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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832044

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of this study was to investigate differentially expressed genes and their functions in the hippocampus and striatum after heroin administration in cynomolgus macaques of different ages. @*Methods@#Cynomolgus monkeys were divided by age as follows: 1 year (A1, n = 2); 3 to 4 years (A2, n = 2); 6 to 8 years (A3, n = 2); and older than 11 years (A4, n = 2). After heroin was injected intramuscularly into the monkeys (0.6 mg/kg), we performed large-scale transcriptome profiling in the hippocampus (H) and striatum (S) using RNA sequencing technology. Some genes were validated with real-time quantitative PCR. @*Results@#In the hippocampus, the gene expression of A1H was similar to that of A4H, while the gene expression of A2H was similar to that of A3H. Genes associated with the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway (STMN1, FGF14, and MAPT) and -aminobutyric acid-ergic synapses (GABBR2 and GAD1) were differentially expressed among control and heroin-treated animals. Differential gene expression between A1S and A4S was the least significant, while differential gene expression between A3S and A2S was the most significant. Genes associated with the neurotrophin signaling pathway (NTRK1 and NGFR), autophagy (ATG5), and dopaminergic synapses (AKT1) in the striatum were differentially expressed among control and heroin-treated animals. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that even a single heroin exposure can cause differential gene expression in the hippocampus and striatum of nonhuman primates at different ages.

2.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 469-474, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760944

ABSTRACT

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been reported to be involved in negatively regulating the effects of addictive disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate alterations in the levels of GDNF in patients with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and to assess the relationship between GDNF levels and the severity of IGD indices. Nineteen male patients with IGD and 19 sexmatched control subjects were evaluated for alteration of plasma GDNF levels and for relationship between GDNF levels and clinical characteristics of Internet gaming, including the Young's Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT). The GDNF levels were found to be significantly low in patients with IGD (103.2±62.0 pg/mL) compared with the levels of controls (245.2±101.6 pg/mL, p<0.001). GDNF levels were negatively correlated with Y-IAT scores (Spearman's rho=-0.645, p=<0.001) and this negative correlation remained even after controlling for multiple variables (r=-0.370, p=0.048). These findings support the assumed role of GDNF in the regulation of IGD.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Humans , Immunoglobulin D , Internet , Male , Neuroglia , Pilot Projects , Plasma
3.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725221

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is known to be related to stress and the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) that is known to be associated with stress and has been studied to affect various psychiatric illness outbreaks. We tried to examine the relationship between stress, 5-HTTLPR and IGD. METHODS: A total of 59 participants with IGD, diagnosed according to the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria and 67 normal controls (NC) were enrolled. The IGD group and the NC were compared using chisquare test and independent sample t-test, and logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between stress, the 5-HTTLPR, and IGD. RESULTS: The mean scores for anxiety, impulsivity and stress were significantly higher in the IGD group than in the NC. In addition, there was a significant association between stress and IGD [odds ratio (OR) = 1.172, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.008–1.362]. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that stress would affect IGD. Therefore, the evaluation and management of stress should be included in the diagnosis and treatment of IGD.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anxiety , Diagnosis , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Immunoglobulin D , Impulsive Behavior , Internet , Logistic Models
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716302

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Alteration in glutamatergic neurotransmission and dopaminergic dysfunction has been implicated in both the initiation and expression of addiction related behaviors. This pilot study was aimed to investigate the serum levels of glutamate and dopamine in adults with internet gaming disorder (IGD). METHODS: We measured serum levels of glutamate and dopamine in male participants with IGD (n=26) and age-matched healthy controls (n=25). Clinical interviews were performed to identify IGD and to rule out psychiatric comorbidities. Serum levels of glutamate and dopamine were examined by enzyme immunoassays using ELISA Kits. RESULTS: Serum levels of glutamate were lower among IGD than control (IGD: 24.184±12.303 μg/ml; control: 33.676±12.413μg/ml; t=2.742, p=0.008), while levels of dopamine did not differ between. Serum glutamate and dopamine levels did not correlate with gaming hours and exposure to game in the IGD group. But serum glutamate levels were positively correlated with the dopamine levels (r=0.360, p=0.013). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that altered glutamatergic neurotransmission may contribute to the pathophysiology of IGD.


