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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936289

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the protective effect against intestinal mucosal injury in rats following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore the underlying mechanism.@*METHODS@#SD rat models of TBI were established by fluid percussion injury (FPI), and the specimens were collected at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after TBI. Another 15 rats were randomly divided into shamoperated group (n=5), TBI with saline treatment (TBI+NS) group (n=5), and TBI with PD treatment (TBI+PD) group (treated with 30 mg/kg PD after TBI; n=5). Body weight gain and fecal water content of the rats were recorded, and after the treatments, the histopathology of the jejunum was observed, and the levels of D-lactic acid (D-LAC), diamine oxidase (DAO), ZO-1, claudin-5, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected. Lipid peroxide (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) 2 content, jejunal pro-inflammatory factors (IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF- α), Sirt1 activity, SOD2 and HMGB1 acetylation level were also determined after the treatments.@*RESULTS@#The rats showed significantly decreased body weight and fecal water content and progressively increased serum levels of D-LAC and DAO after TBI (P < 0.05) with obvious jejunal injury, significantly decreased expression levels of ZO-1 and claudin-5, lowered SOD2 and Sirt1 activity (P < 0.05), increased expression levels of LPO, ROS, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and enhanced SOD2 and HMGB1 acetylation levels (P < 0.05). Compared with TBI+NS group, the rats in TBI+PD group showed obvious body weight regain, increased fecal water content, reduced jejunal pathologies, decreased D-LAC and DAO levels (P < 0.05), increased ZO-1, claudin-5, SOD2 expression levels and Sirt1 activity, and significantly decreased ROS, LPO, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and acetylation levels of SOD2 and HMGB1 (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#PD alleviates oxidative stress and inflammatory response by activating Sirt1-mediated deacetylation of SOD2 and HMGB1 to improve intestinal mucosal injury in TBI rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Glucosides/pharmacology , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sirtuin 1/metabolism , Stilbenes/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
2.
Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 492-495, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923702

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis cases at ages of 60 years and older in Quzhou City, Zhejiang Province, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the pulmonary tuberculosis control strategy among the elderly. @*Methods@#The data pertaining to pulmonary tuberculosis cases at ages of 60 years and older in Quzhou City from 2010 to 2020 were collected through the Tuberculosis Management Information System of the China Disease Prevention and Control Information System. The trends for incidence, population distribution, diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis cases aged 60 years and older were analyzed using a descriptive epidemiological method.@*Results@#Totally 8 754 pulmonary tuberculosis cases aged 60 years and older were reported in Quzhou City from 2010 to 2020, accounting for 47.65% of all pulmonary tuberculosis cases, and the number of pulmonary tuberculosis appeared a tendency towards a rise ( χ2trend=173.320, P<0.001 ), while the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis showed a tendency towards a decline ( χ2trend=389.820, P<0.001 ), with an annual decline rate of 177.11/105. There were 4 307 smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases, accounting for 58.71% of all smear-positive cases, and the number of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases showed a tendency towards a rise ( χ2trend=126.320, P<0.001 ), while the proportion of smear-positive cases showed a tendency towards a decline ( χ2trend=21.680, P<0.001 ), with an annual smear-positive rate of 87.14/105. The incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 256.94/105 among males and 91.43/105 among females at ages of 60 years and older ( χ2=20.903, P<0.001 ). The highest incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis was seen in patients aged 80 to 84 years ( 235.17/105 ), and farmers were the predominant occupation ( 7 171 cases, 81.92% ), while the highest number of cases was reported in Quzhou City (8 676 cases, 99.11%). There were 7 752 treatment-naïve cases ( 88.55% ), while 5 830 cases with delay in seeking healthcare services, and the proportion of delay in seeking healthcare services showed a tendency towards a rise from 2010 to 2020 ( χ2trend=4.853, P=0.028 ), with an annual mean delay rate of was 66.60%.@*Conclusion@#The incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis appeared a tendency towards a decline among patients aged 60 years and older in Quzhou City from 2010 to 2020, and the elderly aged 80 years and older and farmers should be paid more attention.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929232

ABSTRACT

Natural products (NPs), especially those from traditional herbal medicines, can evidently modulate human gene expression at multiple levels, leading to a wide diversity of bioactivities. Although numerous bio-functions of NPs for human body have been found, there is little understanding about how NPs achieve it, as less attention was drawn to the definite mechnism by which NPs regulate gene expression. Furthermore, based on the rapidly advancing knowledge of mechanisms for gene regulation in recent years, newly-understood mechanisms, such as post-transcriptional regulation, are found to be involved in NP-elicited bio-effects, providing a new perspective on understanding the role of NPs in gene expression. Therefore, in the current review, we summarize the function of NPs in gene expression from the perspectives of transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational regulation, which will reinforce the understanding of NP-induced effects in gene expression and facilitate the exploration of more NPs with potential therapeutic effects.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/pharmacology , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929007

