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Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 226-243, may. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342815


Several species of the Myrcia genus have been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase in the crude extract (EBF) and in the ethyl acetate fraction (FFA) of Myrcia hatschbachii, as well as to identify isolated phenolic compounds and to evaluate the antioxidant property and preliminary in vitro toxicity against Artemia salina. EBF (IC50: 3.21 µg/mL) and FFA (IC50: 1.14 µg/mL) showed inhibitory activity superior to acarbose (IC50: 193.65 µg/mL). In addition, they showed inhibitory effects of pancreatic lipase (IC50: 556.58 µg/mL for EBF and 532.68 µg/mL for FFA), antioxidant potential, absence of preliminary toxicity and presence of gallic andellagic acids in FFA. The relevant results in the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase motivate new studies for the development of herbal medicines that assist in the treatment of diabetic patients.

Varias especies del género Myrcia se han utilizado en la medicina popular para tratar la diabetes. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar la actividad inhibitoria de la α-glucosidasa y la lipasa pancreática en el extracto crudo (EBF) y en la fracción de acetato de etilo (FFA) de Myrcia hatschbachii, así como identificar compuestos fenólicos aislados y evaluar la propiedad antioxidante y toxicidad in vitro preliminar contra Artemia salina. EBF (IC50: 3.21 µg/mL) y FFA (IC50: 1.14 µg/mL) mostraron una actividad inhibitoria superior a la acarbosa (IC50: 193.65 µg/mL). Además, mostraron efectos inhibitorios de la lipasa pancreática (IC50: 556.58 µg/mL para EBF y 532.68 µg/mL para FFA), potencial antioxidante, ausencia de toxicidad preliminar y presencia de ácidos gálico y elágico en FFA. Los resultados relevantes en la inhibición de la α-glucosidasa y la lipasa pancreática motivan nuevos estudios para el desarrollo de medicamentos a base de hierbas que ayudan en el tratamiento de pacientes diabéticos.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Lipase/drug effects , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Pancreas/enzymology , Phenols/analysis , X-Ray Diffraction , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers , Complex Mixtures , Ellagic Acid , Gallic Acid , Antioxidants/chemistry
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0576-2020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155533


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue and yellow fever. Recently, the use of plant-sourced larvicides has gained momentum. METHODS: The hydroethanolic extracts and fractions ofOcotea nutansleaves and stems were bioassayed to determine the larvicidal efficacy of these samples. RESULTS: S-HEX (hexane fraction from the crude stem extract) demonstrated high potential for controlling third-stage larvae, with an LC50 of 14.14 µg.mL-1 (concentration required to inhibit 50% of the treated larvae). CONCLUSIONS Extracts from O. nutans were effective against third-stage larvae ofA. aegyptiafter 24 h of exposure.

Animals , Aedes , Mosquito Vectors , Insecticides/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Ocotea , Larva
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200663, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278440


Abstract Our study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Eugenia pyriformis Cambess., belonging to the Myrtaceae family and native to the Brazilian Atlantic forest. The volatile compounds in the essential oil were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-MS; 36 compounds accounted for 78.80% of the total oil content. The major compounds were β-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene, globulol, and (δ-cadinene. We evaluated their antimicrobial potential of the essential oil and toxicity to Artemia salina. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was evaluated against 12 microorganisms using the broth microdilution method. Our results showed moderate inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MIC, 250 and 125 μg.mL-1, respectively) and toxicity to A. salina (LC50, 125.64 μg.mL-1). Our results establish the biological activity of the essential oil obtained from E. pyriformis.

Oils, Volatile , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Anti-Infective Agents
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(5): 495-507, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1145991


La composición química del aceite esencial obtenido de las ramas de Ocotea paranaensis se estudió por cromatografía de gases/espectrometría de masas (CG/MS). Se identificaron veintisiete compuestos, que comprenden el 94,82% de los componentes totales. El aceite se caracterizó por una concentración relativamente alta de sesquiterpenos (62,96%), sesquiterpenos oxigenados (33,33%) y diterpeno (3,70%). En cuanto a los compuestos principales, se destacaron Z-nerolidol (19,16%), germacreno D (12,92%) y α-bulnesene (8,47%), que correspondieron al 40,55% de las sustancias encontradas. El aceite esencial analizado de Ocotea paranaensis tiene una buena acción reductora de fosfomolibdeno y es moderadamente tóxico para la Artemia salina (LC50 = 147,91 µg/mL). Mostró potencial hemolítico y actividad moderada contra Staphylococcus aureus (concentración inhibitoria mínima MIC = 250 µg/mL) y Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = 500 µg/mL). No se observaron resultados satisfactorios de citotoxicidad en el linaje H460 y HeLa.