Subject(s)
Adult , Comorbidity , Dopamine , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Glutamates , Glutamic Acid , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Immunoglobulin D , Internet , Male , Pilot Projects , Synaptic Transmission
5.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 219-225, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741894

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Considerable research has been conducted on the relationship between alcohol consumption and metabolic syndrome. Although various standards for the amount and frequency of alcohol consumption have been suggested, a tool to measure individual alcohol use behavior against a consistent standard is required. Moreover, the association of alcohol use behavior with health should be examined on the basis of such a standard. In this study, we examined the relationships between alcohol use behavior according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and metabolic syndrome and its components in Korean women. METHODS: This study utilized data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was administered from 2010 through 2012. We investigated the relationships between alcohol use behavior and metabolic syndrome and its components in a sample of 2,906 women by using analysis of covariance and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounding variables, alcohol use behavior was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome [odds ratio (OR) 2.877; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.523–5.435 in the problem use group]. AUDIT score also was significantly related to abdominal obesity (OR 2.263; 95% CI 1.704–4.459 in the problem use group), hypertension (OR 3.377; 95% CI 1.871–6.095 in the problem use group), hypertriglyceridemia (OR 3.204; 95% CI 1.800–5.702 in the problem use group), and impaired fasting glucose (OR 3.034; 95% CI 1.721–5.348 in the problem use group). CONCLUSION: In this study, positive associations were observed between AUDIT score and risk of metabolic syndrome and its components.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fasting , Female , Glucose , Humans , Hypertension , Hypertriglyceridemia , Logistic Models , Nutrition Surveys , Obesity, Abdominal , Prevalence
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34474

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Antidepressants are known to positively influence several factors in patients with depressive disorders, resulting in increased neurogenesis and subsequent relief of depressive disorders. To study the effects of venlafaxine during neural differentiation at the cellular level, we looked at its effect on protein expression and regulation mechanisms during neural differentiation. METHODS: After exposing NCCIT cell-derived EBs to venlafaxine during differentiation (1 day and 7 days), changes in protein expression were analyzed by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Gene levels of proteins regulated by venlafaxine were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: Treatment with venlafaxine decreased expression of prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4HB), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2K (HIP2) and plastin 3 (T-plastin), and up-regulated expression of growth factor beta-3 (TGF-beta3), dihydropyrimidinase-like 3 (DPYSL3), and pyruvate kinase (PKM) after differentiation for 1 and 7 days. In cells exposed to venlafaxine, the mRNA expression patterns of HIP2 and PKM, which function as negative and positive regulators of differentiation and neuronal survival, respectively, were consistent with the observed changes in protein expression. CONCLUSION: Our findings may contribute to improve understanding of molecular mechanism of venlafaxine.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Humans , Neurogenesis , Neurons , Prolyl Hydroxylases , Proteomics , Pyruvate Kinase , RNA, Messenger , Venlafaxine Hydrochloride
7.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 313-318, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174670

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Antidepressants Modulate Neuronal Plasticity. Tianeptine, An Atypical Antidepressant, Might Be Involved In The Restoration Of Neuronal Plasticity; It Primarily Enhances The Synaptic Reuptake Of Serotonin. Ncam140 Is Involved In Neuronal Development Processes, Synaptogenesis And Synaptic Plasticity. We Investigated The Effect Of Tianeptine On The Expression Of Ncam140 And Its Downstream Signaling Molecule In The Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line Sh-sy5y. METHODS: NCAM protein expression was measured in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells that were cultivated in serum-free media and treated with 0, 10, or 20 microM tianeptine for 6, 24, or 72 hours. NCAM140 expression in the tianeptine treatment group was confirmed by Western blot, and quantified through measurement of band intensity by absorbance. CREB and pCREB expression was identified after treatment with 20 microM tianeptine for 6, 24, and 72 hours by Western blot. RESULTS: Compared to cells treated for 6 hours, cells treated with 0 or 10 microM tianeptine for 72 hours showed a significant increase in NCAM140 expression and cells treated with 20 microM tianeptine showed a significant increase after 24 and 72 hours. The pCREB level in cells treated with 20 microM tianeptine increased in time-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that the tianeptine antidepressant effect may occur by induction of NCAM140 expression and CREB phosphorylation.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Culture Media, Serum-Free , Humans , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules , Neuroblastoma , Neuronal Plasticity , Neurons , Phosphorylation , Plastics , Serotonin
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208562

