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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902565

ABSTRACT

Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is caused by Babesia caballi and Theileria equi infection. We investigated antigen and antibody of EP in horses in the Republic of Korea during 2016-2017. Antigen and antibody of T. equi was detected 0.06% (1/1,650). Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA revealed that the T. equi was highly homologous with the strains from China, Mongolia, and Spain. Two Theileria spp. were also detected and highly homologous with T. buffeli, T. luwehshuni, and T. orientalis.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901454

ABSTRACT

Background@#The microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae is a global problem in honeybee populations and is known to cause winter mortality. A sensitive and rapid tool for stable quantitative detection is necessary to establish further research related to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of this pathogen. @*Objectives@#The present study aimed to develop a quantitative method that incorporates ultra-rapid real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (UR-qPCR) for the rapid enumeration of N. ceranae in infected bees. @*Methods@#A procedure for UR-qPCR detection of N. ceranae was developed, and the advantages of molecular detection were evaluated in comparison with microscopic enumeration. @*Results@#UR-qPCR was more sensitive than microscopic enumeration for detecting two copies of N. ceranae DNA and 24 spores per bee. Meanwhile, the limit of detection by microscopy was 2.40 × 104 spores/bee, and the stable detection level was ≥ 2.40 × 105 spores/ bee. The results of N. ceranae calculations from the infected honeybees and purified spores by UR-qPCR showed that the DNA copy number was approximately 8-fold higher than the spore count. Additionally, honeybees infected with N. ceranae with 2.74 × 104 copies of N. ceranae DNA were incapable of detection by microscopy. The results of quantitative analysis using UR-qPCR were accomplished within 20 min. @*Conclusions@#UR-qPCR is expected to be the most rapid molecular method for Nosema detection and has been developed for diagnosing nosemosis at low levels of infection.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893750

ABSTRACT

Background@#The microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae is a global problem in honeybee populations and is known to cause winter mortality. A sensitive and rapid tool for stable quantitative detection is necessary to establish further research related to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of this pathogen. @*Objectives@#The present study aimed to develop a quantitative method that incorporates ultra-rapid real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (UR-qPCR) for the rapid enumeration of N. ceranae in infected bees. @*Methods@#A procedure for UR-qPCR detection of N. ceranae was developed, and the advantages of molecular detection were evaluated in comparison with microscopic enumeration. @*Results@#UR-qPCR was more sensitive than microscopic enumeration for detecting two copies of N. ceranae DNA and 24 spores per bee. Meanwhile, the limit of detection by microscopy was 2.40 × 104 spores/bee, and the stable detection level was ≥ 2.40 × 105 spores/ bee. The results of N. ceranae calculations from the infected honeybees and purified spores by UR-qPCR showed that the DNA copy number was approximately 8-fold higher than the spore count. Additionally, honeybees infected with N. ceranae with 2.74 × 104 copies of N. ceranae DNA were incapable of detection by microscopy. The results of quantitative analysis using UR-qPCR were accomplished within 20 min. @*Conclusions@#UR-qPCR is expected to be the most rapid molecular method for Nosema detection and has been developed for diagnosing nosemosis at low levels of infection.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894861

ABSTRACT

Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is caused by Babesia caballi and Theileria equi infection. We investigated antigen and antibody of EP in horses in the Republic of Korea during 2016-2017. Antigen and antibody of T. equi was detected 0.06% (1/1,650). Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA revealed that the T. equi was highly homologous with the strains from China, Mongolia, and Spain. Two Theileria spp. were also detected and highly homologous with T. buffeli, T. luwehshuni, and T. orientalis.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833806