The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the branches of Ocotea paranaensis was studied by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Twenty-seven compounds, comprising 94.82% of the total components, were identified. The oil showed relatively high concentration of sesquiterpenes (62.96%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (33.33%), and diterpene (3.70%). Regarding the major compounds, Z-nerolidol (19.16%), germacrene D (12.92%) and α-bulnesene (8.47%) could be highlighted, which corresponded to 40.55% of the substances that were found. The essential oil from Ocotea paranaensis has phosphomolybdenum reducing action and is moderately toxic to the Artemia salina (LC50 = 147.91 µg/mL). It showed haemolytic potential and moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus, (minimum inhibitory concentration MIC = 250 µg/mL) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = 500 µg/mL). No satisfactory cytotoxicity results were observed in lineage H460 and HeLa.

Ocotea/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents , Antineoplastic Agents , Antioxidants , Plant Extracts , Chromatography , Medicine, Traditional
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180717, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132172


Abstract This study aimed to investigate the anatomy and histochemistry of Mollinedia clavigera leaves and stems through photonic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Noteworthy features of leaves were: presence of paracytic stomata on both surfaces; simple as well as bifurcate non-glandular trichomes; prismatic calcium oxalate crystals; flat-convex midrib with a central and two dorsal bundles; concave-convex petiole with a single vascular bundle in open archh. Stems were cylindrical and showed prismatic and styloid crystals in the pith. Histochemical analysis detected lipophilic and phenolic compounds, starch grains and lignified elements such as brachysclereids and fibers. These features may assist in future identifications and quality control of M. clavigera, avoid misidentification between other genus members, once species and genus studies are scarce.

Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Monimiaceae/anatomy & histology , Monimiaceae/chemistry , Trichomes/anatomy & histology , Trichomes/chemistry , Brazil , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Plant Leaves/cytology , Monimiaceae/cytology , Trichomes/cytology , Histocytochemistry
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(2): 1-9, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1095733


Objective: The Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP14) and the Geriatric/General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) have never been compared to a group of the same subjects in the Brazilian population. The aim of the study was to compare the OHIP-14 and GOHAI measures. Material and Methods: 129 independently living people over the age of 60 were included in the study. The GOHAI and OHIP-14 measures were used. Other variables were included: age, gender, education, number of missing teeth, annual household income and frequency of dentist visits. Results: The mean age of respondents was 65 years. The internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha) showed a high internal consistency for both measures. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between the GOHAI and OHIP-14 scores was 0.73. Using the additive method of creating scores, none of the respondents had the GOHAI score of zero, indicating no impact from oral conditions, while 9.3% of them had an OHIP-14 score of zero. Dental status, age, gendler and frequency of dental visit were significantly associated with the results ofthe GOHAI and the OHIP-14 (Kruskal­Wallis test, Mann­Whitney U test). Conclusions: There was a strong correlation between the GOHAI and the OHIP14. Both instruments demonstrated good discriminant properties and helped capture the respondents' oral health problems. (AU)

Objetivo: O Perfil de Impacto na Saúde Oral-14 (OHIP14) e o Índice Geral de Avaliação de Saúde Oral em Geriatria (GOHAI) nunca foram comparados a um grupo dos mesmos sujeitos na população brasileira. O objetivo do estudo foi comparar as medidas OHIP-14 e GOHAI. Material e Métodos: 129 pessoas independentes com idade superior a 60 anos foram incluídas no estudo. Foram utilizadas as medidas GOHAI e OHIP-14. Outras variáveis foram incluídas: idade, sexo, escolaridade, número de dentes ausentes, renda familiar anual e frequência de visitas ao dentista. Resultados: a média de idade dos entrevistados foi de 65 anos. A confiabilidade interna (alfa de Cronbach) mostrou uma alta consistência interna para ambas as medidas. O coeficiente de correlação de Spearman entre os escores GOHAI e OHIP-14 foi de 0,73. Utilizando o método aditivo de criação de escores, nenhum dos entrevistados obteve pontuação zero no GOHAI, indicando nenhum impacto das condições bucais, enquanto 9,3% deles tiveram pontuação zero no OHIP-14. O estado dentário, a idade, o sexo e a frequência da visita foram significativamente associados aos resultados do GOHAI e do OHIP-14 (teste de Kruskal-Wallis, teste de Mann-Whitney U). Conclusões: Houve uma forte correlação entre o GOHAI e o OHIP-14. Ambos os instrumentos demonstraram boas propriedades discriminantes e ajudaram a capturar os problemas de saúde bucal dos entrevistados. (AU)

