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2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925290

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to identify relationships among knowledge and skills about suicide prevention, attitudes toward suicide, and burnout of suicide prevention work of nurses at mental health welfare centers. @*Methods@#An explanatory sequential mixed-method research was conducted. For the quantitative study, the subjects (nurses) were 133 nurses executing suicide prevention work. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 25.0 program. For the qualitative research, 13 nurses with high burnout scores were interviewed. The data were analyzed using theme analysis method. @*Results@#Quantitative results showed the average burnout of suicide prevention work was 54.62 ± 12.51. The burnout of suicide prevention work had significant correlations with attitudes toward suicide (r = .30, p < .001) and suicide prevention skills (r = - .18,p = .037). Qualitative results showed six themes related to burnout of suicide prevention work. They were ‘feeling a lack of confidence in one’s suicide counselling skills’, ‘feeling of the limits of one’s ability to cope with a suicide crisis’, ‘feeling regret for not being able to help the clients’, ‘being over-empathetic to the clients’, ‘Not being able to understand the clients because the subjects (nurses) opposes committing suicide’, and ‘thinking that the suicidal thoughts of suicide attempters do not improve’. @*Conclusion@#To reduce burnout of nurses’ suicide prevention work at mental health welfare centers, there is a need to develop an educational program considering nurses' attitudes toward suicide and one to enhance their confidence in suicide prevention skills.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918867

ABSTRACT

Full-mouth rehabilitation with increasing vertical dimension can be used for patients with severely worn teeth. In severely worn teeth also, the alveolar process can be elongated to compensate for the reduced vertical dimension, and the patient’s vertical dimension of occlusion can be kept constant. However, full-mouth rehabilitation with increasing vertical dimension must be carefully chosen, because the vertical dimension can be reduced by tooth wear. It is important to establish a treatment plan with the systematic diagnosis of the change in the vertical dimension and gain space for the prosthesis. It is necessary to change the vertical dimension to secure the restoration space and select the minimum vertical dimension elevation for the esthetic and functional goal. In this case report, the patient complained of difficulty during chewing due to a worn dentition and wanted esthetic improvement of the short mandibular anterior teeth. After systematic evaluation and diagnosis, we performed full-mouth rehabilitation with minimum vertical dimension elevation to obtain the space for restoration. This resulted in a stable and harmonious occlusion, and the functional and esthetic problems of the patient were solved after treatment. The patient was satisfied with the results of the treatment and maintained stable occlusion during the follow-up period.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915485

ABSTRACT

Background@#Evidence for the association between underlying non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the risk of testing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) positive, and the clinical consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is controversial and scarce. We aimed to investigate the association between the presence of NAFLD and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and COVID-19-related outcomes. @*Methods@#We used the population-based, nationwide cohort in South Korea linked with the general health examination records between January 1, 2018 and July 30, 2020. Data for 212,768 adults older than 20 years who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing from January 1 to May 30, 2020, were obtained. The presence of NAFLDs was defined using three definitions, namely hepatic steatosis index (HSI), fatty liver index (FLI), and claims-based definition. The outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 test positive, COVID-19 severe illness, and related death. @*Results@#Among 74,244 adults who completed the general health examination, there were 2,251 (3.0%) who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 438 (0.6%) with severe COVID-19 illness, and 45 (0.06%) COVID-19-related deaths. After exposure-driven propensity score matching, patients with pre-existing HSI-NAFLD, FLI-NAFLD, or claims-based NAFLD had an 11–23% increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (HSI-NAFLD 95% confidence interval [CI], 1–28%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 2–27%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 2–31%) and a 35–41% increased risk of severe COVID-19 illness (HSI-NAFLD 95% CI, 8–83%; FLI-NAFLD 95% CI, 5–71%; and claims-based NAFLD 95% CI, 1–92%). These associations are more evident as liver fibrosis advanced (based on the BARD scoring system). Similar patterns were observed in several sensitivity analyses including the full-unmatched cohort. @*Conclusion@#Patients with pre-existing NAFLDs have a higher likelihood of testing SARSCoV-2 positive and severe COVID-19 illness; this association was more evident in patients with NAFLD with advanced fibrosis. Our results suggest that extra attention should be given to the management of patients with NAFLD during the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914938

