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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926887

ABSTRACT

Salmonella meningitis is rare yet poses causes significant neurological morbidity in children. Infants, especially those under 3 months of age, and those with immunocompromised states, such as malignancy, malaria, and human immunodeficiency virus infection, are at increased risk for developing Salmonella meningitis. Herein, we describe a case of Salmonella meningitis in a previous healthy 8-year-old girl who presented with high fever, vomiting, and altered mental status. Group D Salmonella species were isolated in cerebrospinal fluid culture, and no abnormal findings were noted in brain magnetic resonance imaging. Immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte subset counts were within the normal ranges, and no genetic mutation responsible for primary immunodeficiency disease was detected by next-generation sequencing. The patient’s condition improved rapidly with third-generation cephalosporin, and no complications or sequalae developed. Nontyphoidal Salmonella can cause meningitis in immunocompetent children and can be successfully treated with early administration of antibiotics.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925988

ABSTRACT

Croup is an acute upper respiratory disease primarily caused by the parainfluenza virus.Owing to inflammation and edema of the upper airways, children present with barky cough and stridor, and some may experience respiratory distress. We investigated children aged < 5 years with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to two hospitals in Seoul, South Korea, and observed a spike in croup cases during the omicron surge. Among the 569 children admitted from March 1, 2021 to February 25, 2022, 21 children (3.7%) had croup, and the proportion of croup cases was significantly higher during the omicron wave than that during the delta wave (12.4% vs. 1.2%, P < 0.001). With the immediate administration of corticosteroids and epinephrine via nebulizer, the symptoms improved rapidly. During the current omicron surge, careful monitoring of the symptoms of croup in young children is needed for the diagnosis of COVID-19 and its timely management.

3.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 122-127, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913882

ABSTRACT

C1q nephropathy is a rare glomerulopathy that typically presents with nephrotic syndrome in children. Treatment with immunosuppressive agents renders patients vulnerable to infection and its complications. Gastroenteritis is common in children, and rotavirus is a leading cause. Extraintestinal manifestations of rotavirus have recently been reported; however, there is a paucity of cases exploring the involvement of a rotavirus on the respiratory system. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a rapid onset respiratory failure characterized by noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and hypoxemia. Causes of ARDS include sepsis, pneumonia, pancreatitis, aspiration, and trauma. In this paper, we report a case of ARDS after rotavirus infection in a child with C1q nephropathy who had been treated with immunosuppressive agents.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903146

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Rapid detection of etiologic organisms is crucial for initiating appropriate therapy in patients with central nervous system (CNS) infection. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the BioFire® Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) panel in detecting etiologic organisms in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from febrile infants. @*Methods@#CSF samples from infants aged <90 days who were evaluated for fever were collected between January 2016 and July 2019 at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital. We performed BioFire® ME panel testing of CSF samples that had been used for CSF analysis and conventional tests (bacterial culture, Xpert® enterovirus assay, and herpes simplex virus-1 and -2 polymerase chain reaction) and stored at −70°C until further use. @*Results@#In total, 72 (24 pathogen-identified and 48 pathogen-unidentified) CSF samples were included. Using BioFire® ME panel testing, 41 (85.4%) of the 48 pathogen-unidentified CSF samples yielded negative results and 22 (91.7%) of the 24 pathogen-identified CSF samples yielded the same results (enterovirus in 19, Streptococcus agalactiae in 2, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1) as those obtained using the conventional tests, thereby resulting in an overall agreement of 87.5% (63/72). Six of the 7 pathogen-unidentified samples were positive for human parechovirus (HPeV) via BioFire® ME panel testing. @*Conclusions@#Compared with the currently available etiologic tests for CNS infection, BioFire® ME panel testing demonstrated a high agreement score for pathogen-identified samples and enabled HPeV detection in young infants. The clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of BioFire® ME panel testing in children must be evaluated for its wider application.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900065