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In this study effects of a paternal participation program during cesarean section on paternal infant attachment were investigate. The experimental treatment was an integrative nursing intervention to promote father to infant attachment. METHODS: Study design was a non-equivalent control group posttest design. The program consisted of emotional support to spouse and father towards infant attachment immediately following cesarean birth. Participants were 66 men, partners of women with normal full term pregnancy having a cesarean section with spinal or epidural anesthesia, (experimental group, 34; control group, 32). The experiment was carried out from August 1 to October 30, 2010. Control group data were obtained from May 1 to June 30, 2012. Posttest was performed 72 hours after cesarean birth. A self-report questionnaire including a paternal attachment instrument was used. Data were analyzed using t-test, propensity score matching, and analysis of covariance with the SPSS/WIN 18.0 program. RESULTS: Total score for paternal infant attachment in the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group (p<.001). After matching, significant differences were found between the two groups through all subcategories. Adjusted mean score for paternal infant attachment verified experimental effects. CONCLUSION: Results indicate that this paternal participation program during cesarean section is effective in improving paternal infant attachment.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Epidural , Cesarean Section , Fathers , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Parturition , Pregnancy , Propensity Score , Surveys and Questionnaires , Spouses
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-192552

ABSTRACT

Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expanded in vitro exhibit not only a tendency to lose their proliferative potential, homing ability and telomere length but also genetic or epigenetic modifications, resulting in senescence. We compared differential methylation patterns of genes and miRNAs between early-passage [passage 5 (P5)] and late-passage (P15) cells and estimated the relationship between senescence and DNA methylation patterns. When we examined hypermethylated genes (methylation peak > or = 2) at P5 or P15, 2,739 genes, including those related to fructose and mannose metabolism and calcium signaling pathways, and 2,587 genes, including those related to DNA replication, cell cycle and the PPAR signaling pathway, were hypermethylated at P5 and P15, respectively. There was common hypermethylation of 1,205 genes at both P5 and P15. In addition, genes that were hypermethylated at P5 (CPEB1, GMPPA, CDKN1A, TBX2, SMAD9 and MCM2) showed lower mRNA expression than did those hypermethylated at P15, whereas genes that were hypermethylated at P15 (MAML2, FEN1 and CDK4) showed lower mRNA expression than did those that were hypermethylated at P5, demonstrating that hypermethylation at DNA promoter regions inhibited gene expression and that hypomethylation increased gene expression. In the case of hypermethylation on miRNA, 27 miRNAs were hypermethylated at P5, whereas 44 miRNAs were hypermethylated at P15. These results show that hypermethylation increases at genes related to DNA replication, cell cycle and adipogenic differentiation due to long-term culture, which may in part affect MSC senescence.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism , DNA Methylation , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , MicroRNAs , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Primary Cell Culture , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Reproducibility of Results , Signal Transduction , Telomere Shortening
10.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 180-186, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-120913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Dysfunction of neural plasticity in the brain is known to alter neural networks, resulting in depression. To understand how fluoxetine regulates molecules involved in neural plasticity, the expression levels of NCAM, NCAM140, CREB and pCREB, in rat C6 glioma cells after fluoxetine treatment were examined. METHODS: C6 cells were cultured after 20 min or after 6, 24 or 72 h treatments with 10 microM fluoxetine. Immunocytochemistry was used to determine the effect of fluoxetine on the expression of NCAM. Western blot analysis was used to measure the expression levels of NCAM140 and CREB and the induction of pCREB after fluoxetine treatment. RESULTS: NCAM expression following 72-h fluoxetine treatment was significantly increased around cell membranes compared to control cells. Cells treated with fluoxetine for 6 and 72 h showed a significant increase in NCAM140 expression compared to cells treated for 20 min. The level of pCREB in the cells treated with fluoxetine for 72 h not only increased more than 60%, but was also significantly different when compared with the other treatment times. The 72-h fluoxetine treatment led to the increase of NCAM140 and the phosphorylation of CREB in C6 cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that fluoxetine treatment regulates neuronal plasticity and neurite outgrowth by phosphorylating and activating CREB via the NCAM140 homophilic interaction-induced activation of the Ras-MAPK pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Brain , Cell Membrane , Depression , Fluoxetine , Glioma , Immunohistochemistry , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules , Neurites , Neuronal Plasticity , Phosphorylation , Plastics , Rats
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725180