ABSTRACT

As the increased certainty of osseointegration, new parameters are now being used to assess implant success. Accordingly, patients’ and clinicians’ high demands and expectation for esthetics have expanded and implant-supported restorations show better esthetic outcomes. The pre-implant treatment planning process, the implant surgical steps and the post-surgery prosthetic process can affect all esthetic outcomes. Prevention of esthetic implant failures can be achieved by appropriate treatment at each stage, considering the 3 factors of alveolar bone, soft tissue, and implants. It is necessary to achieve the esthetic implant prostheses followings: minimal invasive surgery, bone augmentation, ideal 3-dimensional implant position, peri-implant soft tissue management, and provisional restorations to optimize peri-implant soft tissue architecture.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914927

ABSTRACT

Patients who went through maxillectomy can have severely impaired swallowing, mastication, and pronunciation functions because of palatal defects. Leakage occurs through the nasal cavity while eating, chewing becomes difficult due to the loss of teeth and alveolar ridges, and oral and nasal passages are not separated, leading to hyper-nasal sound, and significantly reducing the quality of life. To prosthetically reconstruct the defect, the weight of the obturator should be reduced as much as possible to minimize dropout because of gravity, and the bulb of the obturator should be properly extended into the defect to get additional retention and stability. In this case of a partially edentulous patient who underwent additional maxillary resection because of tumor recurrence, a metal framework was designed by applying the basic design principles of removable partial dentures. An obturator with improved retention, stability, and support was fabricated through functional impressions. The patient was satisfied with the improved facial expression, mastication, swallowing, and pronunciation, and showed stable occlusion and oral hygiene management during the follow-up period.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914161

ABSTRACT

Extensor muscle strengthening exercises with counterforce braces (EX) is a conventional conservative treatment for lateral epicondylitis (LE) of the elbow. In addition, polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) or extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) has been recently used for LE. Methods: Sixty-three patients with chronic LE participated in this study and randomly allocated in three groups (G1: EX, G2: EX+PDRN injection, and G3: EX+ESWT). All of the three groups were taught to perform EX at the first out-patient department (OPD) visit. Group 2 was injected with 3 mL PDRN (5.625 mg/3 mL), while group 3 received ESWT at the first OPD visit. Visual analog scale pain score, Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS), and ultrasonographic examination were checked before, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after the treatments. Results: Overall functional scores and ultrasonographic findings in all three groups improved after treatment. The mean MEPS in group 2 improved more than groups 1 and 3 at 6 weeks (G1, 56.9>62.4; G2, 54.3>65.0; G3, 55.7>62.6), and more than group 1 at 12 weeks (G1, 56.9>67.9; G2, 54.3>73.6). The mean common extensor tendon depth (CETD) on ultrasonography in group 2 increased more than groups 1 and 3 at 6 and 12 weeks (6 weeks: G1, 0.385>0.386; G2, 0.332>0.392; G3, 0.334>0.357; 12 weeks: G1, 0.385>0.409; G2, 0.332>0.438; G3, 0.334>0.405 [cm]). Conclusions: PDRN injections combined with EX exhibited a greater improvement in mean MEPS and mean CETD compared to EX only or EX combined with ESWT for LE within the 12 weeks follow-up.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903869

ABSTRACT

Although research conducted in East Asia has uncovered parasite eggs from ancient toilets or cesspits, data accumulated to date needs to be supplemented by more archaeoparasitological studies. We examined a total of 21 soil samples from a toilet-like structure at the Hwajisan site, a Baekje-period royal villa, in present-day Korea. At least 4 species of helminth eggs, i.e., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Clonorchis sinensis, and Trichuris sp. (or Trichuris vulpis) were detected in 3 sediment samples of the structure that was likely a toilet used by Baekje nobles. The eggs of T. trichiura were found in all 3 samples (no. 1, 4, and 5); and A. lumbricoides eggs were detected in 2 samples (no. 4 and 5). C. sinensis and T. vulpis-like eggs were found in no. 5 sample. From the findings of this study, we can suppose that the soil-transmitted helminths were prevalent in ancient Korean people, including the nobles of Baekje Kingdom during the 5th to 7th century.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903858

ABSTRACT

Our previous research on coprolite specimens from the mummies of Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910 CE) has revealed various species of parasite eggs. Herein, we added 2 new helminthic cases of human remains from Joseon-period graves in the Republic of Korea (Korea). The organic materials precipitated on the hip bones of 2 half-mummied cases (Goryeong and Gwangmyeong cases) were collected, rehydrated, and examined by a microscope. In the sample from Goryeong-gun (gun=County), ova of Trichuris trichiura, Clonorchis sinensis, and Metagonimus spp. were detected, and eggs of T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides were found from the sample of Gwangmyeong-si (si=City). By adding this outcome to the existing data pool, we confirm our previous estimates of Joseon-period parasite infection rates. The overall rates of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and C. sinensis decreased dramatically from Joseon to the modern period. In Goryeong mummy specimen, we also found Metagonimus spp. eggs that has rarely been detected in archaeological samples so far.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902025

