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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e73-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967464

ABSTRACT

Background@#The epidemiology of pathogenic bacteria varies according to the socioeconomic status and antimicrobial resistance status. However, longitudinal epidemiological studies to evaluate the changes in species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria nationwide are lacking. We retrospectively investigated the nationwide trends in species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria over the last 20 years in Korea. @*Methods@#From 1997 to 2016, annual cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility and species distribution data were collected from 12 university hospitals in five provinces and four metropolitan cities in South Korea. @*Results@#The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was the highest (13.1%) until 2012 but decreased to 10.3% in 2016, consistent with the decrease in oxacillin resistance from 76.1% in 2008 to 62.5% in 2016. While the cefotaxime resistance of Escherichia coli increased from 9.0% in 1997 to 34.2% in 2016, E. coli became the most common species since 2013, accounting for 14.5% of all isolates in 2016. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii rose to third and fifth places in 2008 and 2010, respectively, while imipenem resistance increased from 13.9% to 30.8% and 0.7% to 73.5% during the study period, respectively.Streptococcus agalactiae became the most common pathogenic streptococcal species in 2016, as the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae decreased since 2010. During the same period, pneumococcal penicillin susceptibility decreased to 79.0%, and levofloxacin susceptibility of S. agalactiae decreased to 77.1% in 2016. @*Conclusion@#The epidemiology of pathogenic bacteria has changed significantly over the past 20 years according to trends in antimicrobial resistance in Korea. Efforts to confine antimicrobial resistance would change the epidemiology of pathogenic bacteria and, consequently, the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e306-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001234

ABSTRACT

Background@#To propose a deep learning architecture for automatically detecting the complex structure of the aortic annulus plane using cardiac computed tomography (CT) for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). @*Methods@#This study retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients who underwent TAVR between January 2017 and July 2020 at a tertiary medical center. Annulus Detection Permuted AdaIN network (ADPANet) based on a three-dimensional (3D) U-net architecture was developed to detect and localize the aortic annulus plane using cardiac CT. Patients (N = 72) who underwent TAVR between January 2017 and July 2020 at a tertiary medical center were enrolled. Ground truth using a limited dataset was delineated manually by three cardiac radiologists. Training, tuning, and testing sets (70:10:20) were used to build the deep learning model. The performance of ADPANet for detecting the aortic annulus plane was analyzed using the root mean square error (RMSE) and dice similarity coefficient (DSC). @*Results@#In this study, the total dataset consisted of 72 selected scans from patients who underwent TAVR. The RMSE and DSC values for the aortic annulus plane using ADPANet were 55.078 ± 35.794 and 0.496 ± 0.217, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Our deep learning framework was feasible to detect the 3D complex structure of the aortic annulus plane using cardiac CT for TAVR. The performance of our algorithms was higher than other convolutional neural networks.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e252-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001078

ABSTRACT

Background@#Ralstonia mannitolilytica is a causative organism of nosocomial infections, particularly associated with contaminated water, and resistant to various antibiotics, including carbapenems. Several clusters of R. mannitolilytica infections appeared in children at our institute from August 2018 to November 2019. @*Methods@#From March 2009 to March 2023, all patients admitted to Asan Medical Center Children’s Hospital in Seoul, Korea, with culture-confirmed R. mannitolilytica and corresponding clinical signs of infection were identified. Epidemiological and environmental investigations were conducted. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for the genes of OXA-443 and OXA-444 on R. mannitolilytica isolates. @*Results@#A total of 18 patients with R. mannitolilytica infection were included in this study, with 94.4% (17/18) and 5.6% (1/18) being diagnosed with pneumonia and central line-associated bloodstream infection, respectively. All-cause 30-day mortality rate was 61.1% (11/18), and seven of the fatal cases were caused by R. mannitolilytica infection itself. The resistance rates to meropenem and imipenem werew 94.4% (17/18) and 5.6% (1/18), respectively. Although four out of nine meropenem-resistant R.mannitolilytica isolates had positive PCR results for OXA-443 and OXA-444 genes, there were no significant differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Environmental sampling identified R. mannitolylica at two sites: a cold-water tap of a water purifier and an exhalation circuit of a patient mechanical ventilator.After implementing and improving adherence to infection control policies, no additional R. mannitolilyticainfection cases have been reported since December 2019. @*Conclusion@#R. mannitolilytica can cause life-threatening infections with high mortality in fragile pediatric populations. To prevent outbreaks, healthcare workers should be aware of R. mannitolilytica infections and strive to comply with infection control policies.

