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1.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 268-277, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897579

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. Patients’ clinical presentation is critical for identifying suspected perilymphatic fistula (PLF). The involvement of third-window lesions in the pathomechanism of PLF has been hypothesized. This study investigated the clinical features of PLF and the relationship of the third-window effect with PLF. @*Methods@#. Sixty patients underwent surgical exploration for suspected PLF and the oval and round windows were reinforced. Clinical features including demographics, pure-tone audiometry (PTA), and videonystagmography were evaluated preoperatively and 1 month postoperatively. Surgical outcomes were analyzed according to the improvement of hearing and vestibular symptoms and signs. The conductive components of PTA (air-bone gap [ABG]) were measured, and the relationship between ABG closure after surgery and hearing improvement was analyzed. In addition, postoperative subjective dizziness was assessed by clinical interviews. Changes in positional nystagmus were analyzed according to ABG closure and hearing improvement. @*Results@#. ABG at lower frequencies (LFABG; 250 Hz, 500 Hz, 1,000 Hz) was present in 27 patients (45%). Postoperatively, PTA significantly improved after surgical repair. Among the patients with preoperative LFABG (n=27), 15 (55.5%) showed postoperative ABG closure and significant improvement in PTA at all frequencies compared with the patients without ABG closure (P=0.012). Subjective dizziness improved in 57 patients (93.3%). Positional nystagmus was found in 45 of 49 patients. Multiple canal involvement was more common than single canal involvement (67% vs. 33%). The horizontal semicircular canal was most commonly involved, followed by the posterior and anterior canals. Postoperatively, positional nystagmus disappeared, or the number of involved canals decreased in 22 of 34 patients (64.7%). @*Conclusion@#. Pseudo-conductive hearing loss at lower frequencies and positional nystagmus originating from multiple semicircular canals were common findings in PLF. Surgical reinforcement of the oval and round windows improved the hearing threshold accompanied by closure of ABG. A third-window lesion might explain these clinical features of PLF.

2.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 268-277, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889875

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. Patients’ clinical presentation is critical for identifying suspected perilymphatic fistula (PLF). The involvement of third-window lesions in the pathomechanism of PLF has been hypothesized. This study investigated the clinical features of PLF and the relationship of the third-window effect with PLF. @*Methods@#. Sixty patients underwent surgical exploration for suspected PLF and the oval and round windows were reinforced. Clinical features including demographics, pure-tone audiometry (PTA), and videonystagmography were evaluated preoperatively and 1 month postoperatively. Surgical outcomes were analyzed according to the improvement of hearing and vestibular symptoms and signs. The conductive components of PTA (air-bone gap [ABG]) were measured, and the relationship between ABG closure after surgery and hearing improvement was analyzed. In addition, postoperative subjective dizziness was assessed by clinical interviews. Changes in positional nystagmus were analyzed according to ABG closure and hearing improvement. @*Results@#. ABG at lower frequencies (LFABG; 250 Hz, 500 Hz, 1,000 Hz) was present in 27 patients (45%). Postoperatively, PTA significantly improved after surgical repair. Among the patients with preoperative LFABG (n=27), 15 (55.5%) showed postoperative ABG closure and significant improvement in PTA at all frequencies compared with the patients without ABG closure (P=0.012). Subjective dizziness improved in 57 patients (93.3%). Positional nystagmus was found in 45 of 49 patients. Multiple canal involvement was more common than single canal involvement (67% vs. 33%). The horizontal semicircular canal was most commonly involved, followed by the posterior and anterior canals. Postoperatively, positional nystagmus disappeared, or the number of involved canals decreased in 22 of 34 patients (64.7%). @*Conclusion@#. Pseudo-conductive hearing loss at lower frequencies and positional nystagmus originating from multiple semicircular canals were common findings in PLF. Surgical reinforcement of the oval and round windows improved the hearing threshold accompanied by closure of ABG. A third-window lesion might explain these clinical features of PLF.

3.
Journal of Audiology & Otology ; : 198-203, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835569

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#We sought to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of measurable parameters of internal auditory canal (IAC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). @*Subjects and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the patients with ISSNHL who underwent IAC MRI from January 2008 to March 2019. Measurable parameters of IAC MRI, such as the diameter of the IAC, bony cochlear nerve canal, and cross-sectional area of the cochlear nerve, were measured by a single examiner. These parameters were then compared between the affected and healthy sides. Inner-ear abnormalities such as intralabyrinthine hemorrhage or labyrinthitis were also evaluated. The relationship between the surveyed parameters and the diagnosis of ISSNHL was assessed. @*Results@#A total of 208 patients with ISSNHL were included. The measured parameters of IAC MRI were not different between the affected and healthy sides and were also not associated with the diagnosis of ISSNHL. However, inner-ear abnormalities of IAC MRI in ISSNHL displayed a significant association with worse hearing before and after treatment. An age that was older than 40 years also correlated with poorer outcomes. Further, inner-ear abnormalities were more frequently detected when IAC MRI was performed early after ISSNHL onset. @*Conclusions@#Patients with ISSNHL and inner ear abnormalities such as intralabyrinthine hemorrhage or labyrinthitis identified via IAC MRI may experience poorer hearing outcomes. To detect such abnormal findings, it is recommended to perform IAC MRI early after the onset of ISSNHL.

