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1.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(4): 101605, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339437

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis considered endemic and limited to Latin America with the majority of registered cases originating from Brazil. The purpose of this paper was to report a case of a female patient with paracoccidioidomycosis mimicking inflammatory bowel disease and to systematically review available cases of the intestinal presentation of this infectious disease. Case report: Female patient, 32-years old, previously asymptomatic, presenting with acute pain in the lower right abdomen, associated with signs of peritoneal irritation and abdominal distension. Urgent surgery was performed, which identified a severe suppurative perforated ileitis. The anatomopathological study revealed fungal structures shaped as a ship's pilot wheel in Grocott-Gomori's staining, suggestive of Paracoccidioides spp. Methods: Studies were retrieved based on Medical Subject Headings and Health Sciences Descriptors, which were combined using Boolean operators. Searches were run on the electronic databases Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE (PubMed), BIREME (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online), Embase, and Opengray.eu. Languages were restricted to English, Spanish and Portuguese. There was no date of publication restrictions. The reference lists of the studies retrieved were searched manually. Simple descriptive analysis was used to summarize the results. Results: Our search strategy retrieved 581 references. In the final analysis, 34 references were included, with a total of 46 case reports. The most common clinical finding was abdominal pain and weight loss present in 31 (67.3%) patients. Most patients were treated with itraconazole (41.3%) and amphotericin B (36.9%). All-cause mortality was 12.8%. Conclusions: Paracoccidioidomycosis should be suspected in endemics areas, specially as a differential diagnosis for inflammatory bowel disease. Endoscopic tests and biopsy are useful for diagnosis and treatment with antifungal drugs seem to be the first treatment option to achieve a significant success rate.

2.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 451-461, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089312

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Papiliotrema laurentii is one of several non-neoformans cryptococci that have rarely been associated with human infection, since it was previously considered saprophyte and thought to be non-pathogenic to humans. Nevertheless, increasing number of reports of human infection have emerged in recent years, mostly in oncologic patients. Aim: To report a case of a female patient with pyloric obstructive cancer with a catheter-related Papiliotrema laurentii blood stream infection and systematically review the available evidence on P. laurentii infection in humans. Methods: Retrieval of studies was based on Medical Subject Headings and Health Sciences Descriptors, which were combined using Boolean operators. Searches were run on the electronic databases Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE (PubMed), BIREME (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews and Opengray.eu. There was no language or date of publication restrictions. The reference lists of the studies retrieved were searched manually. Results: The search strategy retrieved 1703 references. In the final analysis, 31 references were included, with the description of 35 cases. Every patient but one had a previous co-morbidity - 48.4 % of patients had a neoplasm. Amphotericin B was the most used treatment and only a single case of resistance to it was reported. Most patients were cured of the infection. Conclusion: P. laurentii infection in humans is usually associated to neoplasia and multiple co-morbidities, and amphotericin B seems to be a reliable agent for treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnostic imaging , Stomach Neoplasms/microbiology , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Biopsy , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/microbiology , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Adv Rheumatol ; 59: 17, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088607

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: In Brazil, we are facing an alarming epidemic scenario of Yellow fever (YF), which is reaching the most populous areas of the country in unvaccinated people. Vaccination is the only effective tool to prevent YF. In special situations, such as patients with chronic immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (CIMID), undergoing immunosuppressive therapy, as a higher risk of severe adverse events may occur, assessment of the risk-benefit ratio of the yellow fever vaccine (YFV) should be performed on an individual level. Main body of the abstract: Faced with the scarcity of specific orientation on YFV for this special group of patients, the Brazilian Rheumatology Society (BRS) endorsed a project aiming the development of individualized YFV recommendations for patients with CIMID, guided by questions addressed by both medical professionals and patients, followed an internationally validated methodology (GIN-McMaster Guideline Development). Firstly, a systematic review was carried out and an expert panel formed to take part of the decision process, comprising BRS clinical practitioners, as well as individuals from the Brazilian Dermatology Society (BDS), Brazilian Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Study Group (GEDIIB), and specialists on infectious diseases and vaccination (from Tropical Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Immunizations National Societies); in addition, two representatives of patient groups were included as members of the panel. When the quality of the evidence was low or there was a lack of evidence to determine the recommendations, the decisions were based on the expert opinion panel and a Delphi approach was performed. A recommendation was accepted upon achieving ≥80% agreement among the panel, including the patient representatives. As a result, eight recommendations were developed regarding the safety of YFV in patients with CIMID, considering the immunosuppression degree conferred by the treatment used. It was not possible to establish recommendations on the effectiveness of YFV in these patients as there is no consistent evidence to support these recommendations. Conclusion: This paper approaches a real need, assessed by clinicians and patient care groups, to address specific questions on the management of YFV in patients with CIMID living or traveling to YF endemic areas, involving specialists from many areas together with patients, and might have global applicability, contributing to and supporting vaccination practices. We recommended a shared decision-making approach on taking or not the YFV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Chronic Disease , Yellow Fever Vaccine/administration & dosage , Brazil/epidemiology , Efficacy/standards , Treatment Outcome
4.
J. bras. pneumol ; 45(6): e20180374, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040289