ABSTRACT

Background@#Occupational allergic contact dermatitis accounts for about half of all occupational skin diseases. Patch testing is essential for establishing a diagnosis of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. To date, allergic contact dermatitis caused by seawater has rarely been reported. @*Objective@#The aim of this study was to investigate the patch test results of seawater in foreign maritime workers. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the clinical photos and medical records of patients who underwent the patch test with the Korean standard series and sea-water at Uijeongbu St. Mary’s Hospital and St. Vincent’s Hospital from January 2017 to August 2020. @*Results@#A total of 26 patients were enrolled in the study. All patients were men with a median age of 26.5 years.Twenty-five patients were Sri Lankan, and 25 patients (96.2%) showed a positive reaction to seawater. Patients showed positive reactions with multiple allergens (average: 4), and the positive rates were higher than those reported in previous studies. Atypical reactions, such as pricking patterns or erosive patches, have been observed. A marked erosive reaction was observed even at the site without allergen attachment in a patient who showed a negative reaction to seawater. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest the possibility of artificially inducing positive reactions to seawater in maritime workers. Therefore, it is necessary to identify atypical reactions and confirm the relationship between positive reactions and medical history when judging contact dermatitis with unknown substances such as seawater. This study emphasizes education on the standardization of the reading of results.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901453

ABSTRACT

Background@#Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) A59 is a highly infectious pathogen and starts in the respiratory tract and progresses to systemic infection in laboratory mice. The complement system is an important part of the host immune response to viral infection. It is not clear the role of the classical complement pathway in MHV infection. @*Objectives@#The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of the classical pathway in coronavirus pathogenesis by comparing C1qa KO mice and wild-type mice. @*Methods@#We generated a C1qa KO mouse using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and compared the susceptibility to MHV A59 infection between C1qa KO and wild-type mice. Histopathological and immunohistochemical changes, viral loads, and chemokine expressions in both mice were measured. @*Results@#MHV A59-infected C1qa KO mice showed severe histopathological changes, such as hepatocellular necrosis and interstitial pneumonia, compared to MHV A59-infected wildtype mice. Virus copy numbers in the olfactory bulb, liver, and lungs of C1qa KO mice were significantly higher than those of wild-type mice. The increase in viral copy numbers in C1qa KO mice was consistent with the histopathologic changes in organs. These results indicate that C1qa deficiency enhances susceptibility to MHV A59 systemic infection in mice. In addition, this enhanced susceptibility effect is associated with dramatic elevations in spleen IFN-γ, MIP-1 α, and MCP-1 in C1qa KO mice. @*Conclusions@#These data suggest that C1qa deficiency enhances susceptibility to MHV A59 systemic infection, and activation of the classical complement pathway may be important for protecting the host against MHV A59 infection.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901400

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the usefulness of imaging features for differentiating between small lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). @*Materials and Methods@#It included 52 female with LCISs (median 45 years, range 32–67 years) and 180 female with ILCs (median 49 years, range 36–75 years), with the longest diameter of ≤ 2 cm, who were evaluated between January 2012 and December 2016. All the female underwent mammography and ultrasonography. Twenty female with LCIS and 150 female with ILC underwent MRI. The clinical and imaging features were compared, and multivariate analysis was performed to identify the independent predictors of LCIS. Female with LCIS were also subgrouped by lesion size and compared with the female with ILC. @*Results@#Multivariate analysis showed that younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.100), smaller lesion size (OR = 1.103), oval or round shape (OR = 4.098), parallel orientation (OR = 5.464), and isoechotexture (OR = 3.360) were significant independent factors predictive of LCIS. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for distinguishing LCIS from ILC was 0.904 (95% confidence interval, 0.857–0.951). Subgroup analysis showed that benign features were more prevalent in female with smaller LCISs (≤ 1 cm) than in those with ILC. @*Conclusion@#Small LCISs tend to demonstrate more benign features than small ILCs. Several imaging features are independently predictive of LCIS.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900782