ABSTRACT

Background@#Despite high coverage (~98%) of universal varicella vaccination (UVV) in the Republic of Korea since 2005, reduction in the incidence rate of varicella is not obvious.The study aimed to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of one-dose UVV by timeline and severity of the disease. @*Methods@#All children born in Korea in 2011 were included for this retrospective cohort study that analyzed insurance claims data from 2011–2018 and the varicella vaccination records in the immunization registry. Adjusted hazard ratios by Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the VE through propensity score matching by the month of birth, sex, healthcare utilization rate, and region. @*Results@#Of the total 421,070 newborns in the 2011 birth cohort, 13,360 were matched for age, sex, healthcare utilization rate, and region by the propensity score matching method. A total of 55,940 (13.29%) children were diagnosed with varicella, with the incidence rate 24.2 per 1000 person-year; 13.4% of vaccinated children and 10.4% of unvaccinated children. The VE of one-dose UVV against any varicella was 86.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 81.4–89.5) during the first year after vaccination and 49.9% (95% CI, 43.3–55.7) during the 6-year followup period since vaccination, resulting in a 7.2% annual decrease of VE. The overall VE for severe varicella was 66.3%. The VE of two-dose compared to one-dose was 73.4% (95% CI, 72.2–74.6). @*Conclusion@#We found lower long-term VE in one-dose vaccination and waning of effectiveness over time. Longer follow ups of the vaccinated children as well as appropriately designed studies are needed to establish the optimal strategy in preventing varicella in Korea.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899891

ABSTRACT

Considering the mild degree of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children and the enormous stress caused by isolation in unfamiliar places, policies requiring mandatory isolation at medical facilities should be reevaluated especially given the impact of the pandemic on the availability of hospital beds. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of facility isolation and the transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by infected children to uninfected caregivers in isolation units at a hospital and a residential treatment center in Seoul during August-November 2020. Fifty-three children were included and median age was 4 years (range, 0–18). All were mildly ill or asymptomatic and isolated for a median duration of 12 days. Thirty percent stayed home longer than 2 days before entering isolation units from symptom onset. Among 15 uninfected caregivers, none became infected when they used facemasks and practiced hand hygiene. The results suggest children with mild COVID-19 may be cared safely at home by a caregiver in conditions with adherence to the preventive measures of wearing facemasks and practicing hand hygiene.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895442

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Rapid detection of etiologic organisms is crucial for initiating appropriate therapy in patients with central nervous system (CNS) infection. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the BioFire® Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) panel in detecting etiologic organisms in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from febrile infants. @*Methods@#CSF samples from infants aged <90 days who were evaluated for fever were collected between January 2016 and July 2019 at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital. We performed BioFire® ME panel testing of CSF samples that had been used for CSF analysis and conventional tests (bacterial culture, Xpert® enterovirus assay, and herpes simplex virus-1 and -2 polymerase chain reaction) and stored at −70°C until further use. @*Results@#In total, 72 (24 pathogen-identified and 48 pathogen-unidentified) CSF samples were included. Using BioFire® ME panel testing, 41 (85.4%) of the 48 pathogen-unidentified CSF samples yielded negative results and 22 (91.7%) of the 24 pathogen-identified CSF samples yielded the same results (enterovirus in 19, Streptococcus agalactiae in 2, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1) as those obtained using the conventional tests, thereby resulting in an overall agreement of 87.5% (63/72). Six of the 7 pathogen-unidentified samples were positive for human parechovirus (HPeV) via BioFire® ME panel testing. @*Conclusions@#Compared with the currently available etiologic tests for CNS infection, BioFire® ME panel testing demonstrated a high agreement score for pathogen-identified samples and enabled HPeV detection in young infants. The clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of BioFire® ME panel testing in children must be evaluated for its wider application.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892361

ABSTRACT

Background@#Despite high coverage (~98%) of universal varicella vaccination (UVV) in the Republic of Korea since 2005, reduction in the incidence rate of varicella is not obvious.The study aimed to evaluate the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of one-dose UVV by timeline and severity of the disease. @*Methods@#All children born in Korea in 2011 were included for this retrospective cohort study that analyzed insurance claims data from 2011–2018 and the varicella vaccination records in the immunization registry. Adjusted hazard ratios by Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the VE through propensity score matching by the month of birth, sex, healthcare utilization rate, and region. @*Results@#Of the total 421,070 newborns in the 2011 birth cohort, 13,360 were matched for age, sex, healthcare utilization rate, and region by the propensity score matching method. A total of 55,940 (13.29%) children were diagnosed with varicella, with the incidence rate 24.2 per 1000 person-year; 13.4% of vaccinated children and 10.4% of unvaccinated children. The VE of one-dose UVV against any varicella was 86.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 81.4–89.5) during the first year after vaccination and 49.9% (95% CI, 43.3–55.7) during the 6-year followup period since vaccination, resulting in a 7.2% annual decrease of VE. The overall VE for severe varicella was 66.3%. The VE of two-dose compared to one-dose was 73.4% (95% CI, 72.2–74.6). @*Conclusion@#We found lower long-term VE in one-dose vaccination and waning of effectiveness over time. Longer follow ups of the vaccinated children as well as appropriately designed studies are needed to establish the optimal strategy in preventing varicella in Korea.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892187

