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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903039

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and strength are characteristics of sarcopenia. However, the impact of appendicular and trunk SMM and back extensor strength (BES) on spinal sagittal alignment remains unclear. Herein, we investigate the relationship between these factors and spinal sagittal alignment. @*Methods@#In total, 202 women without vertebral fractures (median age, 66.9 years; interquartile range, 61.4–71.9 years) were analyzed at an orthopedic outpatient clinic. Pelvic incidence (PI), lumbar lordosis (LL), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), and pelvic tilt (PT) were measured on whole spine radiographs. Body mass index (BMI), appendicular and trunk relative SMM index, and BES were also evaluated. These measurements were compared between spinal sagittal alignment groups using the Mann–Whitney U test. Finally, the factors contributing to abnormal alignment were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#BES was significantly lower in all abnormal sagittal alignment groups, as defined by PI-LL (≥ 10°), SVA (≥4 cm), and PT (≥20°) (all P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, BES was a contributing factor for abnormal PI-LL (P < 0.001), SVA (P = 0.001), and PT (P < 0.001). Conversely, a decrease in appendicular and trunk relative SMM index did not statistically affect abnormal spinal sagittal alignment. @*Conclusions@#BES was associated with changes in spinal sagittal alignment; however, SMM, which is often used for diagnosing sarcopenia, did not affect spinal sagittal alignment.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903038

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Although sarcopenia is diagnosed using appendicular lean mass (ALM), only a few long-term studies on changes in both ALM and bone mineral density (BMD) have been reported. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the changes in the parameters of lean mass and bone mass over a 10-year interval and to estimate the effects of osteoporosis pharmacotherapy on muscle. @*Methods@#A total of 175 postmenopausal women were evaluated at baseline and after 10 years for BMD, ALM, fat mass, height, and weight. Subjects were further divided into an osteoporosis treatment group (n = 60) and a control group (n = 67) according to whether they had received pharmacotherapy for > 5 years. This was followed by propensity score matching for age, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), and estimated parameters were compared between groups. @*Results@#Height, weight, ALM, and fat mass decreased significantly over 10 years (P < 0.05). However, lean mass index (LMI), derived as the ALM divided by the height squared, increased significantly (P < 0.001). BMD increased significantly with osteoporosis treatment (P < 0.05), while no significant differences were observed between the osteoporosis treatment and control groups in the changes to ALM or fat mass. @*Conclusions@#ALM was decreased, while LMI was significantly increased. This contradictory result seems to be affected by age-related height loss. Thus, the effect of height loss needs to be considered when sarcopenia is evaluated longitudinally using LMI.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895335

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and strength are characteristics of sarcopenia. However, the impact of appendicular and trunk SMM and back extensor strength (BES) on spinal sagittal alignment remains unclear. Herein, we investigate the relationship between these factors and spinal sagittal alignment. @*Methods@#In total, 202 women without vertebral fractures (median age, 66.9 years; interquartile range, 61.4–71.9 years) were analyzed at an orthopedic outpatient clinic. Pelvic incidence (PI), lumbar lordosis (LL), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), and pelvic tilt (PT) were measured on whole spine radiographs. Body mass index (BMI), appendicular and trunk relative SMM index, and BES were also evaluated. These measurements were compared between spinal sagittal alignment groups using the Mann–Whitney U test. Finally, the factors contributing to abnormal alignment were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#BES was significantly lower in all abnormal sagittal alignment groups, as defined by PI-LL (≥ 10°), SVA (≥4 cm), and PT (≥20°) (all P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, BES was a contributing factor for abnormal PI-LL (P < 0.001), SVA (P = 0.001), and PT (P < 0.001). Conversely, a decrease in appendicular and trunk relative SMM index did not statistically affect abnormal spinal sagittal alignment. @*Conclusions@#BES was associated with changes in spinal sagittal alignment; however, SMM, which is often used for diagnosing sarcopenia, did not affect spinal sagittal alignment.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895334