ABSTRACT

Drooling is defined as the unintentional flow of saliva out of the mouth or to the back of the pharynx due to salivary control problems and swallowing difficulties. Drooling is caused by posture, oral sensori-motor and cognitive problems, and medical symptoms. Treatments of drooling are defined under two criteria: 1) non-invasive treatment, which includes posture and oral motor therapy, and 2) invasive treatment, including botox injection and surgery.Drooling treatment should be initiated non-invasively and in a step-wise manner in all individuals. This mode of treatment is safe, age-free, and is considered the first line of therapy, before subjecting to invasive treatment.Clinical professionals provide non-invasive treatment via manual approaches, through passive sensori-motor stimulation to active oral motor activities. Comprehensive therapy protocols such as oral motor facilitation technique (OMFT) for oral sensory normalization, head and neck postural control, and oral motor function improvements, are required to help control drooling. Clinical professionals therefore need to deeply understand the reason for drooling, and provide qualified non-invasive treatment for intensifying drooling control.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900461

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The objective of this study was to investigate food and nutrition information utilization practices of adults aged between 20 and 30 years to provide the basic data for developing customized content. @*Methods@#Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS program (ver. 24.0) for the χ 2 -test, t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and Duncan's multiple range test. @*Results@#Of the 570 subjects surveyed, 45.4% were men, 54.6% were women, 66.3% were in their 20s, 33.7% were in their 30s, 41.4% were single-person households, and 58.6% lived with their families. On average, 14.2% of televisions (TVs), 26.0% of personal computers (PCs), and 63.7% of smartphones were used for more than three hours per day. 30.9% of respondents searched for food and nutrition information more than once a week. 70.0% of the respondents had then applied the information in real life and 54.7% of the respondents said they would share information with others. Information retrieval rate was in the order of ‘restaurant (64.8%)’, ‘diet (57.5%)’, and ‘food recipes (55.7%)’. Overall satisfaction with food and nutrition information averaged 3.33 on a five-point scale. Satisfaction score was in the order of ‘enough description and easy to understand (3.43)’, ‘matching title and content (3.35)’, and ‘providing new and novel information (3.22)’. Satisfaction scores were significantly higher in the group that searched for information (p < 0.001), the group that used the retrieved information in real life (p < 0.001), and the group that conveyed this information to others (p < 0.001). @*Conclusion@#To improve information user satisfaction, it is necessary to provide customized information that fits the characteristics of information users. For this purpose, it is necessary to continuously conduct surveys and satisfaction evaluations for each target group.

15.
Asian Nursing Research ; : 174-180, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897181

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to identify the risk factors of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) acquisition to build a nomogram for CRE acquisition risk prediction and evaluate its performance. @*Methods@#This unmatched case-control study included 352 adult patients (55 patients and 297 controls) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a 453-bed secondary referral hospital between January 1, 2018, and September 31, 2019, in Busan, South Korea. The nomogram was built with the identified risk factors using multiple logistic regression analysis. Its performance was analyzed using calibration-in-the-large, the slope of the calibration plot, concordance statistic (c-statistic), and the sensitivity and specificity of the training set, subsets, and a new test set. @*Results@#The risk factors of CRE acquisition among ICU patients at a secondary referral hospital were Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score at the time of admission, use of a central venous catheter and a nasogastric tube, as well as use of cephalosporin antibiotics. At 20.0% of the predicted CRE acquisition risk in the training set, the calibration-in-the-large was 0, slope of the calibration plot was 1, c-statistic was .93, sensitivity was 85.5%, and specificity was 84.8%. The performance was relatively good in the subsets and new test set. @*Conclusion@#The nomogram can be used to monitor the CRE acquisition risk for ICU patients who have a similar case mix to patients in the study hospitals. Future studies need to involve more rigorous methodology and larger samples.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896165

ABSTRACT

Although research conducted in East Asia has uncovered parasite eggs from ancient toilets or cesspits, data accumulated to date needs to be supplemented by more archaeoparasitological studies. We examined a total of 21 soil samples from a toilet-like structure at the Hwajisan site, a Baekje-period royal villa, in present-day Korea. At least 4 species of helminth eggs, i.e., Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Clonorchis sinensis, and Trichuris sp. (or Trichuris vulpis) were detected in 3 sediment samples of the structure that was likely a toilet used by Baekje nobles. The eggs of T. trichiura were found in all 3 samples (no. 1, 4, and 5); and A. lumbricoides eggs were detected in 2 samples (no. 4 and 5). C. sinensis and T. vulpis-like eggs were found in no. 5 sample. From the findings of this study, we can suppose that the soil-transmitted helminths were prevalent in ancient Korean people, including the nobles of Baekje Kingdom during the 5th to 7th century.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896154