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo A pneumonia pneumocócica é uma causa significativa de morbimortalidade entre adultos. Desta maneira, o objetivo principal deste estudo foi avaliar a mortalidade intra-hospitalar e os custos relacionados à doença adquirida em adultos. Métodos Este estudo transversal utilizou prontuários de pacientes adultos com pneumonia pneumocócica internados em um hospital universitário no Brasil, de outubro de 2009 a abril de 2017. Todos os pacientes com idade ≥ 18 anos e diagnosticados com pneumonia pneumocócica foram incluídos. Dados como os fatores de risco, a internação em unidade de terapia intensiva, o tempo de internação, a mortalidade hospitalar e os custos diretos e indiretos foram analisados. Resultados No total, 186 pacientes foram selecionados. A taxa média de mortalidade intra-hospitalar foi de 18% para adultos com idade < 65 anos e 23% para os idosos (≥ 65 anos). A pneumonia pneumocócica bacterêmica acometeu 20% dos pacientes em ambos os grupos, principalmente por doença respiratória crônica (OR ajustada: 3,07; IC95%: 1,23‐7,65; p < 0,01). Após levantamento das internações ocorridas no período de sete anos de tratamento, verificou-se que os custos diretos e indiretos totais anuais foram de US$ 28.188 para adultos < 65 anos (US$ 1.746 per capita) e US$ 16.350 para os idosos (US$ 2.119 per capita). Conclusão A pneumonia pneumocócica continua sendo uma importante causa de morbimortalidade entre adultos, afetando significativamente os custos diretos e indiretos. Esses resultados sugerem a necessidade de estratégias de prevenção para todos os adultos, especialmente para pacientes com doenças respiratórias crônicas.


ABSTRACT Objective Pneumococcal pneumonia is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among adults. The study's main aim was to evaluate the in-hospital mortality and related costs of community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia in adults. Methods This cross-sectional study used medical records of adult patients with pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalized in a university hospital in Brazil from October 2009 to April 2017. All patients aged ≥ 18 years diagnosed with pneumococcal pneumonia were included. Risk factors, intensive care unit admission, length of hospital stay, in-hospital mortality, and direct and indirect costs were analyzed. Results In total, 186 patients were selected. The mean in-hospital mortality rate was 18% for adults aged < 65 years and 23% for the elderly (≥ 65 years). Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia affected 20% of patients in both groups, mainly through chronic respiratory disease (adjusted OR: 3.07, 95% CI: 1.23-7.65, p < 0.01). Over 7 years, annual total direct and indirect costs were USD 28,188 for adults < 65 years (USD 1,746 per capita) and USD 16,350 for the elderly (USD 2,119 per capita). Conclusion Pneumococcal pneumonia remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality among adults, significantly affecting direct and indirect costs. These results suggest the need for prevention strategies for all adults, especially for patients with chronic respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/economics , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Time Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Community-Acquired Infections/economics , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Hospitalization/economics
5.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(5): 405-423, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975948

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Despite the vast diversity of respiratory microbiota, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most prevalent pathogen among etiologic agents. Despite the significant decrease in the mortality rates for lower respiratory tract infections in recent decades, CAP ranks third as a cause of death in Brazil. Since the latest Guidelines on CAP from the Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia (SBPT, Brazilian Thoracic Association) were published (2009), there have been major advances in the application of imaging tests, in etiologic investigation, in risk stratification at admission and prognostic score stratification, in the use of biomarkers, and in the recommendations for antibiotic therapy (and its duration) and prevention through vaccination. To review these topics, the SBPT Committee on Respiratory Infections summoned 13 members with recognized experience in CAP in Brazil who identified issues relevant to clinical practice that require updates given the publication of new epidemiological and scientific evidence. Twelve topics concerning diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic, and preventive issues were developed. The topics were divided among the authors, who conducted a nonsystematic review of the literature, but giving priority to major publications in the specific areas, including original articles, review articles, and systematic reviews. All authors had the opportunity to review and comment on all questions, producing a single final document that was approved by consensus.


RESUMO A pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (PAC) constitui a principal causa de morte no mundo. Apesar da vasta microbiota respiratória, o Streptococcus pneumoniae permanece como a bactéria de maior prevalência dentre os agentes etiológicos. Apesar da redução significativa das taxas de mortalidade por infecções do trato respiratório inferior nas últimas décadas, a PAC ocupa o terceiro lugar como causa de mortalidade em nosso meio. Desde a última publicação das Diretrizes Brasileiras sobre PAC da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia (SBPT; 2009), houve importantes avanços na aplicação dos exames de imagem, na investigação etiológica, na estratificação de risco à admissão e de escores prognósticos evolutivos, no uso de biomarcadores e nas recomendações de antibioticoterapia (e sua duração) e da prevenção por vacinas. Para revisar esses tópicos, a Comissão de Infecções Respiratórias da SBPT reuniu 13 membros com reconhecida experiência em PAC no Brasil que identificaram aspectos relevantes à prática clínica que demandam atualizações frente às novas evidências epidemiológicas e científicas publicadas. Foram determinados doze tópicos envolvendo aspectos diagnósticos, prognósticos, terapêuticos e preventivos. Os tópicos foram divididos entre os autores, que realizaram uma revisão de forma não sistemática da literatura, porém priorizando as principais publicações nas áreas específicas, incluindo artigos originais, artigos de revisão e revisões sistemáticas. Todos os autores tiveram a oportunidade de revisar e opinar sobre todas as questões, criando um documento único final que foi aprovado por consenso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Societies, Medical , Brazil , Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Evidence-Based Medicine , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
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