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is related to the level of androgen and its metabolic pathways. The binding of androgen and androgen receptor (AR) depends on the assistance of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27). HSP27 combined with microRNAs (miR)-1 can regulate AR levels. However, it is not clear whether HSP27 and miR-1 jointly participate in the pathogenesis of AGA. This study aims to investigate the role of AR up-regulation in the pathogenesis of AGA and underlying mechanisms.@*METHODS@#A total of 46 male AGA patients (AGA group), who admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University from September 2019 to February 2020, and 52 healthy controls admitted to the same period were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and HSP27 in patients and healthy controls were measured by ELISA. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression of HSP27 and AR in scalp tissues of patients and the healthy controls. The levels of HSP27, AR, and miR-1 were analyzed using real-time PCR. Human dermal papilla cells were transfected with HSP27 siRNA to inhibit the expression of HSP27. MiR-1 and miR-1 inhibitors were transfected simultaneously or separately into cells and then the changes in AR protein expression were detected.@*RESULTS@#The levels of DHT and HSP27 in the AGA group were (361.4±187.7) pg/mL and (89.4±21.8) ng/mL, respectively, which were higher than those in the control group [(281.8±176.6) pg/mL and (41.2±13.7) ng/mL, both P<0.05]. However, there was no significant difference in serum HSP27 and AR levels among AGA patients with different degrees of hair loss (P>0.05). Correlation analysis showed that there was a positive correlation between HSP27 level and DHT level in the AGA patients (P<0.05). The level of HSP27 mRNA in scalp tissue was negatively correlated with that of miR-1 mRNA (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the levels of HSP27 protein, AR protein, HSP27 mRNA, and AR mRNA in scalp tissues of AGA group were significantly increased (P<0.05). The up-regulation of HSP27 in scalp tissues of AGA patients was closely related to the increased levels of AR. However, the level of miR-1 in scalp tissues of AGA patients was significantly down-regulated, contrary to the expression of AR (P<0.05). Further in cell studies showed that inhibition of HSP27 or miR-1 expression in human dermal papilla cells could inhibit the expression of AR, and inhibition of both HSP27 and miR-1 expression was found to have an accumulative effect on AR, with statistically significant differences (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#HSP27 could combine with miR-1 to up-regulate AR levels, which is closely related to the development of AGA.


Subject(s)
Alopecia/pathology , HSP27 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Male , MicroRNAs/genetics , RNA, Messenger , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Up-Regulation
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943039

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the experience of patients in the implementation of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) strategy after radical gastrectomy and the factors affecting the treatment experience. Methods: A prospective cohort study was carried out. Patients who were diagnosed with gastric cancer by pathology and underwent radical gastrectomy at the Xijing Digestive Disease Hospital from December 2019 to December 2020 were consecutively enrolled. Those who received emergency surgery, residual gastric cancer surgery, preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy, non-curative tumor resection, intraperitoneal metastasis, or other malignant tumors were excluded. Patients' expectation and experience during implementation were investigated by questionnaires. The questionnaire included three main parts: patients' expectation for ERAS, patients' experience during the ERAS implementation, and patients' outcomes within 30 days after discharge. The items on the expectation and experience were ranked from 0 to 10 by patients, which indicated to be unsatisfied/unimportant and satisfied/important respectively. According to their attitudes towards the ERAS strategy, patients were divided into the support group and the reject group. Patients' expectation and experience of hospital stay, and the clinical outcomes within 30 days after discharge were compared between the two groups. Categorical data were reported as number with percentage and the quantitative data were reported as mean with standard deviation, or where appropriate, as the median with interquartile range (Q1, Q3). Categorical data were compared using the Chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test, where appropriate. For continuous data, Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test were used. Complication was classified according to Clavien-Dindo classification. Results: Of the included 112 patients (88 males and 24 females), aged (57.8±10.0) years, 35 patients (31.3%) were in the support group and 77 (68.7%) in the reject group. Anxiety was detected in 56.2% (63/112) of the patients with score >8. The admission education during the ERAS implementation improved the patients' cognitions of the ERAS strategy [M(Q1, Q3) score: 8 (4, 10) vs. 2 (0, 5), Z=-7.130, P<0.001]. The expected hospital stay of patients was longer than the actual stay [7 (7, 10) days vs. 6 (6, 7) days, Z=-4.800, P<0.001]. During the ERAS implementation, patients had low score in early mobilization [3 (1, 6)] and early oral intake [5 (2.25, 8)]. Fifty-eight (51.8%) patients planned the ERAS implementation at home after discharge, while 32.1% (36/112) preferred to stay in hospital until they felt totally recovered. Compared with the reject group, the support group had shorter expected hospital stay [7 (6, 10) days vs. 10 (7, 15) days, Z=-2.607, P=0.009], and higher expected recovery-efficiency score [9 (8, 10) vs. 7(5, 9), Z=-3.078, P=0.002], lower expected less-pain score [8 (6, 10) vs. 6 (5, 9) days, Z=-1.996, P=0.046], expected faster recovery of physical strength score [8 (6, 10) vs. 6 (4, 9), Z=-2.200, P=0.028] and expected less drainage tube score [8 (8, 10) vs. 8 (5, 10), Z=-2.075, P=0.038]. Worrying about complications (49.1%) and self-recognition of not recovery (46.4%) were the major concerns when assessing the experience toward ERAS. During the follow-up, 105 patients received follow-up calls. There were 57.1% (60/105) of patients who experienced a variety of discomforts after discharge, including pain (28.6%), bloating (20.0%), nausea (12.4%), fatigue (7.6%), and fever (2.9%). Within 30 days after discharge, 6.7% (7/105) of patients developed Clavien-Dindo level I and II operation-associated complications, including poor wound healing, intestinal obstruction, intraperitoneal bleeding, and wound infection, all of which were cured by conservative treatment. There were no complications of level III or above in the whole group after surgery. Compared with the support group, more patients in the reject group reported that they had not yet achieved self-expected recovery when discharged [57.1% (44/77) vs. 22.9% (8/35), χ2=11.372, P<0.001], and expected to return to their daily lives [39.0% (30/77) vs. 8.6% (3/35), χ2=10.693, P<0.001], with statistically significant differences (all P<0.05). Only 52.4% (55/105) of patients returned home to continue rehabilitation, and the remaining patients chose to go to other hospitals to continue their hospitalization after discharge, with a median length of stay of 7 (7, 9) days. Compared with the reject group, the support group had a higher proportion of home rehabilitation [59.7% (12/33) vs. 36.4% (43/72), χ2=4.950, P=0.026], and shorter time of self-perceived postoperative full recovery [14 (10, 20) days vs. 15 (14, 20) days, Z=2.100, P=0.036], with statistically significant differences (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Although ERAS has promoted postoperative rehabilitation while ensuring surgical safety, it has not been unanimously recognized by patients. Adequate rehabilitation education, good analgesia, good physical recovery, and early removal of drainage tubes may improve the patient's experience of ERAS.


