during hospitalization who had no direct epidemiologic linkage with existing CPE patients; close contact patients were defined as those whose hospital stay overlapped with the stay of an index case for at least one day and who occupied the same room or intensive care unit (ICU). Secondary patients were defined as those who produced positive CPE culture isolates from surveillance cultures that had the same CPE enzyme as that of the index case patients. @*Results@#A total of 211 index case patients and 2,689 corresponding contact patients were identified. Of the contact patients, 1,369 (50.9%) including 649 New-Delhi metallo-betalactamase-1 (NDM-1) and 448 Klebsiella pneumoniae carbaepenamse (KPC)-producing CPE exposures were screened, and 44 secondary patients (3.2%; 95% confidence interval 2.3 -4.3%) were positive for NDM-1-producing CPE (16 patients) and KPC-producing (24 patients) CPE. The CPE acquisition rate (5.4%) for KPC-producing CPE exposures was significantly higher than that for NDM-1 exposures (2.7%) (P = 0.01). @*Conclusion@#The CPE acquisition rate was 3.2% among close contacts sharing a multi-patient room, with about a two-fold higher risk of KPC-producing CPE than NDM-1-producing CPE.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831867

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Chest pain in patients with obstructive coronary artery disease (OCAD) is affected by several social factors. The gender-based differences in chest pain among Koreans have yet to be investigated. @*Methods@#The study consecutively enrolled 1,549 patients (male/female, 514/1,035; 61 ± 11 years old) with suspected angina. The predictive factors for OCAD based on gender were evaluated. @*Results@#Men experienced more squeezing type pain on the left side of chest, while women demonstrated more dull quality pain in the retrosternal and epigastric area. After adjustment for risk factors, pain in the retrosternal area (odds ratio [OR], 1.491; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.178 to 1.887) and aggravation by exercise (OR, 2.235; 95% CI, 1.745 to 2.861) were positively associated with OCAD. In men, shorter duration (OR, 1.581; 95% CI, 1.086 to 2.303) and dyspnea (OR, 1.610; 95% CI, 1.040 to 2.490) increased the probability for OCAD, while left-sided chest pain suggested a low probability for OCAD (OR, 0.590; 95% CI, 0.388 to 0.897). In women, aggravation by emotional stress (OR, 0.348; 95% CI, 0.162 to 0.746) and dizziness (OR, 0.457; 95% CI, 0.246 to 0.849) decreased the probability for OCAD. @*Conclusions@#This is the first study to focus on gender differences in chest pain among Koreans with angina. Symptoms with high probability for OCAD were different between sexes. Our findings suggest that patient’s medical history in pretest assessment for OCAD should be individualized considering gender.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831850

ABSTRACT

Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) accounts for nearly half of the cases of HF and its incidence might be increasing with the aging society. Patients with HFpEF present with significant symptoms, including exercise intolerance, impaired quality of life, and have a poor prognosis as well as frequent hospitalization and increased mortality compared with HF with reduced ejection fraction. The concept of HFpEF is still evolving and may be a virtual complex rather than a real systemic disorder. Thus, beyond solely targeting cardiac abnormalities management strategies need to be extended, such as left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. In this review, we examine new diagnostic algorithms, pathophysiology, current management status, and ongoing trials based on heterogeneous pathophysiology and etiology in HFpEF.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811097

ABSTRACT

This study investigated resistance mechanisms and epidemiology of emerging linezolid-nonsusceptible Enterococcus faecalis (LNSEF) in a tertiary care hospital. LNSEF isolated from clinical samples were collected from November 2017 to June 2019. The isolates were investigated for linezolid resistance and the associated molecular mechanisms, including mutations of 23S rRNA domain V and acquisition of the cfr or optrA resistance gene. We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing for the molecular typing of the isolates. Among 4,318 E. faecalis isolates, 10 (0.23%) were linezolid-nonsusceptible. All LNSEF isolates were optrA-positive and cfr-negative. Of these isolates, five were sequence type (ST) 476, two ST585, one ST16, one ST16-like, and one ST480. Six LNSEF isolates obtained in the first year clustered to three types in the PFGE analysis: two ST476 isolates of type A, two ST585 isolates of type B, and two ST16 or ST16-like isolates of type C. Seven cases were of community-onset and three were hospital acquired, but total of eight were healthcare-associated including five community-onset. None of the patients had a history of linezolid treatment, and in one patient, we detected linezolid-susceptible E. faecalis one month before LNSEF detection. In conclusion, heterogenous clones of optrA-positive LNSEF emerged in the hospital mainly via community-onset.

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