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#Although sarcopenia is diagnosed using appendicular lean mass (ALM), only a few long-term studies on changes in both ALM and bone mineral density (BMD) have been reported. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the changes in the parameters of lean mass and bone mass over a 10-year interval and to estimate the effects of osteoporosis pharmacotherapy on muscle. @*Methods@#A total of 175 postmenopausal women were evaluated at baseline and after 10 years for BMD, ALM, fat mass, height, and weight. Subjects were further divided into an osteoporosis treatment group (n = 60) and a control group (n = 67) according to whether they had received pharmacotherapy for > 5 years. This was followed by propensity score matching for age, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), and estimated parameters were compared between groups. @*Results@#Height, weight, ALM, and fat mass decreased significantly over 10 years (P < 0.05). However, lean mass index (LMI), derived as the ALM divided by the height squared, increased significantly (P < 0.001). BMD increased significantly with osteoporosis treatment (P < 0.05), while no significant differences were observed between the osteoporosis treatment and control groups in the changes to ALM or fat mass. @*Conclusions@#ALM was decreased, while LMI was significantly increased. This contradictory result seems to be affected by age-related height loss. Thus, the effect of height loss needs to be considered when sarcopenia is evaluated longitudinally using LMI.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: There has been major progress in our understanding of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and novel treatment classes have emerged. The Rome IV guidelines were published in 2016 and together with the growing body of Asian data on IBS, we felt it is timely to update the Asian IBS Consensus. METHODS: Key opinion leaders from Asian countries were organized into 4 teams to review 4 themes: symptoms and epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and investigations, and lifestyle modifications and treatments. The consensus development process was carried out by using a modified Delphi method. RESULTS: Thirty-seven statements were developed. Asian data substantiate the current global viewpoint that IBS is a disorder of gut-brain interaction. Socio-cultural and environmental factors in Asia appear to influence the greater overlap between IBS and upper gastrointestinal symptoms. New classes of treatments comprising low fermentable oligo-, di-, monosacharides, and polyols diet, probiotics, non-absorbable antibiotics, and secretagogues have good evidence base for their efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Our consensus is that all patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders should be evaluated comprehensively with a view to holistic management. Physicians should be encouraged to take a positive attitude to the treatment outcomes for IBS patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Consensus , Constipation , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Diet , Epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Intestines , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Life Style , Methods , Probiotics
6.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 832-841, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762981

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective and comparative study. PURPOSE: We assessed surgical treatment outcomes in patients with thoracic myelopathy due to ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF), and OLF combined with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) or vertebral fracture (VF) at the same level. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: OLF and OPLL cause severe thoracic myelopathy. Osteoporotic VF commonly occurs at the thoracolumbar junction. There have been no investigations of thoracic myelopathy due to OLF and VF. METHODS: Forty patients were divided among three groups: the OLF group (n=23): myelopathy due to OLF, the OLF+OPLL group (n=12): myelopathy due to OLF and OPLL, and the OLF+VF group (n=5): myelopathy due to OLF and VF. We recorded OLF, OPLL, and VF sites and operative procedures. Each patient’s neurological status, according to the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, and walking ability were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. RESULTS: Patients in the OLF+OPLL group were significantly younger than those in the other two groups. The preoperative JOA score was significantly lower in the OLF+VF than OLF group. The final JOA score was significantly lower in the OLF+VF than OLF and OLF+OPLL groups. The JOA score recovery rate was significantly lower in the OLF+VF than OLF group. Final walking ability was significantly worse in the OLF+OPLL and OLF+VF groups than in the OLF group and significantly worse in the OLF+VF than OLF+OPLL group. CONCLUSIONS: Thoracic myelopathy due to OLF+VF occurs primarily in older females, who also exhibit worse preoperative and postoperative neurological status, and worse walking ability, than patients with thoracic myelopathy due to OLF or OLF+OPLL.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225115

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Glucocorticoid (GC) treatment inhibits activation of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), which is essential for osteoblast differentiation from stem cells. As a result, GC treatment results in bone loss, GC-induced osteoporosis (GIO), elevated fracture risk, and delayed bone healing. Bisphosphonates such as alendronate (ALN) are recommended for treating or preventing GIO, and lowintensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) facilitates fracture healing and maturation of regenerated bone. Combined therapy with ALN and LIPUS may stimulate cancellous bone healing in GIO rats. Here, we examined the effect of ALN and LIPUS on cancellous bone osteotomy repair in the proximal tibia of GIO rats. METHODS: Prednisolone (10 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered for 4 weeks to induce GIO in 6-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. Tibial osteotomy was then performed and daily subcutaneous injection of ALN (1-µg/kg body weight) was subsequently administered alone or in combination with LIPUS (20 min/day) for 2 or 4 weeks. RESULTS: ALN significantly increased bone mineral density (BMD) at 2 and 4 weeks, and ALN + LIPUS significantly increased BMD at 4 weeks. Bone union rates were significantly increased after 2 and 4 weeks ALN and ALN + LIPUS treatment. Lastly, ALN and ALN + LIPUS significantly increased the proportion of Runx2 positive cells at 4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: ALN monotherapy and combined ALN and LUPUS treatment augmented BMD and stimulated cancellous bone repair with increased Runx2 expression at the osteotomy site in GIO rats. However, the combined treatment had no additional effect on cancellous bone healing compared to ALN monotherapy.