Subject(s)
Enhanced Recovery After Surgery , Female , Gastrectomy , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Pain , Patient Outcome Assessment , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome
6.
International Eye Science ; (12): 1682-1686, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942841

ABSTRACT

AIM:To compare the choroidal parameters in children and adolescents with different refractive status, and to investigate the associations between ocular biometrics and choroidal parameters.METHODS:A cross sectional study. A total of 121 healthy children and adolescents(121 right eyes)aged 3-18 years treated in the Second People's Hospital of Hefei were collected. The data were divided into three groups according to spherical equivalent refraction(SER): emmetropia(-0.50&#x003C;SER≤+1.75D), low myopia(-3.00&#x003C;SER≤-0.50D)and moderate-to-high myopia(SER≤-3.00D). Ocular biometrics were measured by using the IOL Master. Data of the choroidal structures extracted from a 6mm sub-macular region centered on the fovea, including choroidal thickness(CT), the total choroidal area(TCA), luminal area(LA), stromal area(SA)and choroidal vascularity index(CVI)were determined by image binarization of the enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography(EDI-OCT). Comparing all biology parameters among the three groups, associations among demographic factors, ocular parameters, and choroidal structures were evaluated by using multiple linear regression analysis.RESULTS:TCA, LA, SA and CT were all different among the three groups before age correction(all P&#x003C;0.001), and CVI was not different(P &#x003E;0.05). TCA, LA, SA, CT and CVI were found to be statistically different among the three groups after age correction(all P&#x003C;0.001), and there were differences in pairwise comparisons of TCA, LA, SA and CT among the three groups(all P&#x003C;0.001), which were the highest in emmetropic eyes and lowest in moderate-to-high myopic eyes, However, the CVI in pairwise comparisons among the three groups showed that only the moderate-to-high myopia group was significantly lower than the emmetropic group(P=0.014). Multiple regression analysis showed that the LA was significantly associated with SER(P=0.020), whereas CT were significantly associated with the axial length(AL)(P=0.028).CONCLUSIONS: The choroidal LA and CVI tend to decrease in children and adolescents with higher myopia, indicating that the decrease of sub-foveal choroidal blood flow may be related to the progression of myopia.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940987

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effectiveness of different screening strategies for type 2 diabetes to prevent cardiovascular disease in a community-based Chinese population from economically developed areas based on the Chinese electronic health records research in Yinzhou (CHERRY) study.@*METHODS@#A Markov model was used to simulate different systematic diabetes screening strategies, including: (1) screening among Chinese adults aged 40-70 years recommended by the 2020 Chinese Guideline for the prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes (Strategy 1); (2) screening among Chinese adults aged 35 to 70 years recommended by the 2022 American Diabetes Association Standard of Medical Care in Diabetes (Strategy 2); and (3) screening among Chinese adults aged 35-70 years with overweight or obesity recommended by the 2021 United States Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement on Screening for Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes (Strategy 3). According to the guidelines, individuals who were screened positively (fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L) would be introduced to intensive glycemic targets management (glycated hemoglobin < 7.0%).The Markov model simulated different screening scenarios for ten years (cycles) with parameters mainly from the CHERRY study or published literature. Number of cardiovascular disease events or deaths could be prevented and number needed to screen (NNS) were calculated to compare the effectiveness of the different strategies. One-way sensitivity analysis on the sensitivity of screening methods and probabilistic sensitivity analysis on uncertainties of diabetes incidence, the sensitivity of screening methods, and intensive glycemic management effects were conducted.@*RESULTS@#Totally 289 245 Chinese adults aged 35-70 years without cardiovascular diseases or diagnosed diabetes at baseline were enrolled. In terms of the number of cardiovascular disease events could be prevented, Strategy 1 for systematic diabetes screening among the adults aged 35-70 years was 222 (95%UI: 180-264), Strategy 2 for systematic diabetes screening among the adults aged 40-70 years was 227 (95%UI: 185-271), and Strategy 3 for systematic diabetes screening among the adults aged 35-70 years with obesity or overweight (body mass index ≥ 24 kg/m2) was 131 (95%UI: 98-164), compared with opportunistic screening. NNS per cardiovascular disease event for the strategies 1, 2 and 3 were 1 184 (95%UI: 994-1 456), 1 274 (95%UI: 1 067-1 564) and 814 (95%UI: 649-1 091), respectively. Compared with Strategy 1, NNS per cardiovascular disease event for Strategy 2 increased by 90 (95%UI: -197-381) with similar effectiveness of cardiovascular prevention; however, NNS per cardiovascular disease event for Strategy 3 was reduced by 460 (95%UI: 185-724) in contrast to the Strategy 2, suggesting that the Strategy 3 was more efficient. The results were consistent in multiple sensitivity analyses.@*CONCLUSION@#Systematic screening for diabetes based on the latest guidelines in economically developed areas of China can reduce cardiovascular events and deaths. However, merely lowering the starting age of screening from 40 to 35 years seems ineffective for preventing cardiovascular disease, while screening strategy for Chinese adults aged 35-70 years with overweight or obesity is recommended to improve efficiency.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Obesity , Overweight , United States
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940986