ABSTRACT

Considering the mild degree of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children and the enormous stress caused by isolation in unfamiliar places, policies requiring mandatory isolation at medical facilities should be reevaluated especially given the impact of the pandemic on the availability of hospital beds. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of facility isolation and the transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by infected children to uninfected caregivers in isolation units at a hospital and a residential treatment center in Seoul during August-November 2020. Fifty-three children were included and median age was 4 years (range, 0–18). All were mildly ill or asymptomatic and isolated for a median duration of 12 days. Thirty percent stayed home longer than 2 days before entering isolation units from symptom onset. Among 15 uninfected caregivers, none became infected when they used facemasks and practiced hand hygiene. The results suggest children with mild COVID-19 may be cared safely at home by a caregiver in conditions with adherence to the preventive measures of wearing facemasks and practicing hand hygiene.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837080

ABSTRACT

The Korean Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued the guidelines about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) for children and adolescents. Case definitions and management of COVID-19 in neonates, infants, children and adolescents are presented in this guideline. In addition, guidelines for caregiver management are also provided. In this review, we introduce the contents of the current guidelines for COVID-19 in children and adolescents in Korea.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903132

ABSTRACT

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is rare in children who receive anticancer chemotherapy and have no history of stem cell transplantation (SCT). We report a case of CMV retinitis that developed during maintenance chemotherapy for acute leukemia. A 7-year-old boy developed decreased visual acuity and persistent pancytopenia during maintenance chemotherapy.Laboratory investigations initially showed significant CMV antigenemia (51 positive cells/200,000 leukocytes); however, antiviral therapy was not deemed necessary in this patient who had no history of SCT. CMV antigenemia worsened to 170 positive cells/200,000 leukocytes over 3 weeks. Ophthalmological examination revealed multiple bilateral retinal infiltrates and granular lesions. He was diagnosed with CMV retinitis and was treated with a 4-week course of intravenous ganciclovir and intravitreal injection of ganciclovir 6 times, followed by a 1-month course of orally administered valganciclovir. A CMV antigenemia assay showed negative results, and follow-up fundoscopy revealed lesser retinal infiltration after the sixth intravitreal ganciclovir injection. Future studies should focus on the development of standardized screening methods and preemptive therapeutic strategies for CMV disease in high-risk children.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899809

ABSTRACT

The large outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that started in Wuhan, China has now spread to many countries worldwide. Current epidemiologic knowledge suggests that relatively few cases are seen among children, which limits opportunities to address pediatric specific issues on infection control and the children's contribution to viral spread in the community. Here, we report the first pediatric case of COVID-19 in Korea. The 10-year-old girl was a close contact of her uncle and her mother who were confirmed to have COVID-19. In this report, we present mild clinical course of her pneumonia that did not require antiviral treatment and serial viral test results from multiple specimens. Lastly, we raise concerns on the optimal strategy of self-quarantine and patient care in a negative isolation room for children.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895428

ABSTRACT

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is rare in children who receive anticancer chemotherapy and have no history of stem cell transplantation (SCT). We report a case of CMV retinitis that developed during maintenance chemotherapy for acute leukemia. A 7-year-old boy developed decreased visual acuity and persistent pancytopenia during maintenance chemotherapy.Laboratory investigations initially showed significant CMV antigenemia (51 positive cells/200,000 leukocytes); however, antiviral therapy was not deemed necessary in this patient who had no history of SCT. CMV antigenemia worsened to 170 positive cells/200,000 leukocytes over 3 weeks. Ophthalmological examination revealed multiple bilateral retinal infiltrates and granular lesions. He was diagnosed with CMV retinitis and was treated with a 4-week course of intravenous ganciclovir and intravitreal injection of ganciclovir 6 times, followed by a 1-month course of orally administered valganciclovir. A CMV antigenemia assay showed negative results, and follow-up fundoscopy revealed lesser retinal infiltration after the sixth intravitreal ganciclovir injection. Future studies should focus on the development of standardized screening methods and preemptive therapeutic strategies for CMV disease in high-risk children.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892105