Humans , Aged , Quality of Life , Oral Health , Tooth Loss , Health Services for the Aged
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18402, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089200


Myrcia hatschbachii D. Legrand (Myrtaceae) is a native and endemic species from Brazil. This study investigated the essential oil composition, phytotoxic potential, in vitro toxicity, antioxidant properties and antibacterial activity of species. Chromatographic analysis of essential oil identified trans-calamanene, (E)-caryophyllene and spathulenol as major components. Antioxidant capacity was determined by the DPPH• scavenging method and phosphomolybdenum complex formation assay. Antibacterial activity was evaluated using the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration test, demonstrating that the essential oil was active toward Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. Phytotoxic activity of essential oil was analyzed by testing interference on germination and growth of Lactuca sativa, demonstrating significant inhibition of the hypocotyls and radicles of seeds. Preliminary toxicity studies were determined using Artemia salina, resulting in an LC50 of 409.92 µg/mL, and through hemolytic activity. The results of the phytotoxic activity point to a possible application for Myrcia hatschbachii in the development of natural herbicides and the in vitro toxicity assays suggests the performance of antitumoral activity tests, having in mind the prospection of antineoplastic drugs.

Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18158, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132035


Psychotria fractistipula L.B.Sm, R.M. Klein & Delprete (Rubiaceae) is found in the existing Atlantic Forest in the South of Brazil, in the Paraná and Santa Catarina States. The members of Rubiaceae are characterized chemically by the presence of alkaloids, some pharmacological properties of which include antifungal, antibacterial, analgesic, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiviral activities. In this study, we report the results of anatomical, morphological, and histochemical analyses of the leaves and stems of the Rubiaceae family member, P. fractistipula. The anatomical analysis involved of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Morpho-anatomical and histochemical characterization were made using standard methodology. The isolated compounds were identified by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopic analysis. The following structures are highlighted as the distinctive features of the species: presence of petiolate leaves and a petiole base, leaf blade with smooth cuticle on both surfaces, paracytic stomata, and, dorsiventral mesophyll and presence of trichomes on the leaves and stems. Phytosteroids, identified as β-sitosterol and campesterol, were observed in the hexane fraction of the stem. Future studies should focus on the isolation of other fractions of interest and their characterization through specific biological and cytotoxicity assays.

Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18284, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011642


The present study was undertaken to assess the potential uses of the essential oil obtained from Ocotea nutans (Nees) Mez. The hydrodistilled essential oil from O. nutans leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fifty-eight compounds representing 87,29% of the total leaf essential oil components were identified, of which biciclogermacrene(11.41%), germacrene-D (4.89%), bisabolol-11-ol(3.73%) and spathulenol (3.71%) were the major compounds. The essential oil from O. nutans were tested for antibacterial activity using the minimum inhibitory concentracion (MIC) method, Artemia salina method, larvicidal activity in Aedes aegypti, and antioxidant capacity.The antioxidant activity measured by the phosphomolybdenum complex and Prussian blue method had positive results. The minimum inhibitory concentration for the microorganisms tested allowed moderate inhibitionfor Enterococcus faecalis (MIC=500 µg/mL). Artemia salina were toxic to the organisms in the study (LC50= 71,70 µg /mL). The essential oil showed remarkable larvicidal activity potencial (LC50= 250 µg/mL). The present results showed thatO. nutans essential oil has potential biological uses

Oils, Volatile/analysis , Ocotea/anatomy & histology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/classification , Aedes/classification
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18471, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055309