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effectiveness of statin treatment strategies based on risk assessment for the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases by the Western guidelines in a community-based Chinese population from economically developed areas using data from the Chinese electronic health records research in Yinzhou (CHERRY) study.@*METHODS@#A Markov model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the following statin treatment strategies, including: (1) usual care without cardiovascular risk assessment(Strategy 0); (2) using the World Health Organization (WHO) non-laboratory-based risk charts with statin treatment for high-risk group (risk ≥ 20%) (Strategy 1); (3) using the WHO laboratory-based risk charts with statin treatment for high-risk group (risk ≥ 20%) (Strategy 2); and (4) using the Prediction for Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease Risk in China (China-PAR) model with statin treatment for high-risk group (risk ≥ 10%, Strategy 3). According to the guidelines, adults in the medium-risk group received lifestyle intervention, and adults in the high-risk group received life-style intervention and statin treatment under these strategies. The Markov model simulated different strategies for ten years (cycles) using parameters from the CHERRY study, published data, meta-analyses and systematic reviews for Chinese. The number of cardiovascular events or deaths, as well as the number need to treat (NNT) with statin per cardiovascular event or death prevented, were calculated to compare the effectiveness of different strategies. One-way sensitivity analysis on the uncertainty of incidence rate of cardiovascular diseases, and probabilistic sensitivity analysis on the uncertainty of hazard ratios of interventions were conducted.@*RESULTS@#Totally 225 811 Chinese adults aged 40-79 years without cardiovascular diseases at baseline were enrolled. In contrast to the usual care without risk assessment-based statin treatment strategy, Strategy 1 using the WHO non-laboratory-based risk charts could prevent 3 482 [95% uncertainty interval (UI): 2 110-4 661] cardiovascular events, Strategy 2 using the WHO laboratory-based risk charts could prevent 3 685 (95%UI: 2 255-4 912) events, and Strategy 3 using the China-PAR model could prevent 3 895 (95%UI: 2 396-5 181) events. NNTs with statin per cardiovascular event prevented were 22 (95%UI: 14-54), 21 (95%UI: 14-52), and 27 (95%UI: 17-67), respectively. Strategy 3 could prevent more cardiovascular events, while Strategies 1 and 2 required fewer numbers need to treat with statin per cardiovascular event prevented. The results were consistent in the sensitivity analyses.@*CONCLUSION@#The statin treatment strategies based on risk assessment for the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases recommended by the Western guidelines could achieve substantive health benefits in adults from developed areas of China. Using the China-PAR model for cardiovascular risk assessment could prevent more cardiovascular diseases while using the WHO risk charts seems more efficient.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Primary Prevention
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940601

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo improve the current standard of Belladonnae Herba in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. MethodTaking hyoscyamine sulfate, atropine sulfate and scopoletin as reference substances, and ethyl acetate-methanol-concentrated ammonia(17∶4∶2)as developing solvent, thin layer chromatography (TLC) was applied in the qualitative identification of Belladonnae Herba. The moisture, total ash and ethanol-soluble extract of Belladonnae Herba were determined based on the general principles in the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (volume Ⅳ). The contents of hyoscyamine sulfate and scopolamine hydrobromide were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with mobile phase of acetonitrile-54 mmol·L-1 phosphate buffer solution (14∶86), flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1 and detection wavelength at 210 nm. ResultThe spots in the TLC were clear with good separation and specificity. Hyoscyamine sulfate and scopolamine hydrobromide showed a good linearity with peak area in the range of 0.024 7-0.789 6 g·L-1 (r=0.999 9) and 0.003 9-0.124 0 g·L-1 (r=0.999 9), the average recoveries of these two ingredients were 100.29% (RSD 1.6%) and 99.04% (RSD 1.4%), respectively. The limits for moisture, total ash in Belladonnae Herba should be less than 13.0% and the limit for the ethanol-soluble extract should be more than 10.0%. Due to the low content and wide variation of scopolamine hydrobromide, the content of hyoscyamine sulfate should not be less than 0.098%. ConclusionThe established method is simple, specific and reproducible, which can be used to improve the quality control standard of Belladonnae Herba.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940599