ABSTRACT

The large outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that started in Wuhan, China has now spread to many countries worldwide. Current epidemiologic knowledge suggests that relatively few cases are seen among children, which limits opportunities to address pediatric specific issues on infection control and the children's contribution to viral spread in the community. Here, we report the first pediatric case of COVID-19 in Korea. The 10-year-old girl was a close contact of her uncle and her mother who were confirmed to have COVID-19. In this report, we present mild clinical course of her pneumonia that did not require antiviral treatment and serial viral test results from multiple specimens. Lastly, we raise concerns on the optimal strategy of self-quarantine and patient care in a negative isolation room for children.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810936

ABSTRACT

The large outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that started in Wuhan, China has now spread to many countries worldwide. Current epidemiologic knowledge suggests that relatively few cases are seen among children, which limits opportunities to address pediatric specific issues on infection control and the children's contribution to viral spread in the community. Here, we report the first pediatric case of COVID-19 in Korea. The 10-year-old girl was a close contact of her uncle and her mother who were confirmed to have COVID-19. In this report, we present mild clinical course of her pneumonia that did not require antiviral treatment and serial viral test results from multiple specimens. Lastly, we raise concerns on the optimal strategy of self-quarantine and patient care in a negative isolation room for children.

16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760898

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Early detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae is important for appropriate antimicrobial therapy in children with pneumonia. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of a rapid antigen test kit in detecting M. pneumoniae from respiratory specimens in children with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). METHODS: A total of 215 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were selected from a pool of NPAs that had been obtained from children admitted for LRTI from August 2010 to August 2018. The specimens had been tested for M. pneumoniae by culture and stored at −70°C until use. Tests with Ribotest Mycoplasma® were performed and interpreted independently by two investigators who were blinded to the culture results. RESULTS: Among the 215 NPAs, 119 were culture positive for M. pneumoniae and 96 were culture negative. Of the culture-positive specimens, 74 (62.2%) were positive for M. pneumoniae by Ribotest Mycoplasma®, and 92 of the 96 (95.8%) culture-negative specimens were negative for M. pneumoniae by Ribotest Mycoplasma®. When culture was used as the standard test, the sensitivity and specificity of Ribotest Mycoplasma® were 62.2% and 95.8%, respectively. Additionally, the positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and overall agreement rates with Ribotest Mycoplasma® were 94.9%, 67.2%, and 77.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A positive test result of Ribotest Mycoplasma® suggests a high likelihood of culture-positive M. pneumoniae infection. However, a negative test result should be interpreted with caution because nearly one-third of negative test results reveal culture-positive M. pneumoniae infections.


Subject(s)
Child , Diagnosis , Humans , Chromatography, Affinity , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Point-of-Care Systems , Research Personnel , Respiratory Tract Infections , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760895