4.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 45-51, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937124

ABSTRACT

Background@#The concurrent detection of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) with UL97 and UL54 mutations is crucial for prescribing adequate antiviral treatment when drug-resistant CMV infection is suspected. We investigated the frequency of resistance-conferring mutations among patients with persistent or recurrent CMV infection and further reviewed the subgroup with UL54 mutations without UL97 mutations. @*Methods@#Patients with persistent or recurrent CMV infection after 4 weeks of treatment with ganciclovir or foscarnet were consecutively enrolled between November 2012 and May 2019.The direct sequencing of UL97 and UL54 was performed to detect resistance mutations in CMV. @*Results@#A total of 101 sequencing datasets were obtained from 65 enrolled patients.CMV UL97 and UL54 mutations were detected in 15.4% (10/65) and 9% (6/65) of patients, respectively. The CMV retrieved from two patients (3%) had mutations in both genes. Four patients with CMV UL54 mutations alone had a history of haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, and foscarnet was administered for over 4 weeks to these patients; 21.5% of patients had suspected resistant CMV infection with either UL97 or UL54 mutations. @*Conclusion@#In this study, CMV UL54 mutations but not UL97 mutations were found in patients subjected to prolonged foscarnet administration for CMV disease.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e233-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899880

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission among non-close contacts is not infrequent. We evaluated the proportion and circumstances of individuals to whom SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted without close contact with the index patient in a nosocomial outbreak in a tertiary care hospital in Korea. From March 2020 to March 2021, there were 36 secondary cases from 14 SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Of the 36 secondary cases, 26 (72%) had been classified as close contact and the remaining 10 (28%) were classified as non-close contact. Of the 10 non-close contact, 4 had short conversations with both individuals masked, 4 shared a space without any conversation with both masked, and the remaining 2 entered the space after the index had left. At least one quarter of SARSCoV-2 transmissions occurred among non-close contacts. The definition of close contact for SARS-CoV-2 exposure based on the mode of droplet transmission should be revised to reflect the airborne nature of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

6.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 719-729, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898111

ABSTRACT

Background@#Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is closely associated with the aging process. However, changes in metabolic conditions and cardiac function that occur in middle aged population remain unclear. We evaluated longitudinal changes in metabolic parameters and cardiac function during a 3-year period in subjects with suspected MetS. @*Methods@#We studied 191 participants with suspected MetS at baseline and after 3 years. Anthropometric parameters, including waist circumference (WC), and metabolic parameters, including fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were measured. Conventional echocardiography with two-dimensional speckle tracking was performed. @*Results@#Mean age was 56.2±4.4 years, and there were 97 women (50.8%). Men had increased WC and triglycerides (TG) (WC 91.2±6.8 cm vs. 84.0±8.0 cm, P<0.001; TG 184.4±116.3 mg/dL vs. 128.2±53.6 mg/dL, P<0.001), and reduced global longitudinal strain (GLS) (–15.4%±2.1% vs. –17.1%±2.0%, P<0.001) compared to women. After 3.4 years, values of WC and TG did not change in men but increased in women (all P<0.05). The absolute value of left ventricular (LV) GLS did not change in men but was reduced in women (P=0.011). Change in TG was independently associated with worsening of LV GLS only in women (standardized β, –0.309; 95% confidence interval, –0.130 to –0.009; P=0.025). @*Conclusion@#In middle aged population, a vulnerable period for metabolic disturbance, cardiac remodeling tended to progress, which was prominent in women. Progression of adiposity and dyslipidemia after menopause may accelerate subclinical cardiac remodeling in middle-aged women. Lifestyle modification and medical interventions may help prevent further cardiac dysfunction in these subjects.