Subject(s)
Alendronate , Animals , Bone Density , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Diphosphonates , Female , Fracture Healing , Humans , Infant , Injections, Subcutaneous , Osteoblasts , Osteoporosis , Osteotomy , Prednisolone , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Stem Cells , Tibia , Transcription Factors , Ultrasonic Waves
8.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 562-569, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173105

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: In vivo biomechanical study using a three-dimensional (3D) musculoskeletal model for elderly individuals with or without pelvic retroversion. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of pelvic retroversion on the sagittal alignment of the spine, pelvis, and lower limb in elderly females while standing and walking. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Patients with hip–spine syndrome have concurrent hip-joint and spine diseases. However, the dynamic sagittal alignment between the hip joint and spine has rarely been investigated. We used a 3D musculoskeletal model to evaluate global spinopelvic parameters, including spinal inclination and pelvic tilt (PT). METHODS: A total of 32 ambulant females (mean age=78 years) without assistance were enrolled in the study. On the basis of the radiographic measurement for PT, participants were divided into the pelvic retroversion group (R-group; PT≥20°) and the normal group (N-group; PT<20°). A 3D musculoskeletal motion analysis system was used to analyze the calculated value for the alignment of spine, pelvis, and lower limb, including calculated (C)-PT, sagittal vertical axis (C-SVA), pelvic incidence, lumbar lordosis, T1 pelvic angle (C-TPA), as well as knee and hip flexion angles while standing and walking. RESULTS: While standing, C-PT and C-TPA in the R-group were significantly larger than those in the N-group. Hip angle was significantly smaller in the R-group than in the N-group, unlike knee angle, which did not show difference. While walking, C-SVA and C-TPA were significantly increased, whereas C-PT decreased compared with those while standing. The maximum hip-flexion angle was significantly smaller in the R-group than in the N-group. There was a significant correlation between the radiographic and calculated parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The 3D musculoskeletal model was useful in evaluating the sagittal alignment of the spine, pelvis, and leg. Spinopelvic sagittal alignment showed deterioration while walking. C-PT was significantly decreased while walking in the R-group, indicating possible compensatory mechanisms attempting to increase coverage of the femoral head. The reduction in the hip flexion angle in the R-group was also considered as a compensatory mechanism.


Subject(s)
Aged , Animals , Extremities , Female , Head , Hip , Hip Joint , Humans , Incidence , Knee , Leg , Lordosis , Lower Extremity , Pelvis , Spine , Walking
9.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 440-448, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29570

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical and radiological results of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) performed with cortical bone trajectory (CBT) pedicle screw insertion with those of TLIF using 'conventional' or percutaneous pedicle screw insertion. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: CBT is a new trajectory for pedicle screw insertion in the lumbar spine; clinical and radiological results of TLIF using pedicle screws inserted with CBT are unclear. METHODS: In total, 26 patients (11 males, 15 females) were enrolled in this retrospective study and divided into three groups: TLIF with pedicle screw insertion by conventional minimally invasive methods via the Wiltse approach (M-TLIF, n=10), TLIF with percutaneous pedicle screw insertion (P-TLIF, n=6), and TLIF with pedicle screw insertion with CBT (CBT-TLIF, n=10). Surgical results and preand postoperative radiological findings were evaluated and compared. RESULTS: Intraoperative blood loss was significantly less with CBT-TLIF (p=0.03) than with M-TLIF. Postoperative lordotic angles did not differ significantly among the three groups. Complete fusions were obtained in 10 of 12 levels (83%) with M-TLIF, in seven levels (100%) with P-TLIF, and in 10 of 11 levels (91%) with CBT-TLIF. On postoperative computed tomography, correct positioning was seen in 84.1% of M-TLIF screws, 88.5% of P-TLIF screws, and 90% of CBT-TLIF screws. CONCLUSIONS: CBT-TLIF resulted in less blood loss and a shorter operative duration than M-TLIF or P-TLIF. Postoperative rates of bone union, maintenance of lordotic angles, and accuracy of pedicle screw positions were similar among the three groups.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Spine
10.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 777-785, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-152143