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo develop a quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker (QAMS) for determination of bufalin, cinobufagin and resibufogenin in Shexiang Baoxin pills, and to provide a method for improving the national standard of the pills. MethodHigh performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for simultaneous determination of bufalin, cinobufagin and resibufogenin in Shexiang Baoxin pills and the methodology validation was carried out. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Nucleosil 100-5 C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with the mobile phase of acetonitrile -0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate aqueous solution (pH adjusted to 3.2 with phosphoric acid) (48∶52), and the flow rate was 0.6 mL·min-1, the detection wavelength was set at 296 nm and the column temperature was 35 ℃. Taking cinobufagin as the internal standard, the relative correction factors (RCFs) of bufalin and resibufogenin were calculated, and the key influencing factors of RCFs were investigated. Relative retention time was used for the chromatographic peak location of the analyte, combining with the on-line ultraviolet spectroscopy and accurate relative molecular weight obtained by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS). The external standard method was used to verify the contents of three components obtained by QAMS. ResultQAMS was established for the determination of bufalin, cinobufagin and resibufogenin in the samples, and RCFs of cinobufagin to bufalin and resibufogenin were 0.922 and 1.01, respectively. The total content of the three marker compounds in 11 batches of Shexiang Baoxin pills was 33.7-36.0 µg per pill. There was no significant difference between the quantitative results of QAMS and external standard method. ConclusionThe established method can be used for the quality control of bufalin, cinobufagin and resibufogenin in Shexiang Baoxin pills. It is suggested that bufalin should be considered as one of three marker compounds, and the sum of bufalin, cinobufagin and resibufogenin should be used for the content limit of this preparation.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940583

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo provide references for the selection of Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens on the research of famous classical formulas and the reasonable uses for medicines and foods through herbal textural research and quality analysis of Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens from main producing areas in China. MethodBy consulting the ancient and modern literature, the name, origin, producing areas, harvest time, processing methods of Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens were summarized. According to the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, the contents of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and volatile oil in Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens samples were determined. ResultHerbal textural research indicated that medicinal Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens originated from the fresh rhizome of Zingiber officinale. Before Tang dynasty, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens produced in Sichuan was the best. In the Song dynasty, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens produced in Sichuan, Zhejiang, and Anhui was of excellent quality. The cultivation of Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens in Shandong developed during the Ming and Qing dynasties. From ancient times to the present, the harvest period extended from the autumnal equinox to the winter solstice. Quality evaluation standards of Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens were essentially the same in ancient and present documents, as those with little gluten or gluten-free and strong pungency were preferred. After determination, the contents of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol in 44 samples were qualified in 27 samples, with a qualified rate of 61.4%. Among them, 17 samples were unqualified in the total contents of 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol. Among these qualified samples, the content of 6-gingerol ranged from 0.067% to 0.255%, and the total contents of 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol ranged from 0.040% to 0.131%. The content of volatile oil in 36 samples were qualified in 33 samples, with a qualified rate of 91.7%. Among the qualified samples, the content of volatile oil ranged from 0.175% to 0.410%. ConclusionZingiberis Rhizoma Recens has been used as medicines and foods since ancient times, and the genuine producing areas are consistent in ancient and present times, while the quality of the products, especially the medicinal Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, should be monitored. Medicinal Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens planted in Leshan city of Sichuan province contains high contents of effective components, followed by Qujing and Wenshan cities of Yunnan province. Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens planted in Shandong and other places is mostly edible.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940562

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo determine the chemical constituents of burdock (Arctium lappa) leaves, and elucidate dynamic accumulation rule of four main components, in order to provide the basis for determining the suitable harvest time of burdock leaves. MethodSilica gel, macroporous resin, Sephadex LH-20, octadecylsilane chemically bonded silica (ODS), microporous resin (MCI) column chromatography and reversed-phase preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to isolate the main chemical constituents in burdock leaves. Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) was used to analyze the dynamic accumulation of four components in burdock leaf. HPLC-DAD was performed on a Shim-pack GIST C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with mobile phase of acetonitrile (A)-0.3% phosphoric acid aqueous solution (B) (0-9 min, 13%A; 9-10 min, 13%-24%A; 10-30 min, 24%A), flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1, column temperature of 40 ℃, and detection wavelength at 328 nm. ResultSeventeen compounds were isolated from burdock leaves, and identified as caffeic acid (1), rutin (2), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), chlorogenic acid (6), isochlorogenic acid A (7), daucosterol (8), ursolic acid (9), anemarrhenoside B (10), (-)-secoisolariciresinol (11), vladinol D (12), melitensin (13), esculetin (14), 1-(-2-ethylphenyl)-1,2-ethanediol (15), 1-(-4-ethylphenyl)-1,2-ethanediol (16), 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-propanone (17). The contents of chlorogenic acid, rutin and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside in burdock leaves showed an upward trend from April to August, and reached the highest in August. And the content of isochlorogenic acid A firstly increased and then decreased from April to August, and reached the highest in July. ConclusionCompounds 10, 12-17 were isolated from Arctium for the first time. Taking the contents of chlorogenic acid, rutin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and isochlorogenic acid A as indicators, considering the comprehensive development and utilization of burdock roots and leaves, it is recommended to harvest burdock leaves in mid-August.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940533