7.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 97-104, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896720

ABSTRACT

Background@#Fecal microbiota transplantation against gut colonization using a multidrugresistant organism is a technique used to treat infections through normalizing the gut microbiota via fecal microbiota transplantation in patients with confirmed colonization by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) based on a fecal culture test within the past one week. In this study, we aimed to determinethe safety and effectiveness of this technique. @*Methods@#The safety and effectiveness were assessed via a systematic review. A literature search was conducted using five Korean databases, such as KoreaMed, and international databases, including Ovid-MEDLINE, Ovid-EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. @*Results@#Main results are described here. From the studies retrieved using the aforementioned search strategy, the remaining 581 studies were screened using the inclusion and exclusion criteria, resulting in the selection of nine studies for further consideration. In terms of safety, many studies reported deaths and adverse reactions associated with different causes. Fewer studies reported the rate of colonization; however, the effect of colony rate was inconsistent when compared to no treatment group. Additionally, none of the studies assessed the recurrence rate, a decrease in the prevalence of diseases related to infection by multidrugresistant bacteria, and the quality of life. @*Conclusion@#Fecal bacterial colonization for the decolonization of intestinal multidrugresistant bacteria was evaluated using a technique that requires further research as there is insufficient literature evidence to validate its safety and efficacy in treating infections through normalizing the intestinal flora of patients with confirmed colonization by CRE or VRE.

8.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 45-53, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896719

ABSTRACT

Background@#Rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) is desirable to guide antimicrobial therapy and infection control. The NG-Test Carba5 (Carba5;NG Biotech, France) rapid multiplex lateral flow immunoassay and BD MAX Check-Points CPO Assay (CPO; BD Diagnostic Systems, USA) fully automated real-time PCR assay were evaluated for the detection of KPC, NDM, VIM, IMP, and OXA-48-like group in a culture colony compared to genotyping using conventional PCR. @*Methods@#Among the clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) collected from 2013 to 2019, up to 20 isolates for each carbapenemase type, and approximately 60 carbapenemase-negative CRE were enrolled. Genotyping of carbapenemases were performed using single-target PCR for KPC, NDM, and OXA-48-like group and the multiplex PCR for VIM, IMP, GIM, SIM, and SPM. All isolates were tested with Carba5 and CPO. The discrepant results were resolved by single-target specific conventional PCR or GeneXpert Carba-R Assay (Carba-R; Cepheid, USA). @*Results@#Of 147 CREs, 82 were CPE (55.8%) including 20 KPC, 22 NDM, 17 VIM, three IMP, and 13 OXA-48-like group, and seven double carbapenemase-positive (three KPC/VIM, two NDM/ VIM, one KPC/NDM, and one NDM/OXA-48-like group) isolates. Carba5 and CPO detected all CPE correctly along with two more IMP-producing CPE. The sensitivity and specificity of both kits were equally 100% and 97%. Two false IMP-positives were confirmed IMP-positive with Carba-R and IMP-specific single-target PCR. @*Conclusion@#Carba5 and CPO reliably detect and differentiate five common carbapenemases in cultured colonies. Carba5, faster and simpler, is preferred as a spot test.

9.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 719-729, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890407