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of human toxoplasmosis can be attributed to ingestion of food contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasmosis recently increased in domestic and stray dogs and cats. It prompted studies on the zoonotic infectious diseases transmitted via these animals. Sero- and antigen prevalences of T. gondii in dogs and cats were surveyed using ELISA and PCR, and B1 gene phylogeny was analyzed in this study. Toxoplasmosis antibodies were measured on sera of 403 stray cats, 947 stray dogs, 909 domestic cats, and 2,412 domestic dogs collected at nationwide regions, Korea from 2017 to 2019. In addition, whole blood, feces, and tissue samples were also collected from stray cats (1,392), stray dogs (686), domestic cats (3,040), and domestic dogs (1,974), and T. gondii-specific B1 gene PCR was performed. Antibody prevalence of stray cats, stray dogs, domestic cats, and domestic dogs were 14.1%, 5.6%, 2.3%, and 0.04%, respectively. Antigen prevalence of these animals was 0.5%, 0.2%, 0.1%, and 0.4%, respectively. Stray cats revealed the highest infection rate of toxoplasmosis, followed by stray dogs, domestic cats, and domestic dogs. B1 gene positives were 5 of stray cats, and identified to high/moderate pathogenic Type I/III group. These findings enforce that preventive hygienic measure should be strengthened at One Health level in dogs and cats, domestic and stray, to minimize human toxoplasmosis infections.

6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1170-1176, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-15476

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to establish normative values and to identify age-related change in physical examinations that are commonly used while evaluating patients with cerebral palsy (CP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred four healthy volunteers (mean age 36 years, standard deviation 15 years) were enrolled and divided into four age groups: 13−20, 21−35, 36−50, and 51 years and older. The eighteen physical examination tests for CP were selected by five orthopedic surgeons in consensus-building session. The measurements were taken by three orthopedic surgeons. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the measures of physical examination among all the age groups, except for the Staheli test (p=0.002). The post hoc test revealed that the mean hip extension was 2.7° higher in the 13−20-year-old group than in the other age groups. The bilateral popliteal angle had a tendency to increase in those over 36-years-old. There were 31 participants (30%) with a unilateral popliteal angle greater than 40°. CONCLUSION: We documented normative values that can be widely used for evaluating CP in patients 13 years and older.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Palsy , Healthy Volunteers , Hip , Humans , Orthopedics , Physical Examination , Range of Motion, Articular , Surgeons
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83617

ABSTRACT

Acarapis mites, including Acarapis woodi, Acarapis externus, and Acarapis dorsalis, are parasites of bees which can cause severe damage to the bee industry by destroying colonies and decreasing honey production. All 3 species are prevalent throughout many countries including UK, USA, Iran, Turkey, China, and Japan. Based on previous reports of Acarapis mites occurring in northeast Asia, including China and Japan, we investigated a survey of Acarapis mite infestations in honey bees in Korean apiaries. A total of 99 colonies of Apis mellifera were sampled from 5 provinces. The head and thorax of 20 bees from each colony were removed for DNA extraction. PCR assays were performed with 3 primer sets, including T, A, and K primers. Results indicated that 42.4% (42/99) of samples were Acarapis-positive by PCR assay which were sequenced to identify species. Each sequence showed 92.6-99.3% homology with reference sequences. Based on the homology, the number of colonies infected with A. dorsalis was 32 which showed the highest infection rate among the 3 species, while the number of colonies infected with A. externus and A. woodi was 9 and 1, respectively. However, none of the Acarapis mites were morphologically detected. This result could be explained that all apiaries in the survey used acaricides against bee mites such as Varroa destructor and Tropilaelaps clareae which also affect against Acarapis mites. Based on this study, it is highly probable that Acarapis mites as well as Varroa and Tropilaelaps could be prevalent in Korean apiaries.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees/parasitology , Mites/classification , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Republic of Korea
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-66457

ABSTRACT

Although silver is known to be a broad-spectrum biocidal agent, the effects of this metal against Sacbrood virus have not yet been investigated. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of silver ions against natural Korean sacbrood virus (KSBV) infection of Apis (A.) cerana. Ten KSBV-infected colonies containing A. cerana with similar strength and activity were selected from an apiary located in Bosung-gun (Korea). Among these, five colonies were randomly assigned to the treatment group that was fed sugar syrup containing 0.2 mg/L silver ions. The other colonies were assigned to the untreated control group in which bees were given syrup without the silver ions. To assess the efficacy of the silver ions, colony strength, colony activity, and the number of dead larvae per hive were measured. During the experimental period, the test group maintained its strength and activity until day 32 while those of bees in the control group decreased sharply after day 8 to 16. Survival duration of the test group was significantly longer (40 days) than that of the control group (21 days). These results strongly indicated that silver ions are effective against KSBV infection in A. cerana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Beekeeping , Bees/virology , Ions/pharmacology , RNA Viruses/drug effects , Republic of Korea , Silver/pharmacology
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