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Many studies have suggested different neurobiological findings and clinical courses in alcoholism. Recently, subtyping in alcohol dependence has become essential to overcome the heterogeneity of patients. Among several criteria of subtypes, Lesch's typology is proposed to integrate biological, social, and psychological factors. This review provides neurobiological findings and treatment-responses of alcohol dependence according to Lesch's typology. METHOD: We searched the international published medical literature using the search terms 'Lesch's typology' and 'alcohol dependence' and using the limits 'human'. RESULTS: We identified 17 studies with subjects of alcohol dependence according to Lesch's typology. CONCLUSION: They indicated that each subtype of Lesch's typology can have specific neurobiological factors and different clinical responses as follows. Lesch's subtype 1 is characterized by severe withdrawal symptoms and associated with elevated glutamate and homocysteine. Lesch's subtype 2 is defined by individuals who drink alcohol as self-medication for anxiety. Their craving has significant positive correlations with prolactin, leptin level, or intake-volume (vasopressin). Lesch's subtype 4 is related to cerebral dysfunction and associated with increased glutamate and left-handedness. Clinical trials showed that naltrexone was effective in Lesch's subtype 3 and 4 patients, while acamprosate was effective in the subtypes 1 and 2.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Anxiety , Glutamic Acid , Homocysteine , Humans , Leptin , Naltrexone , Population Characteristics , Prolactin , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Taurine
12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 161-168, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-35972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze both differentially expressed genes and the Bcl-xL protein expression after acute and chronic treatment with fluoxetine in rat C6 glioma cells. METHODS: C6 glioma cells were cultured for 24 h or 72 h after treatment with 10 microM fluoxetine, and gene expression patterns were observed using microarray and qRT-PCR. Then, cells were cultured for 6 h, 24 h, 72 h or 96 h after treatment with 10 microM fluoxetine, and the expression of Bcl-xL protein was measured using western blot. RESULTS: As determined by microarray, treatment with fluoxetine for 24 h up-regulated 33 genes (including Bcl-xL and NCAM140) and down-regulated 7 genes (including cyclin G-associated kinase). Treatment with fluoxetine for 72 h up-regulated 53 genes (including Gsalpha and Bcl-xL) and down-regulated 77 genes (including Galphai2 and annexin V). Based on the qRT-PCR results, there was an increase in Gsalpha mRNA and a decrease in Galphai2 mRNA at 72 h in fluoxetine-treated cells as compared to control, a result that was consistent with microarray. We also observed an increase in Bcl-xL mRNA (both at 24 h and at 72 h) in fluoxetine-treated cells as compared to control, demonstrating a tendency to increase gradually. Bcl-xL protein expression increased as the duration of fluoxetine treatment increased. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that chronic treatment with fluoxetine not only initiates the cAMP pathway through inducing Gsalpha expression but also induces Bcl-xL expression, thus inhibiting apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , bcl-X Protein , Cyclins , Fluoxetine , Gene Expression , Glioma , Rats , RNA, Messenger
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109339

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to determine the intracellular action of the antidepressant, venlafaxine, in C6 glioma cells using heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) immunocytochemistry and HSP70 Western blots; HSP70 is known to be associated with stress and depression. METHODS: The extent of HSP70 expression was measured after rat C6 glioma cells were treated with 1) dexamethasone only, 2) venlafaxine only, 3) simultaneous venlafaxine and dexamethasone, or 4) dexamethasone after venlafaxine pretreatment. Dexamethasone (10 microM, 6 hours) did not affect the level of HSP70 expression relative to control. RESULTS: Short-term (1 hour) venlafaxine treatment significantly increased the level of HSP 70 expression. Simultaneous long-term (72 hours) venlafaxine and dexamethasone treatment significantly reduced the level of HSP70 expression. Dexamethasone treatment administered following long-term (24 and 72 hours) pretreatment with venlafaxine also significantly reduced the level of HSP70 expression. CONCLUSION: Short-term treatment with venlafaxine increases the expression of HSP70, but prolonged treatment with dexamethasone suppresses the venlafaxine-induced expression of HSP70. These findings suggest that HSP70 and dexamethasone play a significant role in the pathophysiology of depression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyclohexanols , Depression , Dexamethasone , Glioma , Heat-Shock Proteins , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins , Immunohistochemistry , Rats , Venlafaxine Hydrochloride
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725294