ABSTRACT

Wuzhuyu Tang (WZYT), a classical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, was first recorded in Treatise on Cold Damage by the prestigious physician ZHANG Zhong-jing in the Eastern Han Dynasty, and included in Catalogue of Ancient Classical Formulas (First Batch). WZYT is composed of four medcinals: Euodiae Fructus, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, and Jujubae Fructus, which has the effects of warming the middle and tonifying deficiency, dissipating cold and descending adverse qi. Based on data mining, this paper analyzes the modern clinical research literature on WZYT, which is expected to lay a basis for clarifying the "disease-symptom-prescription-medicinal" relationship of WZYT, as well as its modern clinical indications and clinical dosage. With the search term "Wuzhuyu Tang", 253 complete medical records were retrieved from CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang (2000-2020), involving 292 TCM prescriptions. Microsoft Excel 2019 was employed to establish the medical record database and the main clinical indications were statistically analyzed. Moreover, the syndromes, incidence law, and medication regularity were summed up. The result indicates WZYT has a wide range of modern clinical applications, mainly including the treatment of headache, dizziness, vomiting, diarrhea, dysmenorrhea, morning sickness, and other diseases, and the "deficiency, cold, and reversal" symptoms, mainly manifested as nausea and vomiting, headache, fatigue and lack of strength, reversal cold of hands and feet, poor appetite, gloomy complexion, dizziness, aversion to wind and cold, abdominal pain, sloppy diarrhea, abdominal distension, poor sleep, pale tongue, white coating, and deep thread wiry pulse. These diseases and symptoms mainly occur in women and middle-aged people. In most cases, medicinals are added or subtracted according to the symptoms, and the common doses of Euodiae Fructus, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, Codonopsis Radix or Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, and Jujubae Fructus in the original prescription are 6-15 g, 10-15 g, 10-15 g or 9-12 g, and 4-6, respectively. The added medicinals are in the descending order of Pinelliae Rhizoma, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Poria, Glycyrrhize Radix et Rhizoma, and Chuanxiong Rhizoma according to the frequency.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940495

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo study the in vitro kinetics of Jiaojiang cataplasms and evaluate its pharmacodynamics, so as to provide a feasible basis for the development of this preparation. MethodThe improved Franz diffusion cell was used for the in vitro release in semipermeable membrane and transdermal absorption in in vitro mouse skins. The contents of hydroxy-α-sanshool, 6-gingerol, ginsenoside Rb1 were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), to evaluate the in vitro release and transdermal absorption of Jiaojiang cataplasms. The mobile phase of 6-gingerol and hydroxy-α-sanshool was water-acetonitrile-methanol (2∶1∶1) with the detection wavelength of 280 nm. The mobile phase of ginsenoside Rb1 was acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid aqueous solution (31∶69) with the detection wavelength of 203 nm. A mouse intestinal paralysis model was established, and mice were randomly divided into five groups, namely sham operation group, model group, domperidone group (3.9 mg·kg-1) and high- and low-dose groups of Jiaojiang cataplasms (6.2, 3.1 g·kg-1, measured by crude drug dosage), to observe the effect of this preparation on gastrointestinal propulsion function. ResultAverage release rates of hydroxy-α-sanshool, 6-gingerol and ginsenoside Rb1 at 24 h were 16.41, 4.23, 4.15 μg∙cm-2∙h-1, the average transdermal rates of them at 24 h were 2.31, 0.64, 0.29 μg∙cm-2∙h-1, their skin retention values were 19.56, 3.59, 1.61 μg, respectively. According to the Ritger-Peppas equation, the release of hydroxy-α-sanshool, 6-gingerol, ginsenoside Rb1 was non-Fick diffusion. The high-dose group of Jiaojiang cataplasms could improve intestinal function of model mice after small intestinal friction injury, and promote intestinal peristalsis and small intestinal propulsion rate (P<0.05). ConclusionJiaojiang cataplasms has in vitro release and transdermal properties, the in vitro release conforms to Higuchi equation, and transdermal absorption behavior conforms to zero-order kinetic equation, which can improve the postoperative function of the small intestine and the propulsion function of small intestine. It preliminarily indicates that the preparation has certain clinical development value.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940307

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the key technical problems in the research and development of famous classical formulas are analyzed. Firstly, the puzzled problem for a long-time, which is conversion relationship from medicinal metrology of Han dynasty (HD) to that of modern (gram,g), is comprehensively expounded that one Liang (两) of HD=3 g is more appropriate. Secondly, the model and principles of quality consistency evaluation are given for the transformation from the quality of authoritative basic sample prepared by casserole (ABS-C) to the quality consistency in Laboratory process, pilot-scale process and industrial production. The consistency evaluation model is ξABS-X=K1(Q1ABS-X/Q1ABS-C)+K2(Q2ABS-X/Q2ABS-C)+……+Ki(QiABS-X/QiABS-C)=∑Ki(QiABS-X/QiABS-C)(i=1,2,3……n). In the formula, ABS-X means laboratory reference sample ABS-C (ABS-L), pilot-scale ABS-C (ABS-mP) or industrial production ABS-C (ABS-P), ξABS-X means the quality consistency rate or similarity degree of ABS-L, ABS-mP and ABS-P processes with ABS-C, Ki means the weight of each quality evaluation index (i), QiABS-X is the data of i in ABS-L, ABS-mP, ABS-P samples, and QiABS-C is the data (or mean) of i in ABS-C sample. Thirdly, in order to control the quality of the herbal medicines whose active ingredients were unknown, their chemical constituents should be studied deeply, and if necessary, the bioassay research should be carried out according to the main efficacy or indication of famous classical formulas. Finally, for the special processing of some herbal medicines, it is difficult to formulate the processing method, technology and standard of prepared slices. It is suggested that the scientific connotation and historical evolution of the special processing method should be thoroughly sorted out, and its technological characteristics are summarized, the modern processing technology and production processes are simulated, and then the corresponding processing methods and quality standards are formulated.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939914