ABSTRACT

Background@#Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is closely associated with the aging process. However, changes in metabolic conditions and cardiac function that occur in middle aged population remain unclear. We evaluated longitudinal changes in metabolic parameters and cardiac function during a 3-year period in subjects with suspected MetS. @*Methods@#We studied 191 participants with suspected MetS at baseline and after 3 years. Anthropometric parameters, including waist circumference (WC), and metabolic parameters, including fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were measured. Conventional echocardiography with two-dimensional speckle tracking was performed. @*Results@#Mean age was 56.2±4.4 years, and there were 97 women (50.8%). Men had increased WC and triglycerides (TG) (WC 91.2±6.8 cm vs. 84.0±8.0 cm, P<0.001; TG 184.4±116.3 mg/dL vs. 128.2±53.6 mg/dL, P<0.001), and reduced global longitudinal strain (GLS) (–15.4%±2.1% vs. –17.1%±2.0%, P<0.001) compared to women. After 3.4 years, values of WC and TG did not change in men but increased in women (all P<0.05). The absolute value of left ventricular (LV) GLS did not change in men but was reduced in women (P=0.011). Change in TG was independently associated with worsening of LV GLS only in women (standardized β, –0.309; 95% confidence interval, –0.130 to –0.009; P=0.025). @*Conclusion@#In middle aged population, a vulnerable period for metabolic disturbance, cardiac remodeling tended to progress, which was prominent in women. Progression of adiposity and dyslipidemia after menopause may accelerate subclinical cardiac remodeling in middle-aged women. Lifestyle modification and medical interventions may help prevent further cardiac dysfunction in these subjects.

10.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 97-104, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889016

ABSTRACT

Background@#Fecal microbiota transplantation against gut colonization using a multidrugresistant organism is a technique used to treat infections through normalizing the gut microbiota via fecal microbiota transplantation in patients with confirmed colonization by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) based on a fecal culture test within the past one week. In this study, we aimed to determinethe safety and effectiveness of this technique. @*Methods@#The safety and effectiveness were assessed via a systematic review. A literature search was conducted using five Korean databases, such as KoreaMed, and international databases, including Ovid-MEDLINE, Ovid-EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. @*Results@#Main results are described here. From the studies retrieved using the aforementioned search strategy, the remaining 581 studies were screened using the inclusion and exclusion criteria, resulting in the selection of nine studies for further consideration. In terms of safety, many studies reported deaths and adverse reactions associated with different causes. Fewer studies reported the rate of colonization; however, the effect of colony rate was inconsistent when compared to no treatment group. Additionally, none of the studies assessed the recurrence rate, a decrease in the prevalence of diseases related to infection by multidrugresistant bacteria, and the quality of life. @*Conclusion@#Fecal bacterial colonization for the decolonization of intestinal multidrugresistant bacteria was evaluated using a technique that requires further research as there is insufficient literature evidence to validate its safety and efficacy in treating infections through normalizing the intestinal flora of patients with confirmed colonization by CRE or VRE.

11.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 45-53, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889015

ABSTRACT

Background@#Rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) is desirable to guide antimicrobial therapy and infection control. The NG-Test Carba5 (Carba5;NG Biotech, France) rapid multiplex lateral flow immunoassay and BD MAX Check-Points CPO Assay (CPO; BD Diagnostic Systems, USA) fully automated real-time PCR assay were evaluated for the detection of KPC, NDM, VIM, IMP, and OXA-48-like group in a culture colony compared to genotyping using conventional PCR. @*Methods@#Among the clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) collected from 2013 to 2019, up to 20 isolates for each carbapenemase type, and approximately 60 carbapenemase-negative CRE were enrolled. Genotyping of carbapenemases were performed using single-target PCR for KPC, NDM, and OXA-48-like group and the multiplex PCR for VIM, IMP, GIM, SIM, and SPM. All isolates were tested with Carba5 and CPO. The discrepant results were resolved by single-target specific conventional PCR or GeneXpert Carba-R Assay (Carba-R; Cepheid, USA). @*Results@#Of 147 CREs, 82 were CPE (55.8%) including 20 KPC, 22 NDM, 17 VIM, three IMP, and 13 OXA-48-like group, and seven double carbapenemase-positive (three KPC/VIM, two NDM/ VIM, one KPC/NDM, and one NDM/OXA-48-like group) isolates. Carba5 and CPO detected all CPE correctly along with two more IMP-producing CPE. The sensitivity and specificity of both kits were equally 100% and 97%. Two false IMP-positives were confirmed IMP-positive with Carba-R and IMP-specific single-target PCR. @*Conclusion@#Carba5 and CPO reliably detect and differentiate five common carbapenemases in cultured colonies. Carba5, faster and simpler, is preferred as a spot test.