ABSTRACT

Our previous research on coprolite specimens from the mummies of Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910 CE) has revealed various species of parasite eggs. Herein, we added 2 new helminthic cases of human remains from Joseon-period graves in the Republic of Korea (Korea). The organic materials precipitated on the hip bones of 2 half-mummied cases (Goryeong and Gwangmyeong cases) were collected, rehydrated, and examined by a microscope. In the sample from Goryeong-gun (gun=County), ova of Trichuris trichiura, Clonorchis sinensis, and Metagonimus spp. were detected, and eggs of T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides were found from the sample of Gwangmyeong-si (si=City). By adding this outcome to the existing data pool, we confirm our previous estimates of Joseon-period parasite infection rates. The overall rates of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and C. sinensis decreased dramatically from Joseon to the modern period. In Goryeong mummy specimen, we also found Metagonimus spp. eggs that has rarely been detected in archaeological samples so far.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894321

ABSTRACT

Background@#Occupational allergic contact dermatitis accounts for about half of all occupational skin diseases. Patch testing is essential for establishing a diagnosis of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. To date, allergic contact dermatitis caused by seawater has rarely been reported. @*Objective@#The aim of this study was to investigate the patch test results of seawater in foreign maritime workers. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the clinical photos and medical records of patients who underwent the patch test with the Korean standard series and sea-water at Uijeongbu St. Mary’s Hospital and St. Vincent’s Hospital from January 2017 to August 2020. @*Results@#A total of 26 patients were enrolled in the study. All patients were men with a median age of 26.5 years.Twenty-five patients were Sri Lankan, and 25 patients (96.2%) showed a positive reaction to seawater. Patients showed positive reactions with multiple allergens (average: 4), and the positive rates were higher than those reported in previous studies. Atypical reactions, such as pricking patterns or erosive patches, have been observed. A marked erosive reaction was observed even at the site without allergen attachment in a patient who showed a negative reaction to seawater. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest the possibility of artificially inducing positive reactions to seawater in maritime workers. Therefore, it is necessary to identify atypical reactions and confirm the relationship between positive reactions and medical history when judging contact dermatitis with unknown substances such as seawater. This study emphasizes education on the standardization of the reading of results.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893749

ABSTRACT

Background@#Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) A59 is a highly infectious pathogen and starts in the respiratory tract and progresses to systemic infection in laboratory mice. The complement system is an important part of the host immune response to viral infection. It is not clear the role of the classical complement pathway in MHV infection. @*Objectives@#The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of the classical pathway in coronavirus pathogenesis by comparing C1qa KO mice and wild-type mice. @*Methods@#We generated a C1qa KO mouse using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and compared the susceptibility to MHV A59 infection between C1qa KO and wild-type mice. Histopathological and immunohistochemical changes, viral loads, and chemokine expressions in both mice were measured. @*Results@#MHV A59-infected C1qa KO mice showed severe histopathological changes, such as hepatocellular necrosis and interstitial pneumonia, compared to MHV A59-infected wildtype mice. Virus copy numbers in the olfactory bulb, liver, and lungs of C1qa KO mice were significantly higher than those of wild-type mice. The increase in viral copy numbers in C1qa KO mice was consistent with the histopathologic changes in organs. These results indicate that C1qa deficiency enhances susceptibility to MHV A59 systemic infection in mice. In addition, this enhanced susceptibility effect is associated with dramatic elevations in spleen IFN-γ, MIP-1 α, and MCP-1 in C1qa KO mice. @*Conclusions@#These data suggest that C1qa deficiency enhances susceptibility to MHV A59 systemic infection, and activation of the classical complement pathway may be important for protecting the host against MHV A59 infection.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893696

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the usefulness of imaging features for differentiating between small lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). @*Materials and Methods@#It included 52 female with LCISs (median 45 years, range 32–67 years) and 180 female with ILCs (median 49 years, range 36–75 years), with the longest diameter of ≤ 2 cm, who were evaluated between January 2012 and December 2016. All the female underwent mammography and ultrasonography. Twenty female with LCIS and 150 female with ILC underwent MRI. The clinical and imaging features were compared, and multivariate analysis was performed to identify the independent predictors of LCIS. Female with LCIS were also subgrouped by lesion size and compared with the female with ILC. @*Results@#Multivariate analysis showed that younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.100), smaller lesion size (OR = 1.103), oval or round shape (OR = 4.098), parallel orientation (OR = 5.464), and isoechotexture (OR = 3.360) were significant independent factors predictive of LCIS. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for distinguishing LCIS from ILC was 0.904 (95% confidence interval, 0.857–0.951). Subgroup analysis showed that benign features were more prevalent in female with smaller LCISs (≤ 1 cm) than in those with ILC. @*Conclusion@#Small LCISs tend to demonstrate more benign features than small ILCs. Several imaging features are independently predictive of LCIS.

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