4.
Immune Network ; : 222-231, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-73368

ABSTRACT

Minor histocompatibility antigens are MHC-bound peptides and contribute to the generation of allo-responses after allogeneic transplantation. H60 is a dominant minor H antigen that induces a strong CD8 T-cell response in MHC-matched allogeneic transplantation settings. Here, we report establishment of a TCR transgenic mouse line named J15, wherein T cells express TCRs specific for H60 in complex with H-2K(b), and different fates of the thymocytes expressing J15 TCRs in various thymic antigenic environments. Thymocytes expressing the J15 TCRs were positively selected and differentiated into CD8+ single positive (SP) cells in the thymus of C57BL/6 mice, wherein the cognate antigen H60 is not expressed. However, thymocytes were negatively selected in thymus tissue where H60 was transgenically expressed under the control of the actin promoter, with double-positive stages of cells being deleted. Despite the ability of the H60H peptide (LTFHYRNL) variant to induce cytotoxic activity from H60-specific CTL lines at ~50% of the activity induced by normal H60 peptides (LTFNYRNL), J15-expressing thymocytes were positively selected in the thymus where the variant H60H was transgenically expressed. These results demonstrate that a single amino-acid change in the H60 epitope peptide influences the fate of thymocytes expressing the cognate TCR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Actins , Histocompatibility Antigens , Histocompatibility , Mice, Transgenic , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens , Peptides , T-Lymphocytes , Thymocytes , Thymus Gland , Transplantation, Homologous
5.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 704-709, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-649754

ABSTRACT

Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) is a rare and highly aggressive malignant tumor arising from the schneiderian epithelium of the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses. The presenting symptoms are diverse depending on the site involved and extent of tumor spread. The treatment of SNUC has evolved to improve overall survival rate and include disease-free control with complete surgical resection including radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but the prognosis still remains dismal. We present a patient with several months of history of intermittent nasal bleeding and stuffiness, which proved to be a rare malignant tumor of inferior turbinate origin, diagnosed as undifferentiated carcinoma of early stage in the disease process. The mass was excised en bloc with endoscopic surgical treatment from inferior turbinate without any additional combined treatment and there was no recurrence during the two-year follow-up period. We report herein, with a review of the literature, an undifferentiated carcinoma arising from the inferior turbinate, which was successfully treated by surgical resection only.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma , Drug Therapy , Epistaxis , Epithelium , Follow-Up Studies , Nasal Cavity , Paranasal Sinuses , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Survival Rate , Turbinates
6.
Journal of the Korean Balance Society ; : 79-92, 2013.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is necessary to establish the most efficient diagnostic and therapeutic method for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), which is appropriate for Korean healthcare system. We aimed to evaluate current state of Korean clinician's diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for BPPV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 16-item survey was emailed to the members of dizziness department of Otology Research Interest Group in the Korean Otologic Society (n=68). 43 were returned and analyzed. RESULTS: All respondents (100%) used Dix-Hallpike test as a diagnostic tool for vertical canal-BPPV. Supine roll test was used for diagnosing lateral canal BPPV in nearly all the respondents (97.7%). Epley maneuver was chosen as otolith repositioning maneuver (ORM) for posterior canal BPPV in all respondents and barbecue rotation (BBQ) was used for treating lateral canal BPPV with geotropic nystagmus in 95.3% of respondents. Extreme variation was noted for therapeutic approach of lateral canal BPPV with ageotropic nystagmus BBQ, with 4 kinds of ORM and adjunctive measures to liberate otolith from cupula, while BBQ was again the most commonly used ORM (76.7%). CONCLUSION: The development of practical and efficient ORM for lateral canal BPPV with ageotropic nystagmus is necessary.