12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 12-20, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875607

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the prognostic value of AFP levels in patients who achieved complete response (CR) to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for HCC. @*Materials and Methods@#Between 2005 and 2018, 890 patients with HCC who achieved a CR to TACE were recruited. An AFP responder was defined as a patient who showed elevated levels of AFP (>10 ng/mL) during TACE, but showed normalization or a >50% reduction in AFP levels after achieving a CR. @*Results@#Among the recruited patients, 569 (63.9%) with naïve HCC and 321 (36.1%) with recurrent HCC after complete resection were treated. Before TACE, 305 (34.3%) patients had multiple tumors, 219 (24.6%) had a maximal tumor size >3 cm, and 22 (2.5%) had portal vein tumor thrombosis. The median AFP level after achieving a CR was 6.36 ng/mL. After a CR, 473 (53.1%) patients experienced recurrence, and 417 (46.9%) died [median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of 16.3 and 62.8 months, respectively]. High AFP levels at CR (>20 ng/mL) were independently associated with a shorter PFS [hazard ratio (HR)=1.403] and OS (HR=1.284), together with tumor multiplicity at TACE (HR=1.518 and 1.666, respectively). AFP non-responders at CR (76.2%, n=359 of 471) showed a shorter PFS (median 10.5 months vs. 15.5 months, HR=1.375) and OS (median 41.4 months vs. 61.8 months, HR=1.424) than AFP responders (all p=0.001). @*Conclusion@#High AFP levels and AFP non-responders were independently associated with poor outcomes after TACE. AFP holds clinical implications for detailed risk stratification upon achieving a CR after TACE.

13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e38-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874770

ABSTRACT

Background@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks emerged at two universityaffiliated hospitals in Seoul (hospital A) and Uijeongbu City (hospital S) in the metropolitan Seoul area in March 2020. The aim of this study was to investigate epidemiological links between the outbreaks using whole genome sequencing (WGS) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). @*Methods@#Fifteen patients were enrolled in the study, including four non-outbreak (A1–A4) and three outbreak cases (A5–A7) in hospital A and eight cases (S1–S8) in hospital S. Patients' hospital stays, COVID-19 symptoms, and transfer history were reviewed. RNA samples were submitted for WGS and genome-wide single nucleotide variants and phylogenetic relationships were analyzed. @*Results@#The index patient (A5) in hospital A was transferred from hospital S on 26 March.Patients A6 and A7 were the family caregiver and sister, respectively, of the patient who shared a room with A5 for 4 days. Prior to transfer, A5 was at the next bed to S8 in the emergency room on 25 March. Patient S6, a professional caregiver, took care of the patient in the room next to S8's room for 5 days until 22 March and then S5 for another 3 days.WGS revealed that SARS-CoV-2 in A2, A3, and A4 belong to clades V/B.2, S/A, and G/B.1, respectively, whereas that of A5–A7 and S1-S5 are of the V/B.2.1 clade and closely clustered. In particular, SARS-CoV-2 in patients A5 and S5 showed perfect identity. @*Conclusion@#WGS is a useful tool to understand epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2. It is the first study to elucidate the role of patient transfer and caregivers as links of nosocomial outbreaks of COVID-19 in multiple hospitals.

14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e233-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892176

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission among non-close contacts is not infrequent. We evaluated the proportion and circumstances of individuals to whom SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted without close contact with the index patient in a nosocomial outbreak in a tertiary care hospital in Korea. From March 2020 to March 2021, there were 36 secondary cases from 14 SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Of the 36 secondary cases, 26 (72%) had been classified as close contact and the remaining 10 (28%) were classified as non-close contact. Of the 10 non-close contact, 4 had short conversations with both individuals masked, 4 shared a space without any conversation with both masked, and the remaining 2 entered the space after the index had left. At least one quarter of SARSCoV-2 transmissions occurred among non-close contacts. The definition of close contact for SARS-CoV-2 exposure based on the mode of droplet transmission should be revised to reflect the airborne nature of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

15.
Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science ; : 339-346, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915303