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Most of the mechanisms reported for antidepressant drugs are the enhancement of neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival in the rat hippocampus. Neural cell adhesion molecule 140(NCAM140) has been implicated as having a role in cell-cell adhesion, neurite outgrowth, and synaptic plasticity. In this report, we have performed to elucidate a correlation among chronic antidepressant treatments, NCAM140 expression, and activation of phosphorylated cyclicAMP responsive element binding protein(pCREB) which is a downstream molecule of NCAM140-mediated intracellular signaling pathway in the rat hippocampus. METHODS: Fluoxetine(10mg/kg) was injected acutely(daily injection for 5days) or chronically(daily injection for 14days) in adult rats. RNA and protein were extracted from the rat hippocampus, respectively. Real-time RTPCR was performed to analyze the expression pattern of NCAM140 gene and western blot analyses for the activation of the phosphorylation ratio of CREB. RESULTS: Chronic fluoxetine treatments increased NCAM140 expression 1.3 times higher than control in rat hippocampus. pCREB immunoreactivity in the rat hippocampus with chronic fluoxetine treatment was increased 4.0 times higher than that of control. CONCLUSION: Chronic fluoxetine treatment increased NCAM140 expression and pCREB activity in the rat hippo-campus. Our data suggest that NCAM140 and pCREB may play a role in the clinical efficacy of antidepressants promoting the neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Antidepressive Agents , Blotting, Western , Fluoxetine , Hippocampus , Humans , Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules , Neurites , Neurons , Phosphorylation , Plastics , Rats , RNA
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was performed to investigate the efficacy and safety of intrathecal autologous bone marrowderived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) treatment for patients with ALS. METHODS: After a lead-in period for 3 months, 22 patients were treated with MSCs twice at an interval of 1 month. After initial MSCs injection, all patients were followed up for 3 months and their disease course, clinical characteristics were assessed. Disease status of patients were analyzed with ALS functional rating scale-revised (ALSFRS-R) for primary outcome measure, and additional clinical findings after treatment were all collected for secondary outcome measure and safety. Age and disease-duration matched patients with ALS were selected as a control group. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, MSCs treatment yielded a significant lesser change of ALSFRS-R score, compared to control group (1.54 vs 3.56, p<0.01). Moreover, the slop of decline of ALSFRS-R was significantly lower during the follow-up period, compared to the lead-in period in MSCs treatment group (2.68 vs 1.54, p=0.04), whereas the slopes during the two periods were not different in the control group (3.15 vs 3.56, p=0.37). MSCs treatment was well tolerated except for occurrences of transient headache, low back pain, and myalgia. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that intrathecal MSCs injection can slow disease progression and might be used as a disease modifying modality as an alternative treatment choice in patients with ALS.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Disease Progression , Follow-Up Studies , Headache , Humans , Low Back Pain , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728666

ABSTRACT

Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) represent a potentially valuable cell type for clinical therapeutic applications. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of long-term culturing (up to 10th passages) of hBM-MSCs from eight individual amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, focusing on functional ion channels. All hBM-MSCs contain several MSCs markers with no significant differences, whereas the distribution of functional ion channels was shown to be different between cells. Four types of K+ currents, including noise-like Ca+2-activated K+ current (IKCa), a transient outward K+ current (Ito), a delayed rectifier K+ current (IKDR), and an inward-rectifier K+ current (Kir) were heterogeneously present in these cells, and a TTX-sensitive Na+ current (INa,TTX) was also recorded. In the RT-PCR analysis, Kv1.1, heag1, Kv4.2, Kir2.1, MaxiK, and hNE-Na were detected. In particular, INa,TTX showed a significant passage-dependent increase. This is the first report showing that functional ion channel profiling depend on the cellular passage of hBM-MSCs


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis , Bone Marrow , Humans , Ion Channels , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Stem Cells
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-725072

ABSTRACT

OBJECT: The intracellular action of the antidepressant, venlafaxine, was studied in C6-gliomas using heat shock protein 70(HSP70) immunocytochemistry and HSP70 Western blots because HSP70 is associated with stress and depression. METHODS: To examine how the glucocorticoid affects the expression of HSP70 in nerve cells, the rat C6 glioma cell was treated with dexamethasone for 6 hours. In addition, venlafaxine was administered to the experimental groups of C6 glioma cells for 1, 6, 24, and 72 hours each, after which the expression of HSP70 was investigated. Finally, venlafaxine and dexamethasone were simultaneously administered to the experimental groups for 1, 6, 24, and 72 hours, followed by an investigation of the expression of HSP70. RESULTS: The short term(1 hour) venlafaxine treatment significantly increased the level of HSP70 expression. The short term treatment of venlafaxine with dexamethasone also increased the level of HSP70 expression but this reduction was not statistically significant. The long term(72 hours) venlafaxine with dexamethasone treatment significantly reduced the level of HSP70 expression. The long term treatment of venlafaxine also reduced the level of HSP70 expression but this reduction was not statistically significant. Dexamethasone(10uM, 6hours) did not affect the level of HSP70 expression compared with controls. CONCLUSION: Venlafaxine increases the expression of HSP70 at short term treatment, but prolonged treatment with dexamethasone suppresses the expression of HSP70.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Depression , Dexamethasone , Glioma , Heat-Shock Proteins , Immunohistochemistry , Neurons , Rats , Venlafaxine Hydrochloride
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78867