The article has aimed to characterize the essential oil extracted from Ocotea diospyrifolia (Meisn.) Mez. leaves, in terms of its chemical composition and antioxidant, hemolytic, and phytotoxic potentials, as well as its toxicity against Artemia salina. The major constituents identified by CG-MS were d-elemene, spathulenol, and b-atlantol. When screened for potential biological activities, the essential oil presented low toxicity against Artemia salina, and a capacity of lysing red blood cells. Also, the evaluation of its in vitro antioxidant activity, using the phosphomolybdenum method, showed better results when compared to butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) and rutin. In conclusion, the results obtained showed certain in vitro toxicity, leading to an interesting target for cytotoxicity evaluations of carcinoma cells.

Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e17135, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974406


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ethanolic crude extracts and fractions of the species Senecio westermanii Dusén on Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) and Allium cepa L. (onion) seeds. We assessed the germination, growth, root respiration and photosynthesis of the target species in Petri dishes (9.0 cm diameter) containing filter paper n°6. The study was conducted using 50 seeds per plate and held in 4 replicates per concentration of each sample. In the germination there was an inhibitory effect of fractions hexane (FH) and chloroform (FCl) at concentrations of 500 and 1000 µg/mL. There was a reduction in the radicle growth of lettuce by 14 to 24% and a reduction of hypocotilum by 14 to 28%. As for the radicle of the onion was up 74% reduction to the FCl and the coleoptile was 24 and 45% reduction for FH and FCl, respectively. Inhibitory effects in the root respiration of lettuce were detected in all the samples analyzed, with results ranging from 16 to 83%. For the seeds of A. cepa, there was an encouragement for the FCl and ethyl acetate fractions (FAE), with results ranging from 94 to 142% and 76 to 150%, respectively. With regard to the photosynthesis of L. sativa, there was no significant difference between the control, and as for the A. cepa, there was a strain in inhibition concentrations of 250 and 500 µg/mL, which ranged from 27 to 68%. The samples of S. westermanii caused changes in the target species and thus can be used as a natural herbicide.

Seeds/growth & development , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Lettuce/growth & development , Asteraceae/adverse effects , Onions/growth & development , Plant Components, Aerial , Senecio/classification , Allelopathy/physiology
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(4): e17298, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889413


ABSTRACT The essential oil composition of the Ocotea bicolor, native plant of Brazil, was studied for the first time. The essential oil of the leaf was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The analytical procedure revealed a predominance of sesquiterpenes, δ-cadinene (7.39%), ß-sesquiphellandrene (6.67%), ß-elemene (5.41%) and α-cadinol (5,23%). The essential oil was submitted to brine shrimp toxicity evaluation, antioxidant and antibacterial tests. The antioxidant activity by the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex method presented positive results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were higher than 1000 µg/mL for the microorganisms tested. Toxicity activity revealed LC50 results of 40.10 (µg/mL), being toxic to the organisms in this study

Oils, Volatile/analysis , Lauraceae/classification , Lauraceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Ocotea/adverse effects
Braz. dent. sci ; 19(4): 63-71, 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-850489


Objetivo: Com o objetivo de investigar a prevalência do impacto da saúde bucal no desempenho diário em idosos brasileiros, residentes na cidade de Curitiba – PR. Materiais e Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo sobre a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal em idosos de 60 a 80 anos de idade (n = 129). Verificou-se também a influência do sexo, renda, visita ao dentista, autoavaliação da saúde e características sócio-demográficas nesse processo. Resultados: Obteve-se como resposta uma proporção de 83,72% de interferência da saúde bucal no cotidiano dos participantes. A falta de adesão ao tratamento odontológico e o não aceitar a saúde bucal como um componente da saúde do corpo como um todo compuseram fatores associados à maior interferência. Conclusão: É recomendável que a percepção dos indivíduos seja considerada simultaneamente à condição clínica na definição de ações dos serviços e de grupos prioritários ao atendimento em saúde bucal.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of oral health impact on the daily performance of Brazilian elderly, living in the city ofCuritiba – PR. Material and Methods: The oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of 129 elderly people aged from 60 to 80 years was assessed. Also, the influence of gender, income, attendance to the dentist, self-assessment of health, and socialdemographic features were verified. Results: Oral health influenced in 83.72%the daily routine of the participants. The lack of compliance to dental treatment and the difficulty in oral health selfperception as integrate part of general health were associated to the greatest interference. Conclusion: Thus, we recommended that the self-perception of the individuals is considered simultaneously to the clinical condition to tailor oral health actions targeted to priority groups