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. PURPOSE: To compare clinical and radiological outcomes between bilateral C2 pedicle screwing (C2PS) and unilateral C2PS, combined with contralateral C2 laminar screwing (LS), for posterior atlantoaxial fixation. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Posterior fixation with C1 lateral mass screwing (C1LMS) and C2PS (C1LMS-C2PS method) is an accepted procedure for rigid atlantoaxial stabilization. However, conventional bilateral C2PS is not always allowed in this method due to anatomical variations of C2 pedicles and/or asymmetry of the vertebral artery. Although unilateral C2PS plus contralateral LS (C2PS+LS) is an alternative in such cases, the efficacy of this procedure has not been evaluated in controlled studies (i.e., with bilateral C2PS as a control). METHODS: Clinical and radiological records of patients who underwent the C1LMS-C2PS method, using unilateral C2PS+LS (n=9), and those treated using conventional bilateral C2PS (n=10) were compared, with a minimum two years follow-up. RESULTS: Postoperative complications related to the unilateral C2PS+LS technique included one case of spontaneous spinous process fracture of C2. A C1 anterior arch fracture occurred after a fall in one patient, who underwent bilateral C2PS and C1 laminectomy. No significant differences were seen between the groups in reduction of neck pain after surgery or improvement of neurological status, as evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score. A delayed union occurred in one patient each of the groups, with the final fusion rate being 100% in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and radiological outcomes of unilateral C2PS+LS were comparable with those of the bilateral C2PS fixation technique for the C1LMS-C2PS method.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Laminectomy , Neck Pain , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Vertebral Artery
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Environmental factors such as food, lifestyle and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection are widely different in Asian countries compared to the West, and physiological functions and genetic factors of Asians may also be different from those of Westerners. Establishing an Asian consensus for functional dyspepsia is crucial in order to attract attention to such data from Asian countries, to articulate the experience and views of Asian experts, and to provide a relevant guide on management of functional dyspepsia for primary care physicians working in Asia. METHODS: Consensus team members were selected from Asian experts and consensus development was carried out using a modified Delphi method. Consensus teams collected published papers on functional dyspepsia especially from Asia and developed candidate consensus statements based on the generated clinical questions. At the first face-to-face meeting, each statement was reviewed and e-mail voting was done twice. At the second face-to-face meeting, final voting on each statement was done using keypad voting system. A grade of evidence and a strength of recommendation were applied to each statement according to the method of the GRADE Working Group. RESULTS: Twenty-nine consensus statements were finalized, including 7 for definition and diagnosis, 5 for epidemiology, 9 for pathophysiology and 8 for management. Algorithms for diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia were added. CONCLUSIONS: This consensus developed by Asian experts shows distinctive features of functional dyspepsia in Asia and will provide a guide to the diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia for Asian primary care physicians.


Subject(s)
Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Consensus , Dyspepsia , Electronic Mail , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Life Style , Physicians, Primary Care , Politics , Prevalence
12.
Medical Education ; : 367-370, 2011.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-374460

ABSTRACT

1)For 3 years, we have asked fifth–year medical students what they consider an ideal physician to be and what they think is required to become one.<br>2)They considered an ideal physician to be holistic, honest, mindful, and caring. Some students also wanted to themselves be role models for other physicians and students.<br>3)To be an ideal physician, many students wanted to learn from role models.However, some students wanted to avoid being influenced by "bad physicians," suggesting the impact of a hidden curriculum. On the whole, students sought experiences for personal growth and for improving practical skills in communication and interviewing. Such knowledge may help in medical education.

13.
Medical Education ; : 171-174, 2009.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-362677

ABSTRACT

1) We used using educational portfolios to investigate changes in the feelings of fifth-year medical students during 1-week outpatient clinical training.2) Negative feelings were most often expressed on the first day. Gradually, however, positive feelings were expressed more often, and the number of positive feelings expressed was significantly higher on the final day.3) Our investigation suggests that outpatient clinical training motivates medical students. They reviewed their practical training with their portfolios. In addition, the instructors could use the portfolios to understand the changes in students' feelings. We hope that educational portfolios will prove useful for setting new educational objectives.

14.
Medical Education ; : 55-60, 2005.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-369915

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between first-year (n=97) and second-year medical students (n=102) in their reactions to a community-based early clinical exposure program. Questionnaires completed after their participation in the program showed that first-and second-year students did not differ in their interest in practical training in nursing homes and wards of the university hospital or in a presentation given by a family member of a cancer patient who had died in the hospital (Chi square test, p<0.05). However, second-year students were more likely to report that they understood the family's presentation well, whereas first-year students were more likely to report they could communicate with elderly or disabled persons. Several facilities in the community criticized the students' attitudes toward practical training. We believe the reason for the criticism was insufficient advance preparation.

15.
Article in Japanese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-376064

ABSTRACT

In a common saying, “good sleep, good eating, and good defecation” is a synonym to wellness of human health. Not only the absence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms but also a good appetite and comfortable defecation are necessary for the wellness of health. Such wellness or well-being is now called health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). Generic QOL scales consistently indicate disturbed QOL in patients with GI symptoms, which correlates well with the specific QOL for many GI disorders, showing that the presence of GI symptoms contributes disturbance in HR-QOL, proving that a good appetite is critical for HR-QOL.

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