ABSTRACT

To determine the extent of environmental contamination and the effect of disinfection around patients with carbapenemresistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements and microbial culture tests. Methods: The subjects of this study were 10 patients hospitalized in a single room due to CRE from April 13 to 21, 2021. One hundred and sixty samples were collected using cotton swabs from the patients’ environment including the surface and drain of sinks and toilet seats before and after disinfection of the room after discharge. Twenty-one samples were collected from the nurses’ personal digital assistants (PDAs), keyboards, and computer mice before disinfection. The relative light units (RLUs) and CRE colony-forming units (CFU) of 181 samples were measured using ATP test equipment and chrome agar plates, respectively. Results: The highest RLUs were measured at the sink drains before and after disinfection. Four CRE samples from the sink drains (2), sink surface (1), and toilet bowl (1) before disinfection were cultured. Based on the failure criteria ( ≥ 250 RLU/cm2 and ≥ 1 CFU/100 cm2 ), 90 % and 50 % of the samples from the drain exceeded the failure criteria before and after disinfection, respectively. In the culture tests, CRE was not detected after disinfection. Conclusion: According to the RLU and CFU measurements of drain samples, disinfection was not effective. Thus, improvements in the disinfection methods of drains, as well as more efficient and systematic environmental decontamination and disinfection evaluation tools, are needed to accurately evaluate the effectiveness of disinfection in various places.

16.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 8-17, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896960

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with major portal vein tumor thrombosis (mPVTT) complications were generally characterized by extremely poor prognoses. The aim of this study was to explore the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT imaging in predicting HCC complicated by mPVTT. @*Methods@#Five hundred one HCC patients received surgery in our hospital during November 2008 to December 2014, among which 32 patients (6.4%) were diagnosed as HCC complicated by mPVTT. Six cases were excluded for reasons of complex medical conditions, including 2 cases of salvage liver transplantation, 2 cases of re-resection, 1 case of mPVTT combined with inferior vina cava tumor thrombosis, and 1 case of residual portal vein tumor thrombosis. Ultimately, 26 cases were enrolled in this study. The maximal tumor standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was identified as a predictive factor and detected. The univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) of HCC patients complicated by mPVTT. @*Results@#Our results showed that the median OS was 16 months. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative OS was 55.6%, 31.7%, and 31.7%, respectively. The multivariate regression analysis revealed that SUVmax ≥ 4.65 was the only independent risk factor for RFS and OS. @*Conclusion@#SUVmax was an independent predictor for RFS and OS of patients suffering from both HCC and mPVTT. L ow SUVmax could serve as an effective factor for selecting candidates with low recurrence risks and for helping with improving patient survival after surgical resection.

17.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 251-259, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896715

ABSTRACT

Background@#Inconclusive SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) test results, which are positive for one or more target genes but not all, are problematic in clinical laboratories. In this study, we aimed to investigate the cause and clinical relevance of such inconclusive results. @*Methods@#rRT-PCR was performed using the Allplex 2019-nCoV assay kit (Seegene Inc., Korea) targeting the following three genes: E, RdRp, and N. For all inconclusive test results reported from March to June 2020, the frequency per kit, lot number, specimen type, cycle threshold (Ct) and peak values of the amplification curves, positive target genes, and results of repeated or consecutive tests were analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 43,268 tests were conducted, of which 93 (0.21%) were inconclusive—49 from 11 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and 44 from non-COVID-19 patients.In COVID-19 patients, the results were inconclusive 11.9 ± 4.7 days after diagnosis and were negative 8.8 ± 5.5 days after the inconclusive results were reported. However, in nonCOVID-19 patients, they were all negative upon retest and 81.8% of them were identified to have yielded in 2 out of 8 lots. The most frequently positive target genes were N (55.4%) in COVID-19 and RdRp (61.2%) in non-COVID-19 patients, respectively. No difference was observed in the Ct or peak values of the amplification curves for inconclusive samples between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cases. @*Conclusion@#Inconclusive test results should be reported neither positive nor negative. Such results can be reported as inconclusive without retesting in COVID-19 patients; however, they should certainly be confirmed by a retest in non-COVID-19 patients or newly diagnosed cases.