Humans , Aged , Oral Health , Quality of Life
Braz. dent. sci ; 19(1): 4-12, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-785285


Xerostomia se caracteriza por ser um sintoma causado pela hipossalivação, que pode ocorrer por motivos como idade, polimedicação, radioterapia, entre outros. Atualmente existe uma escassez de produtos disponíveis no mercado para o tratamento de boca seca, tema ainda subestimado por muitos profissionais da área de saúde. Assim, realizou-se uma busca das patentes depositadas e publicadas no Brasil com o tema xerostomia, com o intuito de verificar a inovação existente envolvendo produtos naturais. A xerostomia constitui-se objeto de várias pesquisas e produtos patenteados, o que demonstra a relevância do tema, assim como a necessidade de mais estudos envolvendo o potencial de utilização de produtos naturais para o alívio do sintoma

Xerostomia is characterized as a symptom caused by hyposalivation, which can occur for reasons such as age, polypharmacy, radiation therapy, among others. Currently,few products are available for the treatment of xerostomia, which is a subject still underestimated by many health professionals. Thus, we searched patents applied and approved in Brazil on xerostomia, to verify the existing innovation involving natural products. We found 33 patents applied and approved in Brazil, many of them using acids derived from natural products such as sialologue agents. This significant number of patents demonstrates the relevance of the themeand the need for more studies involving the potential use of natural products to relieve symptoms

Biological Products , Intellectual Property of Pharmaceutic Products and Process , Xerostomia
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-758428


Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antioxidante e antimicrobiano do extrato bruto e frações obtidas das cascas do caule da espécie Guettarda uruguensis, Os ensaios antioxidantes indicaram alto potencial antioxidante, No ensaio de redução de fosfomolibdênio, a fração acetato de etila apresentou atividade antioxidante de 41,67% em relação ao padrão de ácido ascórbico e superou em 35,21% a atividade do padrão rutina, No ensaio de redução do DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), a fração acetato de etila apresentou um IC50 de 10,91 µg mL-1, valor próximo ao do ácido ascórbico (IC50 = 4,78 µg mL-1) e da rutina (IC50 = 6,62 µg mL-1), Pelo ensaio de TBA (acido tiobabitúrico) o extrato bruto (IA = 71,48%) e a fração hexano (IA = 47,85%) apresentaram índices superiores ao controle de BHT (butil hidroxi tolueno) (IA = 42,66), Através do ensaio de microdiluição em placas, foi observado que o extrato bruto e frações apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana, O estudo fitoquímico qualitativo revelou a presença de alcaloides, cumarinas, esteroides e/ou triterpenos, heterosídeos saponínicos, taninos e aminogrupos...

This main purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of the crude extract and fractions obtained from the stem bark of the plant species. The antioxidant assays indicated high antioxidant capacity. In the reduction assay of the phosphomolybdenum, the ethyl acetate fraction showed antioxidant activity of 41.67% compared to standard ascorbic acid and exceeded in 35.21% the activity of the standard rutin. In the reduction assay of the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), the ethyl acetate fraction showed an IC50 of 10.91 µg mL-1, equivalent to the ascorbic acid (IC50 = 4.78 µg mL-1) and rutin (IC50 = 6.62 µg mL-1). By the TBA (thiobarbituric acid) assay the crude extract (IA = 71.48%) and hexane fraction (IA = 47.85%) had an index higher than the control of BHT (butyl hydroxy toluene) (IA = 42.675). Through of assay of microdilution on plates was verified that the crude extract and fractions showed antimicrobial activity. The qualitative phytochemical study revealed the presence of alkaloids, coumarins, steroids and/or triterpenoids, saponin glycosides, tannins and amino groups...