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of fluoxetine on transcription, translation and activity of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), and intracellular level of serotonin. METHODS: The expression level of the TPH mRNA and the protein, the TPH enzyme activity, and the intracellular level of serotonin were explored at the fluoxetine-treated RBL-2H3 cells. Real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis confirmed changes in the expression of TPH mRNA and protein. The activity of TPH was measured using [3H]tryptophan. The intracellular level of serotonin was measured by HPLC. RESULTS: The TPH activity was gradually increased on time from 24hr to 72hr. The real-time RT-PCR also revealed that the TPH mRNA was increased at 12, 24 and 72hr in the fluoxetine-treated RBL-2H3 cells. The immunoblotting analysis also revealed that the TPH protein was decreased at 72hr in the fluoxetine-treated RBL-2H3 cells. The intracellular level of serotonin was increased at 48hr after treatment of fluoxetine. CONCLUSION: Fluoxetine induced the increases of the TPH mRNA, the TPH enzyme activity and intracellular level of serotonin, and the decrease of the TPH protein expression at the RBL- 2H3 cells.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Fluoxetine , Immunoblotting , RNA, Messenger , Serotonin , Tryptophan Hydroxylase , Tryptophan
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify diffrentially regulated genes after the treatment of fluoxetine in rat C6 glioma cells using cDNA microarray chip techniques and real-time RT-PCR. METHODS: Cells were incubated for 24 hours, and for 72 hours with or without 10 uM fluoxetine. Total RNAs extracted from cells were reversely transcribed to cDNA. These cDNA were used to carry out cDNA microarray chip. A part of the up-/down-regulated genes in cDNA microarray result were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: 1) Genes in fluoxetinetreated cells for 72 hours (chronic treatment) were more regulated than that in fluoxetine-treated cells for 24 hours (acute treatment). 2) The expression level of Gs gene in fluoxetine-treated cells for 24 hours hardly altered, but that of Gs in fluoxetine-treated cells for 72 hours significantly increased. The expression of Gi2 also decreased in 72 hours in relation to 24 hours after the administration of fluoxetine. 3) The expression level of NCAM140 gene in fluoxetine-treated cells was higher than that in control cells. CONCLUSION: We identified genes (Gs, Gi2 and NCAM140) related to neural plasticity and intracellular signal transduction cascade from our result. This implies that fluoxetine may inhibit atrophy or death of impaired neural cells by promoting neurite outgrowth.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atrophy , DNA, Complementary , Fluoxetine , Glioma , Neurites , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Plastics , Rats , RNA , Signal Transduction
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-137198

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of dexamethasone and fluoxetine on the expression of 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) in C6 glioma cells. METHODS: The C6 glioma cells belong to control group were incubated with DMEM culture solution, the cells belong to dexamethasone group were incubated with dexamethasone for 6 hours, and the cells belong to fluoxetine group were incubated with fluoxetine for 1, 6, 24, and 72 hours, separately, and then exposed to dexamethasone for an additional 6 hours. Crude extracts from control, dexamethasone and fluoxetine-treated C6 glioma cells were separated on a 10% SDS-PAGE and probed with anti-HSP70 mAb. RESULTS: 1) Dexamethasone (10 uM, 6 hours) reduced the level of HSP70 expression relative to control, but this reduction was not statistically significant. 2) Pretreatment with fluoxetine (10 uM, 1, 6, 24, and 72 hours) and exposure to dexamethasone (10 uM, 6 hours) decreased the level of HSP70 expression according to the duration of fluoxetine treatment. 3) Fluoxetine significantly reduced the level of HSP70 at 24 and 72 hours compared to control. However, compare to the level of HSP70 expression at 24 hours, the level of HSP70 expression at 72 hours was elevated. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dexamethasone and fluoxetine may affect HSP70 expression through effects on GR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Complex Mixtures , Dexamethasone , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Fluoxetine , Glioma , Heat-Shock Proteins , Hot Temperature , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins , Rats
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