Subject(s)
Surveys and Questionnaires , Delivery of Health Care , Dizziness , Electronic Mail , Korea , Otolaryngology , Otolithic Membrane , Public Opinion , Vertigo
7.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 1-5, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72021

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Soft tissue defects of the posterior heel of the foot present difficult reconstructive problems. This paper reports the authors' early experience of five patients treated with a lateral calcaneal artery adipofascial flap. METHODS: Between 2003 and 2007, five patients (3 males and 2 females) with soft-tissue defects over the posterior heel underwent a reconstruction using a lateral calcaneal artery adipofascial flap and a full-thickness skin graft. The flap sizes ranged from 3.5 x 2.5 cm to 5.5 x 4.0 cm. RESULTS: All five flaps survived completely with no subsequent breakdown of the grafted skin, even after regularly wearing normal shoes. The adipofascial flap donor sites were closed primarily in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: Lateral calcaneal artery adipofascial flaps should be included in the surgical armamentarium to cover difficult wounds of the posterior heel of the foot. These flaps do not require the sacrifice of a major artery to the leg or foot, they are relatively thin with minimal morbidity at the donor site, and leave a simple linear scar over the lateral aspect of the foot.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Adipose Tissue/surgery , Fascia/surgery , Heel/surgery , Skin/surgery , Soft Tissue Injuries/surgery , Surgical Flaps/blood supply
8.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 1131-1135, 2005.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-649848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine whether level IV lymph nodes can be saved in the elective lateral neck dissection (LND) as a treatment for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: From January 1997 to May 2002, 42 patients with supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma and a clinically N0 neck who underwent an elective LND were studied prospectively. The incidence of pathological metastasis to the level IV lymph nodes and a regional recurrence after an elective LND were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 42 patients, 10 (24%) had lymph nodes positive for microscopic metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Two (5%) of the 42 patients had involvement of the level IV lymph nodes, whose clinical T-stages were above cT3. None of the clinical T1 or T2 tumors showed level IV nodal metastasis. There were two cases (5%) of the ipsilateral neck recurrence: these patients developed recurrence in the level II and stomal area, respectively. CONCLUSION: The level IV lymph node metastasis was rare in this study, and nodal recurrence after LND in squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx was infrequent. Therefore, this region may be preserved in elective LND for patients with early squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Incidence , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Larynx , Lymph Nodes , Neck Dissection , Neck , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prospective Studies , Recurrence
9.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 338-346, 2005.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-656617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to analyze the morphologic features of the nose in the human embryo from 4th to 8th developmental weeks according to the Carnegie stage. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A total of 27 cases of embryos, ranging from Carnegie stage of 13 to 23, were analyzed. The external morphology was observed with a stereomicroscope, photographed and analyzed. The histologic features were observed with a light microscope in the horizontally-transected specimens stained with hematoxylin-eosin staining. RESULTS: The nasal placode was observed at the stage 13, and it became flat or even concave at the stage 14. At the stage 15, the nasal pit was formed. At the stage 16, the nasal sac and nasal fin were observed. At the stage 17, the oronasal membrane was formed by thinning of the nasal fin. At the stage 18, the primitive choana was established by rupture of the oronasal membrane. At the stage 19, the lateral palatine process projected vertically below the level of the tongue. The cartilaginous nasal capsule was formed at the stage 20. At the stage 21, the olfactory area was localized to the upper portion of the lateral nasal wall and the nasal septum. At the stage 22, the lateral palatine process developed in a somewhat horizontal orientation. At the stage 23, the premaxilla and primitive choana were formed. CONCLUSION: The development of the nose is most active from the Carnegie stage of 13 to 19, which corresponds to the end of the 4th embryonic week to the end of the 7th week. Thus, this period is considered to be the most important period in human nasal embryonic development.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Embryonic Development , Embryonic Structures , Membranes , Nasal Septum , Nose , Rupture , Tongue
10.
The Journal of the Korean Orthopaedic Association ; : 378-383, 2003.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-644435

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution of diseases and the orthopedic procedures performed in patients with genetic and metabolic bone diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty-three patients, who were admitted to the orthopedic ward under a diagnosis of genetic or metabolic bone disease from January 1990 to December 2000, were investigated. Their medical records, radiographs and laboratory data were reviewed, and orthopedic procedures analyzed. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-one cases were diagnosed with specific diseases, while 2 remained unspecified. Achondroplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia-pseudoachondroplasia and metaphyseal chondrodysplasia were common among the skeletal dysplasia cases. Hypophosphatemic rickets and osteogenesis imperfecta were common diseases among the metabolic and connective tissue categories. Limb lengthening was frequently performed in achondroplasia and in hypophosphatemic rickets, while deformity correction and hip surgery were frequent in multiple epiphyseal dysplasia - pseudoachondroplasia and metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. CONCLUSION: In genetic and metabolic bone diseases, only a limited number of clinical problems can be solved by orthopedic procedures. As new techniques are developed the pattern of orthopedic treatmen may change.


Subject(s)
Humans , Achondroplasia , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Congenital Abnormalities , Connective Tissue , Diagnosis , Extremities , Hip , Medical Records , Orthopedic Procedures , Orthopedics , Osteochondrodysplasias , Osteogenesis Imperfecta , Rickets, Hypophosphatemic
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