ABSTRACT

Eikenella corrodens rarely causes invasive head and neck infections in immunocompetent children. We report a case of epidural abscess caused by E. corrodens in a previously healthy 13-year-old boy who presented with fever, headache, and vomiting. On physical examination upon admission, there was no neck stiffness, but discharge from the right ear was observed. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed approximately 4.5-cm-sized epidural empyema on the right temporal lobe as well as bilateral ethmoid and sphenoid sinusitis, right mastoiditis, and right otitis media. During treatment with vancomycin and cefotaxime, purulent ear discharge aggravated, and on follow-up brain MRI, the empyema size increased to 5.6×3.4 cm with interval development of an abscess at the right sphenoid sinus. Burr hole trephination was performed, and foul-smelling pus was aspirated from the epidural abscess near the right temporal lobe. Pus culture yielded E. corrodens. Endoscopic sphenoidotomy was also performed with massive pus drainage, and the same organism was grown. The patient was treated with intravenous cefotaxime for 3 weeks and recovered well with no other complications. Therefore, E. corrodens can cause serious complications in children with untreated sinusitis.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Adolescent , Brain , Cefotaxime , Child , Drainage , Ear , Eikenella corrodens , Eikenella , Empyema , Epidural Abscess , Fever , Follow-Up Studies , Head , Headache , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Mastoid , Mastoiditis , Neck , Otitis Media , Physical Examination , Sinusitis , Sphenoid Sinus , Sphenoid Sinusitis , Suppuration , Temporal Lobe , Trephining , Vancomycin , Vomiting
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) osteitis, a rare complication of BCG vaccination, has not been well investigated in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of BCG osteitis during the recent 10 years in Korea. METHODS: Children diagnosed with BCG osteitis at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital from January 2007 to March 2018 were included. M. bovis BCG was confirmed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the affected bone. BCG immunization status and clinical information were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were diagnosed with BCG osteitis and their median symptom onset from BCG vaccination was 13.8 months (range, 6.0–32.5). Sixteen children (76.2%) received Tokyo-172 vaccine by percutaneous multiple puncture method, while four (19.0%) and one (4.8%) received intradermal Tokyo-172 and Danish strain, respectively. Common presenting symptoms were swelling (76.2%), limited movement of the affected site (63.2%), and pain (61.9%) while fever was only accompanied in 19.0%. Femur (33.3%) and the tarsal bones (23.8%) were the most frequently involved sites; and demarcated osteolytic lesions (63.1%) and cortical breakages (42.1%) were observed on plain radiographs. Surgical drainage was performed in 90.5%, and 33.3% of them required repeated surgical interventions due to persistent symptoms. Antituberculosis medications were administered for a median duration of 12 months (range, 12–31). Most patients recovered without evident sequelae. CONCLUSION: Highly suspecting BCG osteitis based on clinical manifestations is important for prompt management. A comprehensive national surveillance system is needed to understand the exact incidence of serious adverse reactions following BCG vaccination and establish safe vaccination policy in Korea.


Subject(s)
Child , Drainage , Femur , Fever , Humans , Immunization , Incidence , Korea , Methods , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mycobacterium bovis , Mycobacterium , Osteitis , Punctures , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Tarsal Bones , Vaccination
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786529

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is a leading cause of periodic fever in children. This study describes the clinical characteristics of PFAPA syndrome in patients from a single center.METHODS: Thirteen children diagnosed with PFAPA syndrome at Seoul National University Children's Hospital were included in this study. Retrospective medical chart reviews were performed.RESULTS: Among the 13 patients, 8 (61.5%) were male. The median follow-up duration was 3.3 years (range, 10 months–8.3 years). The median age of periodic fever onset was 3 years (range, 1–6 years). All patients had at least 5 episodes of periodic fever and pharyngitis, managed with oral antibiotics, before diagnosis. The median occurrence of fever was every 3.9 weeks and lasted for 4.2 days. All patients had pharyngitis and 12 (92.3%) had cervical lymphadenitis. Blood tests were performed for 12 patients, and no patients had neutropenia. Both the C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were elevated at medians of 4.5 mg/dL (range, 0.4–13.2 mg/dL) and 29 mm/hr (range, 16–49 mm/hr), respectively. Throat swab cultures and rapid streptococcal antigen tests were negative. Nine (69.2%) patients received oral prednisolone at a median dose of 0.8 mg/kg, and in 6 (66.7%) patients, fever resolved within a few hours. Three (23.1%) patients received tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy.CONCLUSIONS: PFAPA syndrome should be considered when a child presents with periodic fever along with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, or cervical lymphadenitis. Glucocorticoid administration is effective for fever resolution and can reduce unnecessary use of antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Adenoidectomy , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , Child , Diagnosis , Fever , Follow-Up Studies , Hematologic Tests , Humans , Lymphadenitis , Male , Neutropenia , Pharyngitis , Pharynx , Prednisolone , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Stomatitis, Aphthous , Tonsillectomy , Yemen
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-89875

ABSTRACT

Since 2012, outbreaks of the Middle East respiratory coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have been reported, including the Republic of Korea. To date, most of the people infected with the virus are adults. Herein we describe the clinical characteristics of cases of MERS-CoV infection among children. As of October 29, 2015, MERS-CoV has caused 34 pediatric infections, which accounts for 2.1% of all cases. The median age was 13 years (range 9 months to 17 years) and where gender has been reported (n=33), 57.6% cases were male. About half of the patients were asymptomatic and the majority of the symptomatic patients had respiratory symptoms. In general, the clinical outcome in children was favorable. Among the four patients who died of progressive pneumonia, three had documented comorbidities. MERS-CoV infection in children has a lower incidence and mortality compared to adults.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Male , Middle East , Mortality , Pneumonia , Republic of Korea
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