Humans , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants , Plant Extracts , Rubiaceae/microbiology , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(3): 515-523, July-Sept. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766320


Species from the Bignoniaceae Family, including the genus Tynanthus, are very prevalent in the tropical Americas, with specimens found in a large part of the Brazilian territory. These plants are commonly used in traditional medicine for several purposes, and some studies have described their chemical structure, in addition to other reports related to some species from this genus. This review aimed to gather information from published works concerning species of the genus Tynanthus, as well as to detect flaws in research related to these plants, which may have great biological and pharmaceutical importance. Also, this review points out some common chemical characteristics of these species, providing information that may help new researchers to improve their knowledge about these plants.

As espécies da família Bignoniaceae possuem grande predominância na região da América tropical e entre elas, as espécies do gênero Tynanthus, com representantes em grande parte do território brasileiro. Estas plantas são comumente utilizadas na medicina tradicional para os mais diversos fins e algumas pesquisas já descrevem a constituição química além de outros estudos relacionados a alguns integrantes deste gênero. Este trabalho de revisão teve como objetivo reunir informações de trabalhos publicados a respeito das espécies do gênero Tynanthus e permitiu detectar a deficiência nas pesquisas relacionadas a estas plantas, que podem trazer consigo grande importância biológica e farmacológica. Além disto, este trabalho tornou possível apontar algumas características químicas em comum entre as espécies, trazendo informações que podem auxiliar novos pesquisadores que procuram melhorar seus conhecimentos acerca destas plantas.

Chemistry , Bignoniaceae/classification , Review , Plants, Medicinal
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 36(3): 445-452, 01/07/2015. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-2573


O presente trabalho avaliou o efeito do extrato etanólico e diferentes frações das folhas de Bauhinia ungulata L. sobre a germinação, crescimento, respiração e conteúdo de clorofila de plântulas de Lactuca sativa (alface) e Allium cepa (cebola). Sementes de alface e cebola foram mantidas em contato com solução das amostras e colocadas em câmara de germinação. Realizaram-se contagens diárias para avaliar a interferência sobre a germinação e crescimento, e verificou-se possíveis interferências sobre a respiração radicular e o conteúdo de clorofila total das folhas das plântulas. Não foi observada nenhuma interferência das amostras sobre a porcentagem de germinação e massa seca das duas espécies. Com relação ao IVG, houve um atraso da germinação das sementes de alface quando em contato com o EB. O crescimento radicular das duas espécies foi inibido principalmente pelas frações EB e FR, sem nenhuma interferência sobre o crescimento do hipocótilo da alface e estímulo do crescimento do coleóptilo da cebola. Redução nos teores de clorofila total da alface e aumento na cebola, assim como estímulo da respiração das raízes. Conclui-se que o extrato e as frações de Bauhinia ungulata L. apresentam compostos químicos com atividade fitotóxica sobre o desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface interferindo principalmente no crescimento radicular, teor de clorofila e respiração radicular das espécies avaliadas.

This study evaluated the effect of ethanol extract and different fractions of leaves of Bauhinia ungulata L. on germination, growth, respiration and chlorophyll content of seedlings of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Allium cepa (onion). Seeds of lettuce and onions were put in contact with the sample solution and placed in a germination chamber. Daily counts were carried out to assess the interference on the germination and growth, and it was possible interference on the root respiration and the total chlorophyll content of the leaves of the seedlings. No interference of the samples on the percentage of germination and dry mass of the two species was not observed. With respect to GVI, there was a delay of germination of lettuce seeds when in contact with the CE. Root growth of the two species was inhibited mainly by fractions CE and RF, without any interference on the growth of hypocotyl of lettuce and stimulating onion coleoptile growth. Reduction in total chlorophyll content of lettuce and onion increased, as well as stimulating the respiration of roots. It is concluded that the extract and the Bauhinia ungulata L. fractions have chemical compounds with phytotoxic activity on the development of lettuce seedlings interfering mainly on root growth, chlorophyll content and root respiration of species assessed.

Chlorophyll , Germination , Lettuce
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(2): 479-493, Apr.-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755071


This work aimed to verify the allelopathic potential of the extract of Citrus seeds, for the purpose of adding a sustainable value to the fruit seeds toward their use as industrial residues. The extract was obtained with a Soxhlet apparatus by using hexane, chloroform, and methanol as solvents. The hexane extract of the Citrus seeds primarily consisted of linoleic acid (36.6%), followed by α-linoleic acid (25.3%), oleic acid (17.8%), palmitic acid (9.7%), and estearic acid (3.3%). The analysis results indicate that the oil is similar to those used in the cosmetics and food industries and has an economic value from its industrial application. In addition, the use of the oil causes changes in the oxidant balance, germination, and growth of plants...

Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o potencial alelopático do extrato de sementes de Citrus, com o objetivo de agregar valor sustentável para a semente de frutas para a sua utilização como resíduo industrial. O extrato foi obtido com aparelho de Soxhlet, utilizando hexano, clorofórmio e metanol como solventes. O extrato hexânico das sementes de Citrus constituiu principalmente por ácido linoleico (36,6%), seguido por ácido α-linoleico (25,3%), ácido oleico (17,8%), ácido palmítico (9,7%) e ácido esteárico (3,3%). As análises indicam que o óleo é semelhante aos utilizados na indústria de cosméticos e de alimentos, tem valor econômico para a utilização na indústria e seu uso provoca alterações no equilíbrio oxidativo, germinação e crescimento...

Humans , Biological Assay , Citrus sinensis , Pest Control/methods , Seeds/adverse effects , Plant Structures
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 49(3): 537-547, July-Sept. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-689907


Stigmasterol - a plant sterol with several pharmacological activities - is susceptible to oxidation when exposed to air, a process enhanced by heat and humidity. In this context, microencapsulation is a way of preventing oxidation, allowing stigmasterol to be incorporated into various pharmaceutical forms while increasing its absorption. Microparticles were obtained using a blend of polymers of sodium alginate, starch and chitosan as the coating material through a one-stage process using the external gelation technique. Resultant microparticles were spherical, averaging 1.4 mm in size. Encapsulation efficiency was 90.42% and method yield 94.87%. The amount of stigmasterol in the oil recovered from microparticles was 9.97 mg/g. This technique proved feasible for the microencapsulation of stigmasterol.

O estigmasterol, um fitoesterol com diversas atividades farmacológicas, é suscetível à oxidação quando exposto ao ar, calor e umidade. Neste contexto, a microencapsulação é uma forma de proteção contra oxidação, permitindo a incorporação do estigmasterol em diversas formas farmacêuticas e aumentar sua absorção. As micropartículas foram obtidas por gelificação iônica externa, em uma etapa, utilizando como revestimento polímeros naturais de alginato de sódio, amido de milho e quitosana. As micropartículas apresentaram formato esférico com tamanho aproximado de 1,4 mm. O rendimento foi de 94,87% e a eficiência média de encapsulação de 90,42%. A quantidade de estigmasterol no óleo recuperado das micropartículas foi de 9,97 mg/g. O método mostrou-se viável para a microencapsulação do estigmasterol.

Alginates/classification , Gelling Agents , Stigmasterol/analysis , Chitosan , Drug Compounding/classification , Linings/classification , Starch
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-672229


A alelopatia estuda os efeitos direto ou indireto que uma planta exerce sobre outra pela produção de compostos químicos liberados no ambiente. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o potencial alelopático da espécie Tynanthus micranthus Corr. Mello ex. Schum. sobre diásporos de Lactuca sativa L. Foram determinados os índices de velocidade de germinação dos diásporos e os percentuais de crescimento das plântulas em presença de diferentes concentrações das amostras. A fração clorofórmica do caule inibiu a germinação na concentração de 0,8 mg e a hidroalcoólica remanescente das folhas aumentou a germinação em todas as concentrações analisadas. A fração clorofórmica do caule estimulou o crescimento do hipocótilo em todas as concentrações testadas. Estes resultados sugerem que a espécie possui compostos ativos capazes de interferir em sistemas biológicos.

Allelopathic agents are secondary metabolites produced by plants and microorganisms that have positive or negative effects on the growth and development of biological systems. The aim this study was to assess the allelopathic effects of Tynanthus micranthus on diaspores of Lactuca sativa L. The germination speed indices of the diaspores and the percent growth of seedlings were determined in the presence of various concentrations of the samples. The chloroform fraction of the stem inhibited germination at a concentration of 0.8 mg and a hydroalcoholic fraction of the leaves increased germination at all concentrations analyzed. The chloroform fraction of the stem stimulated hypocotyl growth at all concentrations tested. These results suggest that the species has active compounds capable of interfering with biological systems.

Bignoniaceae , Germination/physiology , Lettuce