ABSTRACT

Impaired immunomodulatory capacity and oxidative stress are the key factors limiting the effectiveness of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation therapy. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of jujuboside A (JuA) on the protective effect and immunomodulatory capacity of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs). Hydrogen peroxide was used to establish an oxidative damage model of hUC-MSCs, while PBMCs isolated from rats were used to evaluate the effect of JuA pre-treatment on the immunomodulatory capacity of hUC-MSCs. Furthermore, Hoechst 33258 staining, lactate dehydrogenase test, measurement of malondialdehyde, Western blot, high-performance liquid chromatography; and flow cytometry were performed. Our results indicated that JuA (25 μmol·L-1) promoted the proliferation of hUC-MSCs, but did not affect the differentiating capability of these cells. JuA pre-treatment inhibited apoptosis, prevented oxidative damage, and up-regulated the protein expression of nuclear factor-erythroid factor 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase 1 in hUC-MSCs in which oxidative stress was induced with H2O2. In addition, JuA pre-treatment enhanced the inhibitory effect of hUC-MSCs against abnormally activated PBMCs, which was related to stimulation of the expression and activity of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that JuA pre-treatment can enhance the survival and immunomodulatory ability through pathways related to oxidative stress, providing a new option for the improvement of hUC-MSCs in the clinical setting.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Saponins , Umbilical Cord/metabolism
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939850

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to identify whether periodontitis induces gut microbiota dysbiosis via invasion by salivary microbes. First, faecal and salivary samples were collected from periodontally healthy participants (PH group, n = 16) and patients with severe periodontitis (SP group, n = 21) and analysed by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Significant differences were observed in both the faecal and salivary microbiota between the PH and SP groups. Notably, more saliva-sourced microbes were observed in the faecal samples of the SP group. Then, the remaining salivary microbes were transplanted into C57BL6/J mice (the C-PH group and the C-SP group), and it was found that the composition of the gut microbiota of the C-SP group was significantly different from that of the C-PH group, with Porphyromonadaceae and Fusobacterium being significantly enriched in the C-SP group. In the colon, the C-SP group showed significantly reduced crypt depth and zonula occludens-1 expression. The mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and tight junction proteins were significantly higher in the C-SP group. To further investigate whether salivary bacteria could persist in the intestine, the salivary microbiota was stained with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester and transplanted into mice. We found that salivary microbes from both the PH group and the SP group could persist in the gut for at least 24 h. Thus, our data demonstrate that periodontitis may induce gut microbiota dysbiosis through the influx of salivary microbes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microbiota , Periodontitis , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/metabolism
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936134

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To automatically construct lips symmetry reference plane (SRP) based on posed smile, and to evaluate its advantages over conventional digital aesthetic design.@*METHODS@#Eighteen subjects' three-dimensional facial and dentition data were gathered in this study. The lips SRP of experimental groups were used with the standard weighted Procrustes analysis (WPA) algorithm and iterative closest point (ICP), respectively. A reference plane defined by experts based on regional ICP algorithm, served as the truth plane. The angle error values between the lips SRP of WPA algorithm in the experimental groups and the truth plane were evaluated in this study, and the lips SRP of ICP algorithm of the experimental groups was calculated in the same way. The lips SRP based on posed smile as a reference for aesthetic design and evaluate preliminary clinical application.@*RESULTS@#The average angle error between the lips SRP of WPA algorithm and the truth plane was 1.78°±1.24°, which was smaller than that between the lips SRP of ICP and the truth plane 7.41°±4.31°. There were significant differences in the angle errors among the groups (P < 0.05). In the aesthetic design of anterior teeth, automatically constructing the lips SRP of WPA algorithm based on posed smile and the original symmetry plane by re-ference compared with the prosthetic design, the subjects' scores on the lips SRP of WPA algorithm based on posed smile (8.48±0.57) were higher than those on the original symmetry plane (5.20±1.31).@*CONCLUSION@#Automatically constructing the lips SRP of WPA algorithm based on posed smile was more accurate than ICP algorithm, which was consistent with the truth plane. Moreover, it can provide an important reference for oral aesthetic diagnosis and aesthetic analysis of the restoration effect. In the aesthetic design of anterior teeth, automatically constructing the lips SRP of WPA algorithm based on posed smile can improve the patients' satisfaction in esthetic rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Esthetics, Dental , Humans , Lip , Smiling , Tooth , Workflow
19.
Chinese Journal of Burns ; (6): 256-265, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936003