18.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 321-325, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811097

ABSTRACT

This study investigated resistance mechanisms and epidemiology of emerging linezolid-nonsusceptible Enterococcus faecalis (LNSEF) in a tertiary care hospital. LNSEF isolated from clinical samples were collected from November 2017 to June 2019. The isolates were investigated for linezolid resistance and the associated molecular mechanisms, including mutations of 23S rRNA domain V and acquisition of the cfr or optrA resistance gene. We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing for the molecular typing of the isolates. Among 4,318 E. faecalis isolates, 10 (0.23%) were linezolid-nonsusceptible. All LNSEF isolates were optrA-positive and cfr-negative. Of these isolates, five were sequence type (ST) 476, two ST585, one ST16, one ST16-like, and one ST480. Six LNSEF isolates obtained in the first year clustered to three types in the PFGE analysis: two ST476 isolates of type A, two ST585 isolates of type B, and two ST16 or ST16-like isolates of type C. Seven cases were of community-onset and three were hospital acquired, but total of eight were healthcare-associated including five community-onset. None of the patients had a history of linezolid treatment, and in one patient, we detected linezolid-susceptible E. faecalis one month before LNSEF detection. In conclusion, heterogenous clones of optrA-positive LNSEF emerged in the hospital mainly via community-onset.

19.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 8-17, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889256

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with major portal vein tumor thrombosis (mPVTT) complications were generally characterized by extremely poor prognoses. The aim of this study was to explore the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT imaging in predicting HCC complicated by mPVTT. @*Methods@#Five hundred one HCC patients received surgery in our hospital during November 2008 to December 2014, among which 32 patients (6.4%) were diagnosed as HCC complicated by mPVTT. Six cases were excluded for reasons of complex medical conditions, including 2 cases of salvage liver transplantation, 2 cases of re-resection, 1 case of mPVTT combined with inferior vina cava tumor thrombosis, and 1 case of residual portal vein tumor thrombosis. Ultimately, 26 cases were enrolled in this study. The maximal tumor standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was identified as a predictive factor and detected. The univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) of HCC patients complicated by mPVTT. @*Results@#Our results showed that the median OS was 16 months. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative OS was 55.6%, 31.7%, and 31.7%, respectively. The multivariate regression analysis revealed that SUVmax ≥ 4.65 was the only independent risk factor for RFS and OS. @*Conclusion@#SUVmax was an independent predictor for RFS and OS of patients suffering from both HCC and mPVTT. L ow SUVmax could serve as an effective factor for selecting candidates with low recurrence risks and for helping with improving patient survival after surgical resection.

20.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology ; : 251-259, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889011

ABSTRACT

Background@#Inconclusive SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) test results, which are positive for one or more target genes but not all, are problematic in clinical laboratories. In this study, we aimed to investigate the cause and clinical relevance of such inconclusive results. @*Methods@#rRT-PCR was performed using the Allplex 2019-nCoV assay kit (Seegene Inc., Korea) targeting the following three genes: E, RdRp, and N. For all inconclusive test results reported from March to June 2020, the frequency per kit, lot number, specimen type, cycle threshold (Ct) and peak values of the amplification curves, positive target genes, and results of repeated or consecutive tests were analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 43,268 tests were conducted, of which 93 (0.21%) were inconclusive—49 from 11 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and 44 from non-COVID-19 patients.In COVID-19 patients, the results were inconclusive 11.9 ± 4.7 days after diagnosis and were negative 8.8 ± 5.5 days after the inconclusive results were reported. However, in nonCOVID-19 patients, they were all negative upon retest and 81.8% of them were identified to have yielded in 2 out of 8 lots. The most frequently positive target genes were N (55.4%) in COVID-19 and RdRp (61.2%) in non-COVID-19 patients, respectively. No difference was observed in the Ct or peak values of the amplification curves for inconclusive samples between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cases. @*Conclusion@#Inconclusive test results should be reported neither positive nor negative. Such results can be reported as inconclusive without retesting in COVID-19 patients; however, they should certainly be confirmed by a retest in non-COVID-19 patients or newly diagnosed cases.

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