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects and mechanism of hydrogen peroxide (HP) pretreatment with low molarity on oxidative stress induced apoptosis of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Methods: The experimental research methods were used. BMSCs were isolated and cultured from two 2-week-old male BALB/c mice by the whole bone marrow culture method. The 3rd-7th passages of cells in logarithmic growth phase were used for the experiments after identification. According to the random number table (the same grouping method below), the cells were divided into 0 μmol/L HP group (without HP, the same below), 25 μmol/L HP group, 50 μmol/L HP group, 100 μmol/L HP group, 150 μmol/L HP group, 200 μmol/L HP group, 250 μmol/L HP group, and 300 μmol/L HP group in which cells were treated by the corresponding final molarity of HP, respectively. The apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry (n=4) after 24 hours of culture. The cells were divided into 0 μmol/L HP group, 25 μmol/L HP group, 50 μmol/L HP group, and 100 μmol/L HP group in which cells were treated by the corresponding final molarity of HP, respeclively. After 24 hours of culture, the protein expressions of B-lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-related X protein (Bax) were detected by Western blotting, and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was calculated (n=3). The cells were divided into 0 μmol/L HP group, 25 μmol/L HP group, 50 μmol/L HP group, 100 μmol/L HP group, 200 μmol/L HP group, and 300 μmol/L HP group in which cells were treated by the corresponding final molarity of HP, respectively. After 24 hours of culture, the protein expressions of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and phosphorylated GSK-3β (p-GSK-3β) were detected by Western blotting (n=3). The cells were divided into 0 μmol/L HP group, 50 μmol/L HP group, and 300 μmol/L HP group in which cells were treated by the corresponding final molarity of HP, respeclively, and HP pretreatment group with 50 μmol/L HP being added in advance for 12 h and then 300 μmol/L HP being added. After 24 hours of culture, the morphology and growth of cells were observed by inverted fluorescence microscopy (non-fluorescent condition) and immunofluorescence method, the apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry, the protein expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, cysteine aspartic acid specific protease-3 (caspase-3), caspase-9, cleavage caspase-3, cleavage caspase-9, GSK-3β, and p-GSK-3β were detected by Western blotting, and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was calculated, with all the number of samples being 3. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni test. Results: After 24 hours of culture, compared with that in 0 μmol/L HP group, the apoptosis rate of cells did not change significantly in 25 μmol/L HP group, 50 μmol/L HP group, or 100 μmol/L HP group (P>0.05) but increased significantly in 150 μmol/L HP group, 200 μmol/L HP group, 250 μmol/L HP group, and 300 μmol/L HP group (P<0.01). After 24 hours of culture, compared with that in 0 μmol/L HP group, the Bcl-2/Bax ratio of cells increased significantly in 25 μmol/L HP group and 50 μmol/L HP group (P<0.05 or P<0.01) but decreased significantly in 100 µmol/L HP group (P<0.05). After 24 hours of culture, compared with those in 0 μmol/L HP group, the protein expression of GSK-3β in cells showed no significant change in 25 μmol/L HP group and 50 μmol/L HP group (P>0.05), the protein expressions of p-GSK-3β in cells significantly increased in 25 μmol/L HP group and 50 μmol/L HP group (P<0.01), the protein expressions of GSK-3β and p-GSK-3β in cells in 100 μmol/L HP group showed no significant change (P>0.05), the protein expressions of GSK-3β in cells in 200 μmol/L HP group and 300 μmol/L HP group were significantly increased (P<0.05). but the protein expression of p-GSK-3β in cells in 200 μmol/L HP group and 300 μmol/L HP group was significantly decreased (P<0.05). After 24 hours of culture, the morphology and growth of cells in 0 μmol/L HP group and 50 μmol/L HP group were similar and normal; in contrast, the cells in 300 µmol/L HP group became smaller and round, with the cell protrusions being shorter or disappeared, the nucleus being cavitated, and the cell abscission being increased significantly; the morphology of most cells in HP pretreatment group was normal, with the shedding of cells being less than that in 300 µmol/L HP group, and the morphology of nucleus being normal. After 24 hours of culture, the protein expression of caspase-9 was similar among the four groups (P>0.05). Compared with that in 0 μmol/L HP group, the apoptosis rate and the protein expressions of cleavage caspase-9, caspase-3, and cleavage caspase-3 of cells in 50 μmol/L HP group showed no significant changes (P>0.05), the Bcl-2/Bax ratio of cells in 50 μmol/L HP group increased significantly (P<0.05), the apoptosis rate and the protein expressions of cleavage caspase-9, caspase-3, and cleavage caspase-3 of cells in 300 μmol/L HP group were significantly increased (P<0.01), while the Bcl-2/Bax ratio of cells in 300 μmol/L HP group was significantly decreased (P<0.05). Compared with those in 300 μmol/L HP group, the apoptosis rate and the protein expressions of cleavage caspase-9, caspase-3, and cleavage caspase-3 of cells were significantly decreased in HP pretreatment group (P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the Bcl-2/Bax ratio of cells was significantly increased in HP pretreatment group (P<0.01). After 24 hours of culture, the protein expressions of GSK-3β and p-GSK-3β of cells in 0 μmol/L HP group, 50 μmol/L HP group, 300 μmol/L HP group, and HP pretreatment group were 1.09±0.14, 0.62±0.17, 1.35±0.21, 0.74±0.34, 0.68±0.03, 0.85±0.08, 0.38±0.10, and 0.54±0.09, respectively. Compared with those in 0 μmol/L HP group, the protein expression of p-GSK-3β of cells was significantly increased in 50 μmol/L HP group (P<0.05) but significantly decreased in 300 μmol/L HP group (P<0.01), while the protein expression of GSK-3β of cells was significantly increased in 300 μmol/L HP group (P<0.05). Compared with those in 300 μmol/L HP group, the protein expression of GSK-3β of cells was significantly decreased in HP pretreatment group (P<0.01), while the protein expression of p-GSK-3β of cells was significantly increased in HP pretreatment group (P<0.01). Conclusions: The molarity of 50 μmol/L may be the optimal molarity of HP to pretreat mouse BMSCs, and 50 μmol/L HP pretreatment can antagonize mitochondrial pathway of oxidative stress induced apoptosis by inhibiting the activity of GSK-3β.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta/pharmacology , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Mice , Oxidative Stress
20.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 362-366, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935955

ABSTRACT

The liver is abundant in blood supply and receives 25% of the cardiac output via the hepatic artery and portal vein. Circulatory disorders may cause hepatic injury, resulting in congestive hepatopathy(CH) and ischemic hepatitis(IH). Hepatic congestion arising from increased hepatic venous pressure and decreased cardiac output is the common pathophysiological basis of both CH and IH. In addition, extensive arteriovenous shunts affect portal pressure and cardiac function, leading to alterations of hepatic blood supply. The current review summarizes the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and therapeutic interventions of the above diseases, in order to provide reference for clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Hepatic Artery , Humans , Liver , Liver Diseases , Portal Pressure , Portal Vein
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